=
900
( )
1.27
( )
0.05
( )
0.038
=1507 !
(b) Critical Reynolds No R
ec
= 2000 =
!V
c
D
=
900
( )
0.05
( )
V
C
0.038
Critical Velocity V
c
=1.69 m/ s !
Cross section area of flow
( )
2
2
00785 . 0
4
1000 / 100
m A = =
!
CE2134 Hydraulics
AY2014 Tutorial 1 Laminar Flows
Velocity of flow
( )
s m
A
Q
V / 54 . 2
00785 . 0
1000 / 20
= = =
Reynolds No R
e
=
!VD
=
1.26x1000
( )
2.54
( )
0.1
( )
0.9
= 355 !
Momentum equation:
For the same pipeline section and steady flow
Rate of momentum of the fluid leaving the outlet = rate of momentum of the fluid at the
inlet
Using the definition of piezometric pressures,
0 = p
i
*
A
i ( )
! p
o
*
A
o ( )
! !DL
( )
"
( ) ( ) ( ) N A p
i i
8 . 4633 1 . 0
4
000 , 590
2 *
=
!
"
#
$
%
&
=
'
At the outlet, the pressure has to be determined. From the discharge formula for laminar
flow between parallel plates
Q= !
!D
4
128
dp*
dx
"
#
$
%
&
'
20
1000
!
"
#
$
%
&
= '
!
( )
0.1
( )
4
128
( )
0.9
( )
dp*
dx
!
"
#
$
%
&
or
dp*
dx
!
"
#
$
%
&
= '7333.86
dp* = !7333.86 dx
( )
= ! 7333.86
( )
45
( )
= !330023 Pa
= p
o
*
! p
i
*
( )
= p
o
+ !gz
o
( )
! p
i
+ !gz
i
( )
= p
o
! 590k
( )
+ 1260
( )
9.8
( )
45sin15
0
( )
p
o
= 590k !330k !143.8k =116.2Pa "
Momentum equation for steady state flow
0 = p
i
*
A
( )
! p
o
*
A
( )
! !
( )
!DL
( )
= ! dp*
( )
A! !DL
( )
!
( )
= 330k
( )
0.00785
( )
! !
( )
0.1
( )
45
( )
!
( )
= 2.59k !14.137 !
( )
! = 0.183k Pa "
CE2134 Hydraulics
AY2014 Tutorial 1 Laminar Flows
Question 2*
(a) A viscous fluid of constant mass density ! and coefficient of viscosity falls through
the small gap between two vertical plates spaced 2h apart as shown in the figure below.
The flow is due entirely to gravity. Determine the fully developed velocity profile
between the plates. [ w= !g h
2
! x
2
( )
/ 2 ]
(b) Fluid of density 1260 kg/m
3
and viscosity 0.9 Ns/m
2
passes between two infinite
parallel plates, 2 cm separation. Calculate the flow rate.
Solution
Taking coordinates with x horizontal as shown and z vertically downwards from the
middle of the two plates consider the small elemental volume shown.
p
*
dx ! p
*
+dp
*
( )
dx + ! +d!
( )
dz !! dz = 0
!dp
*
dx +d! dz = 0
d!
dx
=
dp
*
dz
d
dx
dw
dx
"
#
$
%
&
'
=
dp
*
dz
d
2
w
dx
2
=
d
dz
p ! "gz
( )
= !!g
CE2134 Hydraulics
AY2014 Tutorial 1 Laminar Flows
We note that under normal situations where the coordinate z is taken to be positive upwards,
p
*
= p + !gz . However, when we set the z coordinate to be positive downwards, then
p
*
= p ! !gz . Also note that the velocity w is taken as positive along the zcoordinate.
There are no slip conditions at the walls
w= !g
x
2
2
+ Ax + B
w= 0 at x = h
!0 =
1
2
!gh
2
+ A
h
2
+ B
0 =
1
2
!gh
2
! A
h
2
+ B
w=
1
2
!g h
2
! x
2
( )
(b) The discharge through the plates can be found as follows.
dQ = wdx
Q = wdx
!h
h
"
=
!g
2
!h
h
"
h
2
! x
2
( )
dx
=
!g
2
h
2
x !
x
3
3
#
$
%
&
'
(
!h
h
=
!g
2
2
3
h
3
=
!g
3
h
3
Substitution gives,
Q =
1260
( )
9.8
( )
3 0.9
( )
1
100
!
"
#
$
%
&
3
= 4573 lit / sec /m width
CE2134 Hydraulics
AY2014 Tutorial 1 Laminar Flows
Question 3.
(a) A thin film of oil, thickness h and viscosity , flows down an incline plane. Show
that the velocity profile is given by
u =
!g
2
h
2
! y
2
( )
sin"
where u is the local velocity at a depth y below the free surface, ! is the plate inclination
to the horizontal and ! is the fluid density. (Douglas et al)
(b) A film of fluid, density 2400 kg/m
3
, flows down a vertical plate with a free surface
velocity of 0.75 m/s. If the film is 20 mm thick, determine the fluid viscosity. [6.28
Ns/m
2
] (Douglas et al)
Solution
Referring to the figure above, s is the coordinate from the free surface. Consider the control
volume as shown. The flow is parallel to the slope and we use the piezometric pressure which is
constant across the parallel flow, i.e. in the s direction. The direction of the shear stresses on this
control volume is as shown and, based on convention pertaining to the scoordinate, it is positive
at the level s and directed in the downslope xdirection. The component of the weight of the fluid
in the control volume down the slope is ! sin dW , where ! is the inclination of the slope to the
horizontal. When using the piezometric head concept, this weight component is not used in the
momentum equation.
Applying the momentum equation for a steady flow,
0 = p
*
s ! p
*
+dp
*
( )
s
( )
+ !
( )
dx
= ! dp
*
( )
s
( )
+ !
( )
dx
( )
Dividing through by ( ) dx
0 = !s
dp
*
dx
"
#
$
%
&
'
+!
CE2134 Hydraulics
AY2014 Tutorial 1 Laminar Flows
du
ds
= s
dp
*
dx
!
"
#
$
%
&
'
(
)
*
+
,
=
d p+ !gz
( )
dx
'
(
)
*
+
,
s = s!g
dz
dx
= s!g sin!
( )
since dz decreases as dx increases
Note that with a free surface and a thin film, the pressure gradient is zero dp / dx = 0
( )
and
gravity is the only driving potential. The above equation also implies that at the free surface
(where s=0), the shear stress is zero, and it increases linearly to the sloping wall.
Integrating
B s
g
u +
!
=
2
2
sin" #
At 0 , = = u z s
( )
2
sin
2
z g
B
! "
=
u =
!gsin!
2
!
"
#
$
%
&
z
2
' s
2
( )
(
=
1
2u
!gsin!
( )
z
2
! s
2
( )
=
1
2 0.75
( )
2400
( )
9.8
( )
sin90
0
20
1000
"
#
$
%
&
'
2
= 6.28 Nm/ s
2
(
CE2134 Hydraulics
AY2014 Tutorial 1 Laminar Flows
Question 4.
The radial clearance between a hydraulic plunger and the cylinder wall is 0.15 mm, the
length of the plunger 0.25 m and the diameter 150 mm. Calculate the leakage rate past
the plunger at an instant when the pressure differential between the two ends of the
plunger is 15 m of water. Viscosity of hydraulic fluids is 0.9 Ns/m
2
[0.0052 litres/min]
(Douglas et al).
Solution
For laminar flow in a annular space which is very small such that the approximate equation can
be used.
( )( )( )
( )
( )( )
( ) ( ) min / 10 2 . 5 / 10 66 . 8
/ ) 10 ( 66 . 8
25 . 0
1000 15
9 . 0 12
1000 / 15 . 0 150 . 0
12
3 5
3 8
3 3
litres s litres
s m
g
dx
dp Dh
Q
! !
!
= =
= ! =
"
#
$
%
&
'
! =
(
(
This is actually a problem related to laminar flow in an annular space with the flow initiated by
the pressure difference. We have
( )
!
!
!
!
!
"
#
$
$
$
$
$
%
&
'
'
'
'
'
(
)
*
*
*
*
*
+
,
'
'
(
)
*
*
+
,

