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History and Genealogy of the Huhbell Family-Third Edition

Compiled and edited by Harold Berresford Hubbell, Jr. and


Donald Sidney Huhbell, Ph.D-Published for the Family-1980/
RICHARD HUBBALL
Our Imnngrant Ancestor
Some of New England's earliest families arc able to show from extant historical
records the date of arrival of their English immigrant ancestor to these shores.
Others, like the descendants of the Pilgrims, or those whose Puritan ancestors came
with the Winthrop Fleet of 1630, may even know the name of the ship which
brought him. Unfortunately, records have not been found which furnish this in
formation for the Hubbell family. Possibly such records no longer exist. There is
data, however, on which to base some estimates.
Richard Hubbell was probably young, but not an infant when he came to Con
necticut. More than likely he was brought to New England by one of his Wakeman
uncles, probably John, shortly after his mother's death in February 1634/5. He
was undoubtedly 21 when he took the oath of allegiance in New Haven March
1647/8, the first time his name appears in the public records. There seems to have
been no direct co-relation between age and taking the oath other than that a young
man must have reached "maturity" before being accepted for formal admittance to
the community. We can be sure that his uncle John Wakeman, as a devout Puritan
and leader of the Colony, would not have permitted his nephew to take the oath
before being qualified for the responsibility. Richard probably lived and worked for
John Wakeman for some years, being called "Mr. Wakeman's man" several times in
the early colonial records. The earliest of these references to "men of Mr. Wake
man" (or similar words) Is dated 1642, referring to men surveying the boundaries
of Rippowams, Stamford, part of New Haven colony. Since an entry of I6.'S0 refers
specifically to Richard as "Mr. Wakeman's man," we might be allowed the liberty
of assuming the 1642 entry also refers to him. He would have been about 17 then.
These Wakeman uncles, Samuel and John, who early came to New England,
played different roles in the new world. John Wakeman, who was baptised in
Bewdley, Worcestershire Mch 29 1607 (Ribbesford parish register) was a son of
Francis and Ann (Goode). By a deed dated 1640 wherein he gave 2 to the
grammar school of Bewdley, John is called a Timberman, "late of Bewdley," in
dicating he was no longer resident there. He was a frequent magistrate of New
Haven colony, perhaps came to NewEnglandon the Fellowship. Samuel Wakeman
was baptized Sep 25 1603 (Ribbesford parish register), left London with his wife
on the Lyon, William Peirce master, and arrived Nov 2 1631 at Nantasket, Massa
chusetts. He may have been a passenger with Roger Williams of Rhode Island.
He took the oath of freeman at Boston Aug 7 1632, and was later recorded in
Hartford Connecticut Colony. He was killed by the Spanish and aboriginies in the
Bahamas in 1641, as was Captain Peirce.
Sarah Wakeman Hubbeil, mother of Richard, died in 1634, perhaps of the
plague of 1630-6 which swept England and of which thousands died in London.
She left her husband with a family, all under 10. He was a small farmer, a "husband
man" per the Quarter Sessions Records of Worcestershire of October 1640, so it's
likely the family was separated in order for the young ones to receive proper care
Richard may have soon come to New England.
Fixing a date of birth for Richard Hubbeil is equally diflficult. The Hubbeil
History and D. L. Jacobus' Old Fairfield set his birth year as 1626 and 1627
respectively, calculated from his will of April 5 1699 wherein he states his age as
"seventy-two or thereabouts." The approximate year may also be calculated from
NewHaven colony records of March 7 1647/8 whenhe took the oath of allegiance,
and he would have been at least 21 years old. More important is the will of Francis
Wakeman of Bewdley, father of the New England immigrant Wakemans and of
Sarah Hubbeil, dated Aug 19 1626 which contains a bequest of "fower pounds to
Sarah my daughter, wife to Richard Hubball." And further, "... I give alsoe to
Richard Hubball her sonne xxs [one pound] which somme of five pounds is already
in the hands of my son-in-law Richard Hubball." For interest, Ribbesford parish
included BewdleySt. Anne's church stands in Bewdley center, in the middle of
the main street. It was a chapel in the early 17th century, and is barely a mile from
the bucolic setting of St. Leonard's, the parish church of Ribbesford. Records of
residents of Bewdley, like the Wakemans, were kept in the Ribbesford registers.
The marriage of Sarah Wakeman, daughter of Francis, to Richard Hubbald occurred
Apr 31 (sic) 1621 as recorded in the Ribbesford parish register. The same register
contains the baptisms of their children:
1624 Oct 17 Sara.
1626/7 Jan 14 Mary.
