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1 (a) (i) Total internal reflection
(ii) Objective lens: to view distant object and form a real image
Eyepiece lens: to magnify the first image formed by objective lens
(iii) Does not break and flexible // powerful in sending information without loss in data //Easy to bend
(b) (i) Use 1/u + 1/v = 1/f
1/30 + 1/v = 1/10
v = 20 cm

(ii) Magnification, m = v/u
= 20cm/30 cm
= 0.667
(c) Characteristics Reason
Low refractive index of outer cladding Produce the angle of incidence of the light ray inside the fibre is always greater than the critical angle and no
light escape.
High refractive index of inner core Produce total internal reflection when light travels inside the optical fibre.
High flexibility Can follow curved path // bent(easily)
Very high purity Clear image without losing information or blur
R is chosen because it has low refractive index of outer cladding, high refractive index of inner core, high flexibility and very high purity of inner core.
2 (a) (i) Reflection
(ii) Convex mirror
(iii) Virtual

(c) (i) As surveillance mirror inside the supermarket //as mirror at sharp or blind corner along the road
(ii) Has wider area of view
(c) Characteristics Reason
Use convex lens The refracted ray is converging
Distance between the lenses is equal to the sum of their lenses At normal adjustment
Focal length of objective lens is longer than eyepiece lens To produce big magnification
Use bigger diameter of lens More refraction of light and thus the image formed is brighter and
So, telescope U is chosen because it uses convex lens, distance between the lenses is equal to the sum of their lenses, focal length of objective
lens is longer than eyepiece lens and has big diameter of lens.
3 (a) Is the upthrust acting onto the object causing the object to float
(b) Submarine float when the ballast tank is filled with air
The valves open to let in the water, the weight of submarine increases and causes the submarine to sink
Depth of submarine sank depends on the volume of water being filled
When the water in ballast tank is pushed out, the submarine gains the buoyant force to float again
(c) (i) Archimedes principle
(ii) The boat displaces the water and gains the same buoyant force to float
(iii) Weight of the ship is equal to the weight of the water displaced
(iv) To ensure the navigator of the maximum weight load limit that can still safely being loaded before the boat starts to sink
(v) Suggestion Reason
High thickness Withstand the water pressure from crack
Use high strength Withstand the pressure acting to the ship
Light density of material for the wall Gain more buoyant force to float as light
Streamline Reduce water friction while sailing
High volume of ship More air trapped and thus increases the buoyant force to float
Install the periscope To view hidden object

(d) (i) States that when on object is fully or partially immersed into fluid, the weight of water displaced due buoyant force is equal to the
weight of object being immersed
(ii) The balloon displaces the air and gains the buoyant force to float
The amount of air displaced by the balloon depends on the temperature of air inside the balloon with the air outside.
At certain altitude, the temperature of air outside has balanced the air temperature inside the balloon.
Thus, the balloon stops as there is no air being displaced by the balloon
(iii) Characteristics Reason
Big size with big volume Displaces more air and gains more buoyant force to lift up
Use more burners Faster heating the air inside the balloon
Use synthetic nylon to make the balloon Strong material which is resistance to heat
High air temperature inside the balloon Hot air rises up and lift the balloon
So, balloon Q is chosen because it is big with big volume, use more burners, made of synthetic nylon and has high air temperature
inside the balloon
(iv) Buoyant force, F = pVg
= 1020 x 5.0 x 10
= 51 000 N
Maximum weight of the box = 51 000 15 000
= 36 000 N