'
(
)
*
+
,

1
2
2
2
1
2
2 4
1
4
2
log
 
8
=
R
R
R R
R R
dx
dp
Q
e
.
Here,
( ) m mm R
m mm R
07515 . 0 15 . 0 75
075 . 0 75
2
150
2
1
= + =
= =
!
"
#
$
%
&
=
Q =
!
8 0.9
( )
15
( )
1000
( )
9.8
( )
0.25
!
"
#
$
%
&
0.07515
( )
4
 0.075
( )
4

0.07515
2
'0.075
2
( )
2
log
e
0.07515
0.075
(
)
*
+
,

(
)
*
*
*
*
+
,




!
"
#
#
#
#
$
%
&
&
&
&
=
!
7.2
58800
( )
2.5388
( )
10
'7
( )
'
2.2522
( )
10
'5
( )
0.001998
!
"
#
#
$
%
&
&
= 8.667 10
'8
( )
m
3
/ s = 0.0052 litres / s .
CE2134 Hydraulics
AY2014 Tutorial 1 Laminar Flows
Question 5. A steel sphere, 1.5 mm diameter and of mass 13.7 mg, falls steadily in oil
through a vertical distance of 500 mm in 56 s. The oil has a density of 950 kg/m
3
and is
contained in a drum so large that wall effects are negligible. [Assume that the motion is
such that the inertia forces on the fluid particles may be neglected in comparison with the
shearing forces due to viscosity. At such low Reynolds number, the resisting viscous
forces is given by 3!uD, where u is the steady velocity, D is the diameter of the sphere
and is the viscosity of the oil]. What is the viscosity of the oil? Verify any assumption
made. [Hint: Consider buoyancy force]
Solution
Assume a totally laminar condition during the passage of the sphere through the oil. Then check
if the Reynolds number is small for the flow to be laminar.
Steady laminar motion : No net force on sphere
mg
downward body
force
!
= 3!uD
upward viscous
resis tance
!"#
+ !g
"
6
D
3
!
"
#
$
%
&
upward buoyancy
! " # $ #
13.7 10
'6
( )
9.8
( )
= 3!
0.5
56
!
"
#
$
%
&
1.5
( )
10
'3
( )
+ 950
( )
9.8
( )
!
6
0.0015
( )
3
134.2 = 0.000126 +1.645 10
'5
( )
= 0.934 Pa.s (
Reynolds number=
!uD
=
950
( )
0.5/56
( )
1.5/1000
( )
0.934
=0.01362