1629 May 31 Elizabeth.
1631 May 29 Jonathan.
1633 October 13 Samuell.
There is no record of a baptismof son Richard to this couple. It can be seen that
an additional child couldhave been born between the baptisms of Sarah and Mary,
say from July 1625 to April 1626. Careful inspection of registers of parishes con
tiguous to andsurrounding Ribbesford does not reveal anything further.
There is, however, an entry in the Ribbesford register dated January 22 1625/6
recording the baptism of "Richard, the sonne of Peter Hubball and Joane." TTie
register has no record of a marriage of Peter and Joane, nor are there entries of
baptisms of other children to them. Again, an inspection of registers of surrounding
parishes sheds no further light on Peter and Joane. It's my belief that the Ribbesford
registers were transcribed at some point, after the 17th century perhaps, and certain
errors and omissions were made then. In support of that notion, there is a suggestive
piece of evidencethe way the baptism entry for daughter Mary Hubbeil was
recorded. It appears like this:
Richard
Jan 14 Mary ye daughter of Peter Hubball and Sarah of ye Rocke p(ar)ish.
The name Richard has been written above the crossed-out name Peter. Perhaps
the transcribing clerk, copying carelessly from the original, wrote Peter in error,
because he was referring to the 1625/6 entry, but perceiving an error, lined out
the wrong name. The words "of the Rocke parish" are not entirely illuminating.
They seem to refer to Richard ratherthanSarah as she would certainly be known in
her home parish where she had been bom and married and where her children were
baptized. Therefore, the origins of Richard in Rock appear confirmed, although,
of course, the words may be intended to distinguish him from another Richard
with whom he might be confused; there were at least two Hubball families in Rock
then. The parish is contiguous to Ribbesford, and the parish churches are about
three and a half miles apart, as the crow flies. Unfortunately, neither the Rock nor
Ribbesford records gives usenough information todispel the uncertainty.
Take a look at the given names of children of three Wakeman-Hubball genera
tions. The persistence of certain names is important. Naming (usually) the first
male child aJfter his father was a common practice then;
Children of
John Wakeman &
Elizabeth Hopkins:
John
3. Samuel
4. Elizabeth
one additional
Richard Hubbald &
Sarah Wakeman:
5. Jonathan
6. Samuel
1. Sarah
3. Mary
?2. Richard
4. Elizabeth
no other
Richard Hubball & Elizabeth
Meigs. Elizabeth Gaylord,
Abigail Walker:
1. and 14. John
4. and 9. Samuel
12. Sarah
6. Mary
2. Richard
5. Elizabeth
additional
* the numbers refer to order of birth.
Extracts from Parish registers have been set out in pan 111 with other notes on
the English origins of the family.
The extant Rock registers commence in 1548 and the earliest Hubball entry is
1549. The Ribbesford registers, however, commence in 1570. and the first (semi-
legible) Hubball entry is dated 1575. The first legible entry is 1599. It seems likely
that our family had its early links with Rock. Although not conclusively established,
it may bethat a Richard Hubball who married Elizabeth Cowiricke is the progenitor,
grandfather, of Richard the immigrant. This is based upon a tattered, lengthy docu
ment of uncertain date, executed in Rock which names Hubballs and others, ap
parently inter-related. More study of various old records in England is necessary
to confirm identities and relationships of our 16thcentury antecedents.
Aside from the above notes, nothing else is known of the early years or young
manhood of our ancestor. About 1651 Richard Hubball married Elizabeth Meigs,
daughter of John and Tamazin (Fry) of New Haven. John Meigs was the son of
Vincent who was bom in Dorset, England in 1570 and emigrated to Weymouth,
Mass. He was in New Haven by 1647, afterwards removing to Guilford (part of
NewHaven colony) and finally to what is nowKillingworth where he died in 1658.
Tnbn woe Jr ^nrrlon/t iiroc o froomon nf Jr. 1
"Judge Smith-smanScriptl-rn thep^sSf^^rnM
source for the suggested date of Richrrd Huhh^^iP Sterner of Guilford, as the
between 1650 and 1654. ^marnage, statedto have occurred
Richard Hubball lived in Guilford nVi/mf -r^
admitted aplanter Feb 25 1653/54 when he m," p ^^cords show he was
accommodations, *'next south of that of TTi Samuel Blatchley's lots and
He bought other'landof John BaldwL "
and his name appears in alist of freemen of Gnilf !? i fidelity,
suit against William Chittenden, the agent for Rev^H^" u/k brought
of the party which settled Guilford in 1639 to _ was leader
cow gored fay a bull of Whitfield Thp rm.' t damages for the loss of a
original in the Guilford cordf It offe
interest: gbmpses of the times, of
de:^Ain^;t'Atmry'^? Z Chitten.