4 (a) Has low melting point, has low specific heat capacity, has high resistance
(b) (i) Maximum current that can still loaded to the fuse before the fuse burnt
(ii) Remember: fuse wire must can get melt easily as to short open the circuit and as a result, it protects the electrical components
Characteristics Reason
Low melting point Can get melt easily
Low specific heat capacity Easily getting hot
Has low diameter Big resistance
High resistivity Faster dissipating current as heat
So, metal Z is chosen because it has low melting point, low specific heat capacity, small diameter and high resistivity
The hair dryer in Diagram 4.1 is switched on / Pengering rambut di dalam Rajah 4.1 dihidupkan.
(c) (i) Is a device which use an input voltage of 240 V and gives out the electrical energy of 500 J in one second
(ii) From Power, P = IV
500 = I (240)
I = 2.08 A
(iii) Not suitable. Fuse rated 3A is suitable
(iv) Energy, E = VIt
= Pt = 500 x 15 x 60 = 450 000 J
4 (d) Characteristics Reason
Thin fuse wire Easy to break when hot
Cartridge tye is glass Can break when hot
Current = 2000/240 = 8.33 A
Use rating of 10 A
Because the current required is 8.33 A
Melting point is low Can get melt easily when hot
So, the fuse Q is chosen because its fuse wire is thin, catridge tye is made of glass, the fuse is rated 10 A and has low melting point.
(e) Characteristics Reason
Use strong plastic Does not rust with air and water inside the refrigerator
Use LED lamp Give out ray with very low heat
High power of refrigerator Cooler
Install the cool part above the refrigerator Cool air move down and hot air move out. Air circulation happen
High specific heat capacity of cover of refrigerator Does not get hot easily due to the surrounding heat
5 (a) Is the produce of current due to the movement of magnet bar in solenoid and there is no physical contact between them
(b) (i) North pole
(ii) Lenzs law
(c) (i) (ii)
Thread / Benang
Zero-centered galvanometer
Galvanometer sifar tengah
Coil A
Gegelung A

(iii) Induced current
(d) (i) Higher the numbers of turns of solenoid, higher reading of galvanometer
(ii) Increase the speed of magnet bar moving //increase the number of turns of coil //use stronger magnet
(e) -low Hardness of hair spring hair spring can move easily with small current and thus it is more sensitive
-Shape of the core is cylindrical to produce radial magnet
-Hardness of the core must be soft can be magnetized or demagnetized easily
-Type of the ammeter scale is linear and uniform easy to read by direct observation
-Number of coils must be more more magnetic flux can be cut and thus more induced current
-The core must be laminated to reduce the eddy current
-Strength of magnet must be high produce more magnetic flux
5 (a) Is the quantity of matter contained by the object
(b) The mass of the lorry is higher than the car, lorry experiences harder ability to speed ahead. Higher mass of the vehicle, harder ability to start
moving. Physics concept is inertia
(c) Is the tendency of object to resist the sudden change acting on it.
(d) The driver is in motion.
When comes to a sudden stop, the body of the driver is still moving although the car has stopped.
The inertia causes the driver to lurch forward.
(e) Perform in a zig-zag direction of run
Bull has bigger mass and experiences harder ability to turn in direction
The inertia on the bull causes the bull to lose control and fall
(f) Characteristics Reason
Sie of tyre must be big Low pressure as high area
Use liquid as hydraulic system Low compressibility
Big mass Can support the heavy load being carried
Low centre of gravity Stable while moving
So, backhoe P is chosen because it has big size of tyre, use liquid hydraulic system, large mass and low centre of gravity.
7 (a) (i) Nuclear fission
(ii) Number of neutrons during reaction is multiplying with time. The neutron cause the reaction to happen
(iii) Mass defect, m = (235.04 + 1.01) (140.91+ 91.93 + 3x1.01) a.m.u
= 0.18 amu
= 0.18 x 1.67 x 10
= 3.006 x 10
(iv) Energy released, E = mc

= 3.006 x 10
x (3.0 x 10

= 2.71 x 10

7 (b) (i) Because it is not stable
(ii) Beta decay
(iii) Is a fast moving electron
+ e
+ Energy

(c) Suggestion Reason
Use forceps / robot

Wear a mask // goggle
The radiation does not penetrate to our hand or eyes
Use a lead box or container with thick concrete To prevent radiation leakage to surroundings
Put radiation symbol on the storage box To inform users of dangerous contents of the box.
Wear coat lined with lead To protect the body from the radiation
Keep the exposure time as short as possible by fast handling the
radioactive source
The body is not exposed to the radiation for a long time.

8 (a) Is the time taken for half of the radioactive substance to disintegrate
(b) 100 minutes
(c) a: 235 b: 92 c: 4
Type of decay: alpha decay
(d) (i) Type of radiation: use beta
Reason: medium penetration and the penetration can be affected by thickness of paper
(ii) Half-life: long half-lfe
Reason: can be used for longer time with the least of refillment cost
(iii) Source R
9 (a) Is an unstable nucleus which has the same proton number but different nucleon number
(b) The beta ray is used
The beta ray will penetrate through the paper to be detected by the GM tube
The rate of penetration depends on the thickness of paper
High paper thickness, low reading of GM tube
The GM tube will trigger the roller to compress the paper again
(c) Characteristics Reason
Use Boron as control rod Can slow down fast neutron during the nuclear fission process
Use graphite as rod moderator Can absorb some of the neutron//slow down the rate of fission process
Use heavy water Heavy water has high specific heat capacity which can absorb more heat released by the nuclear
reaction process
Use concrete shield Stronger material which can prevent the leakage of radiation from the radiator core
So, design R is chosen because it has Boron as control rod, use graphite as rod moderator, use heavy water and use concrete shield
10 (a) Transverse wave
(b) (i) Diffraction
(ii) Frequency remains constant, wavelength remains constant, speed remains constant
(iii) Diagram 10.1. Because the size of gap is smaller than the wavelength of water waves
(iv) Diagram 10.2
(c) (i) Refraction
(ii) Frequency is constant, the wavelength and speed decreases
(d) Characteristics Reason
Thick wall at the bottom of retaining wall To withstand high water pressure
Use concrete retaining wall Strong structure than crack due water pressure
Build at bay The wave is calmer
Small slits of retaining wall Less energy of waves entering
Small energy of wave Does not damage the retaining wall
11 (a) (i) Is the amount of heat required to increase the temperature of 1 kg object by 1C without change in its physical state
(ii) Sea breeze occurs during daylight
During daylight, the land which has lower specific heat capacity than water will become hot faster
Hot air from land will rise up creating a low air pressure
High air pressure from the sea will move to the land
(b) Characteristics Reason
Use low density The electric kettle will be lighter
Use high melting point The electric heater can withstand high temperature without getting melt
Use low oxidation rate The heater can last longer without getting rust
Use low specific heat capacity Can get hot faster
So, the type S is chosen because it has low density, high melting point, low oxidation rate with low specific heat capacity

(c) (i) Amount of heat supplied by the electric heater = Pt
= 1000 x 60
= 60 000 J

(ii) Amount of heat absorbed by the water = mc
= 0.5 x 4200 x 25
= 52 500 J

(iii) Amount of heat lost to the surrounding = 60000 J 52 500 J
= 7 500 J


12 (a) Temperature
(b) (i) Thermometer X
(ii) Has smaller scale division
(c) Can detect small change in its reading and thus the accuracy is improved
(d) (i) Electric energy to heat energy
(ii) Energy absorbed = mc
= 1.2 x 4200 x (100 32)
= 342 720 J
(e) Suggestion Reason
Use mercury Sensitive to heat
Use smaller scale division Can detect small change in its reading
Space X is vacuum The expansion or contraction is uniform which is free from air pressure
Use high opacity of liquid Easy to be seen
Use narrower capillary tube The thermometer is more sensitive
Use thin glass bulb Faster conducting heat to the thermometer
13 (a) Reflection
(b) Convex mirror
(c) As wider area of view
(d) (i) Refer to answer 2(b)
(ii) Upright //diminished //virtual
(iii) Size of image increases
(e) Characteristics Reason
Install at high position Does not block by surrounding object
Use convex mirror Has wider area of view
Smooth surface The dust does not stick on the mirror which may blur the image on the mirror
Use bigger mirror The image will be bigger
So, mirror Q is chosen because it is at high position, use convex mirror, the surface of mirror is smooth and the mirror is big
14 (a) Is the force acting normall per unit area
(b) Density of liquid //depth
(c) Pressure = hpg
= 10 x 1000 x 10 Pa
= 100 000 Pa
(d) The pressyre of the apartment is higher than the pressure of water.
(e) Pressure of gas supply = 76 + (15 5)
= 86 cmHg
15 (a) Is the product of mass and velocity
(b) Calculate the momentum of the softball if the mass of the ball is 80 g and its velocity is 100 ms
. [1 mark/ markah]
Hitung momentum bagi bola lisut itu jika jisim bolanya ialah 80 g dan halajunya ialah 100 ms
Momentum = mass x velocity
= 0.080 x 100
= 8 kg ms