Pitff and deftdt as followeth viz- " depending betwixt the said
T.:zx:t witheM. buu
the Court may be repaid him by^the said Mr wltfield or hirA?^^
Goodwife Hill testifved thit i ? Agent as they shall meet:
to help her husband to water his horsrnnd"fhee'^ a dark lantherne
while he went to the water, did turn the iiaht toLrri."?;'"!. lantherne
neare her as she sate or lay on fhl ""^^ells Cow, the bull standing
It was a Cow and so might not push her knowine vt he w w bull might see yt
used to push some of the steers cattll formerly Ah h^ doghead beast or surly and had
he comeing at Richard Hubbell's request to see his Cow ^^^tifyed that
winter or spring did perceive that she had one of hef rL/h I burt this
nb. . Richard Hubball alleged that when he slaved th t^ I"/'' ^be
was broken into three pieces. Elizabeth Hnhh n the Cow he found that one of her ribs
yt wn she milked ye sd Cow the'same eveJirg bm L^m I Richard Hubbell testifyeth
she seemed to ayle nothing at all But the next morning 1 a so pushed her,
Court Considering the business doe finde it proved thatTh ^ wounded The
mentioned she being well immediately before he oSsLd h
wounded and forsook her meat until she dyed But thev not ^'"sly
ever been informed of any more pushings that was don t bad
years since, doe Conclude it to bee the Case of a Meere am r '"T' ^bree
appoint that the Bull sballbe sold and thrnav n afflicting providence and doe therefore
Mr. Whitfield. William LeeJe Secreta^' ^ ^^^ Hubball and
colversyt"autrg\t1^M ^
King Charles If. and union of New Hav ^ Guilford supportive of
the leadership of Hartford This wj^f^r h with Connecticut Colony under
had its roots in the collanse of the Pn ^ seditious act. The controversy
the restoration of the monarchy in 166n" h Cromwells and
colom'sts felt union with CnnnPPr ? i " New Haven
of union was Bray (Br\'an) Rosriter'^ofGudford"^R^^^^",f articulate proponent
physician, probably the only doctor" in r r described as an eminent
about 1651. He was also rLmrt a when he moved to Guilford
involved in litigation and verv^^ ^ turbulent disposition often
himself at the feaira grorf^vorlnr i-isdiction." He placed
expounding that cause and akn J r petitions and circulars
... i,
monarchy. The group was brought to trial for sedition, and the following abstracts,
edited for easier reading, arc from New Haven records:
Att a Genll Court held att New Haven for the Jurisdiction. May 7th, 1662.
Present.
The Gouernr Deputies for The Gouernr
The Deputy Gouernr
Mr. Ben: Fenne,
Mr. Robt Treate,
Mr. Jasper Crane,
l:es'^B.r/p. ! New Haven.
R?ch"wl'^, }
Mr. Robt Kltchell, I
George Hubbard. f Guilford.
Richard Law, J Stamford.
L: Francis Bell, J
LeiftnntSwaine. ) Branford.
Laurence Ward, j
Magistrates.
Stamford.
The Court being come together to consider the affairs of the jurisdiction and how matters
might be carried on in reference to the election for the year following, understanding that
there was a great discouragement upon the spirits of those that were now in place of magis
tracy. . . .
But the court understanding that sundry persons of Guilford was then in town who had
subscribed to some offensive papers which was before sent to the court. Some of them spread
abroad to the disturbance of the peace of this jurisdiction, therefore the court thought meete,
(before they pceeded in any other matters,) to call these persons upon particular examina
tion. . . .
The Court now pceeded to the examination of some of Guilford. Thomas Stephens was
called, (he having delivered in the writings to ye gouernr,) & asked if he owned his hand yt
was in two of ye writings. He answered yt he did. Being further questioned whether he
was the contriver of ye first writing Sc did own the sense of it ... It being further demanded of
him whether he owned the whole or in part. He answered yt he intended nothing but yt which
was his grievance, but did acknowledge yt by his subscriptions he did patronize both the writ
ings, It being demanded of him whether there was any thing in it yt he did not detract or
recant, or yt he did still owne it. But he stood still to justify himselfe. Then ye first writing
was read to him which consisted of severall heads ... He answered yt Mr. Rossiter said he
would undertake to make it out. It was further replied unto him, to show him his evil, yt he
was sworn to prserve & maintain ye honor of ye authority settled here ... He still answered
that his intent was only to have his grievances written ... It was put to him about ye
manner of sending the first writing abroad, whether it was suitable to his oath. He answered
yt it was not done by his consent ... He intended only to have it prsented to ye court & to
have an answer of it.