(c) The velocity will decrease
(d) To reduce the impulsive force by lengthening the impact time
(e) (i) Impulse is the change of momentum
Impulsive force is the rate of change of momentum
(ii) Impulsive force = m(v u)/t
= 0.15(20 0)/0.08
= 37.5 N
16 (a) Is a device used to step-up or step-down the input ac voltage
(b) (i) Step-down transformer
(ii) So that the ac voltage can be alternated easily
(iii) To change the ac voltage to dc voltage //To allow the flow of current in one direction
(iv) Transformer Z. The output power is higher
(b) Electromagnetic induction
(c) Characteristics Reason
U-shape core To centralize the magnet from leaking
Use soft iron core Can be magnetized or demagnetized easily
Laminated core To reduce the eddy current
Use thick wire Low resistance
So, core D is chosen because it is U-shape, soft iron core, laminated and uses thick wire
(d) High thickness of diaphragm Can withstand high vibration due high audio signals
Use high strength material for diaphragm Strong material which can withstand high pressure of vibration
from cracking
Use more coils More magnetic flux cut
Bigger diameter of wire coil Low resistance
Stronger magnet More magnetic flux can be produced
17 (a) Characteristics Reason
Higher force constant Stiffer spring to withstand higher mass
Bigger diameter of wire The spring is more elastic
Bigger diameter of coils The spring is more elastic
Made of steel Strong from cracking//broken
So, spring S is chosen because its force constant is high, big wire diameter, big spring coils and is made of steel
(b) (i) Directly proportional
(ii) Hookes law. State that the extension of spring is directly proportional to its applied force such that its elastic limit is not exceeded.
(iii) Spring constant
(iv) Spring B becase it has more extension at low force meaning more reading but with low mass which means more sensitive.


18 (a) One wavelength //one colour of light
(b) Same frequency and same phase
(c) Light wave is a ( longitudinal , transverse ) wave.
(d) Diffraction, interference
(e) Red: 3x = 42 mm Blue: 4x = 42 mm
x = 14 mm x = 10.5 mm
= ax/D = ax/D
= (0.5 x 10
)(14 x 10
)/5.0 = (0.5 x 10
)(10.5 x 10
= 1.4 x 10
m = 1.05 x 10
(f) Suggestion Reason
Distance between two stereo speakers must be near The constructive interference line will be spreaded wider
The wall is soft (put soft cloth) To reduce the echo of sound
The floor is carpeted with soft curtain Can absorb the reflected sound
High power of speaker Louder sound
Speakers and microphone at all corners of building Surrounding effect
19 (a) (i) Is the rate of change of speed
(ii) The speed of water flows at point A is lower than the blowing air
The pressure at point A is higher than the top of a sheet of paper
The position of the levels of the water in Venturi tube is decreasing
The position of a sheet of paper when air is blown is moving up
Higher the speed, lower the levels of water in the venturi tube
Higher speed, low pressure
(b) -When the air hole is opened, there is a high air speed flow between the inner of Bunsen burner with the surrounding air.
-According to Bernoullis principle, high air speed will result in low pressure inside the Bunsen burner.
-This low air pressure cannot push up the flame high and causes a small flame
-The flame is blue because there is a complete combustion as the air hole is opened
(c) Characteristics Reason
The rocket must be light Not too heavy for the rocket to accelerate
The shape of the rocket must be aerodynamics by adding cone to the head To reduce air friction while moving
The structure used for rocket must be light-density material Not too heavy for the rocket to fly
Add umbrella at the top of the rocket Trap more air to stay longer in air from drop
Add wings to the rocket Stable and not wobble while moving