Then ye second paper being read . . . But Thomas Stephens being after accused by Richard
Hubball, as one yt drew him into this busines, did confess yt he now sees yt he had done yt
which he ought not to have done, nor should have done it if he had considered it. He was
sorry for it, &desired to have it passed by, & confest yt he had grieved ye spirits of those
among whom he lives. It being demanded, (seeing he was looked upon as one of ye heads in
this matter,) whether he would relinquish these things? He answered yt so far as they were
any blemish to ye court or any member of it he did.
Richard Hubball called for examination, was told by ye governr yt it was ye court's pleasure
to have those called whose names was subscribed, & therefore desired to know whether he
owned these subscriptions. He evading a plain answer, not being able to write himself, was
asked whether it was not with his consent. He answered yt there was a paper shewed to him
&he was asked if theyshould set his handto it, to which heanswered if they would they might.
Ye first paper was yt which John Benham spread, &ye second was after ye court's declaration,
to which latter he sayth he remembers yt he allowed not his hand to be set to it. Being further
questioned, ... he answered he had no hand in ye contriving of them. Mr. Rossitr drew up ye
first, &they desired if there was any thing in it to clear, yt he would be at court to give answer.
He further said yt they could not have subscribed it had not Mr. Rossitr undertook to man
age it, &he pmised to make proof of it. It was also ppounded to him whether he was any of
those families in whose name the ptest was subscribed. He answered not as he knew of. He was
alsoasked whether he did now retract wt he had done, or stand in ye justification of it, or was
sorry that is so spread abroad in ye country to make such disturbances as at Stamford & South-
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agreement recorded with notes on |h^^^h|||||||||h|mm||m
Richard Hubball and our earliest
ancestors were closely identified with
the First Church of Christ in Stratfield.
Readers may wish to see the History buriaL^GROUND I
for notes Walter Hubbeli furnished on I ^^B^^^B
the subject. The following material has
been extracted from Two Hundred gH||H|B^|
F///y y^'ars-by Lucy S. Curtis, subtitled
"The Story of the United Congrcga-
tional Church of Bridgeport 1695-
1945," printed in Bridgeport for the
250th Anniversary of the church. It is
a delightfully written account of this
early place of worship of our Puritan
Congregational forebear, and these
tell the story so well
"We of the United Church of Bridgeport look back reverently to that June day in 1695
when a little band of men and women in the pioneer community of Stratfield gathered for
their first service in the new log building on Meeting House Hill. . . . Thirty years before, in
1665, two log cabins were erected near the present junction of Park and Washington Avenues.
. . . Four miles farther west was another handful of people who, about twenty-five years before,
under the leadership of Roger Ludlow, had come down from Hartford and established the
settlement of Uncoway (Fairfield). Later Mr. Ludlow and Mr. Blakeman, the minister at
Stratford, were appointed by the General Court to run the boundary between the two towns.
That boundary line became the center of Division Street, now known as Park Avenue.
Unlike many pioneers, these men did not have to clear the forest, for the land on which they
settled was 'Pequonnock,' the 'Cleared Land,' a name originally given, not to the river, but to
the stretch of open fields that spread out toward the river on the east and the Sound' on the
south. Even so the newsettlers found plenty of difficulties to be overcome.
For one thing they were far outnumbered by the Indians, who were a constant source of
annoyance and alarm. Originally there had been three villages of Pequonnock Indians: one
near the Uncoway River (now known as Ash Creek); one at the head of Black Rock Harbor;
and the third on Golden Hill. But white settlements had crowded close, and gradually one
tract of land after another had been relinquished until all that remained was the reservation of
Golden Hill, where a hundred or more wigwams were pitched near abundant sprinss of fresh
water. ...
InMay 2 1690 the following petition was submitted tothe Genera! Assembly' and granted:
. . wee every one of us. that are settled inhabitants of and steady dwellers in Pequonnock,
may be exempted and relaxed from any minister's rate or rates and schooll mastours salerys]
either in Fairfield or Stratford afores'd, purposing (God smiling on and favouring our enter
prises) to suit ourselves in time convenient w'th such meet instrum'ts for ye pulpit and scholl,
as may most and best serve the interest of our God. ..."
This petition was signed by forty-six taxpayers, thirteen from Stratford and thirty-three
from Fairfield, the signers representing, in all probability, the total number of property owners
resident in the district. Only eight of the forty-six, however, actually became charter members
of the new church.
The Ecclesiastical Society thus authorized by the General Court was . . . the progenitor of
Bridgeport. The settlement was called Fairfield Village; but six years later, in 1701. the com
bination name of Stratfield was officially adopted.
Stratford and Fairfield each granted a strip of land on Division Street, which had been
gradually pushing its way north toward the King's Highway (North Avenue); and at last on
top of the little hill that was hereafter to be known as 'Meeting House Hill' (Park Avenue'and
Worth Street) the new church stood complete, squarely on the boundary line between the two
towns. What a day that must have been, that June 13. lfi9S as fhp Hmms rolli-rt m fmn*
the little meeting house, calling the parish-
toners for the first time to their own service;
as sentries, armed with muskets, paced back
and forth, alert against a sudden attack by
Indians; as men, women, and children in
their Sunday garb arrived, afoot or on horse-
back; and as Messengers from churches i
previously organized rode up to bring the
greetings of those churches and to wish the
new church Godspeed. Nine men besides - \il
the minister were 'gathered' to the new _ n , *7^
church that day. 'The names* of those that ""ST"" W7l\
at that time were embodied into Church v..
estate were as followeth: Probable appearance of First Meeting House, 1695
Charles Chauncey, Past'r
Richard Hubble, sen'r Mathew Sherman
Isaac Wheeler, sen'r Rich'd Hubble, Jun'r
James Bennit, sen'r David Sherman
Samu'll Beardsley Jn'o Odill, jun'r
Samuel Gregory, sen'r
Women in the seventeenth century were not allowed to share officially matters of such
moment; but three weeks later, on July 15, fifteen women were added by letter from the Fair-
field and Stratford churches. From Fairfield: Mary Sherwood, Anne Wheeler, Mary Odill,
Rebecca Gregory, Ruth Tredwell, Mercy Wheeler, Abigail! Wells, Elizabeth Sherwood. Sarah
Odill; from Stratford: Abigaill Hubble, Mary Bennit, Abigail! Beardsley, Abigaill Wakely,
Temperance Hubble, Mercy Sherman. ...
Of the appearance of the building there is no record. Probably it was built of logs and was
^ erected by the men of the parish. Very likely it had a thatched roof; shingled roofs were coming
into use at this time, but whether shingles were available so far from the centers of popula
tion isdoubtful. Nevertheless, it filled the need for community and religious purposes."
Richard Hubball prepared his will in April of 1699, died in October and was
buried in the Stratfield Burying Ground where a memorial marker has been placed.
Thus passed our immigrant ancestor, leaving behind his flourishing family firmly
established in the new world. There is little left now in either New Haven or Bridge
port to suggest what life was like when he arrived in Connecticut. Gone are the
dense forests and woods, the farms, the
^ wild animals, the Indians, even many of
r the streams and brooks he knew. The
f,., principal avenues in each city could
probably serve as guides for him. In
t U'ii'-MlL -iOl/0 tGuilford, Henry Whitfield's great stone
^ il' house still stands. In Bridgeport, Clin-
C'vJn N |j ! uL NQLA : D Park and the Old Stratfield Burying
^ Ground would also be recognizable
::)"0 p 0 ^ B landmarks. For us, glimpses of Richard
^ B Hubball's era, and our Puritan origins
H visible in street names recali-
' -'-it-itloM founding Puritan leaders, and the
past can^ be evoked by reading survi^'-
his life and us, his descendantseven unto this vear of our Lord 1980.
'mm
enpN IN
DIED
>01}'):,..
ndlamd:^
! o A
..O w V'
his life and us, his descendants-
Hubald in Domesday Book tbrouah Sn^HT
[To avoid constant repetition f'
Hubball embraces Hubold Huboldus HubhlP wLHubald or
other related variant spe^
Hubbal(l) or Hubble with a ^ are invariably
the name derived from "Old German" Huribald'^"^ spellings. Reaney stated that
teim); the "Old French" fo Saut "mind-bold" (curious
origins. In a letter to me in 1965 Rfn ^ name Hubbard has different
of the common mistranscription by editore^of^^for u''tb example
very early examples of Huband." Another mnrfpr ' of these
5wr/?armej which does not contain our namp K ^^"^^ws'
the author wrote (1969) that "it derivpc f response to my enquiry,
occurs in Domesday Book. . Jt is in orieirrF Huhald which
the same as the popular Hugh meaning 'Sinrf' h k P^^
type of name that the Normans' f"d Xn Jv It was the
particular one went very early out of fashion You r^rst came to England but this
. . . your surname became fiLrand oeZ";^ f sure that
guess that your imcesto^tas aNW?r^ "I
quite clear that we share acommon ancestor trift thl H hr
whom we descend until apoint at which our^raneh P"*'"'' f Ipsley, from
but probably in Worcestershire branch became established elsewhere,
holts,f English land-
elsewhere Hugh Hubald, is listed as holdingLd of Ketrf ''T'
feudal system, Osbern son of Richard. Osbem' nrinp; i according to the
tone in Domesday Book situated in Wp t P^ P^^ designated Aure-
Castle, named for^rb^fbTws Sth^r
Richard was sumamed Scrob (or Scrunel' .1^5 vestigial ruins still exist.
the Confessor. Hugh held land of SCev 'T"?
mg we are interested in was in Inslev DnLlJ n counties, but the hold-
land at the time of King Edward the Confessor ""s
nt that time was principally Saxon fthn n ' Although England
island) the historfcal eSc!Xl tiaf0!^^" m ">
unmediate antecedents came from France < at least his
the Saxons lost their holdings to NormlT f
up mthe Norman court before becoming Kina nf f i Confessor had been brought
antnnber of French retainers with hiiH^lnd^d^d w'^^
Hugh was among the fiefs of one of rhoc ^ uiay conjecture that
1656 by Wimarn Du^L in'^X"nS''o^T 8'= was done about
work by a man described as "the prince at ^ tespected
Wagner, Garter King of Arms (1977) oftl^lr^n Senealogists" by Sir Anthony
prince of modem English^ne^ow I }"^"^on, himself a
""" <" ssixr-'
20
How the spelling of our name shifted from one form to another, from Hubold
or Huboldus, its Latin form, to Hubald, Hubball, etc., to Hubaud (French) and
Huband is not hard to follow, but not important here. Spelling variants abound with
our name, even today, as this book amply shows. In my European travels I cus
tomarily examined telephone directories for spellings of our name. Only in England
did it appear in familiar forms. There were no listings of these forms in the principal
cities of Scandanavia. In Germany and Switzerland there were rather regular occur
rences of Germanic spellings. Some bearers of these names have migrated to
America and Anglicized their name. Most likely they adopted the Hubble spelling,
the common phonetic rendition. Probably some of the names in my "unclassified"
files have Germm origins and are not of the English line of descent. In France,
particularly in the various provinces of the area of Normandy, the numerous
occurrences of Hubaud etc., were surprising. Some years ago I wrote to persons with
that spelling listed in the Paris telephonedirectory, enquiring whether they knew the
history of their name. The response reflected genuine interest, but unfortunately, no
one produced any startling facts about his history. In England, the present day con
tiguous counties of Warwickshire and Worcestershire still contain a concentration
of related spellings.
The principal source for births, deaths and marriages in 17th century England
is Parish Registers. These were begun in the 16th century, were kept in varying
degrees of accuracy, and have survived in varying states of preservation. The
Registers which I have examined in Worcestershire and Warwickshire revealed
concentrations of Hubolds, Hubballs, etc. in villages and towns all quite close to
each other, quite similar to the distribution apparent in modem telephone directories
for the same localities. Bear in mind that distances among most of the parishes
are small15 miles is a long wayand the likelihood that these people have
closely related or identical antecedents is good. Occurrences of the surname Hubball
in London at that time are less frequent; they probably just reflect the tendency of
enterprising individuals to congregate at the center of business and commercial
activities. Antique London documents relating to Hubballs occasionally refer to
Midlands origins.
For Rock, the Parish registers are incomplete, contain gaps and showevidence of
having been transcribed from earlier originals. The Ribbesford registers are more
detailed and appear to be originals. Unfortunately, some pages are now faded with
age andhard to read. Neither of these parish's registers have yet been published. A
typescript of Ribbesford registers is in the possession of the Rector of Bewdlcy (he
also serves Ribbesford church, largely inactive in 1978); selections were published
in Burton's History of Bewdley. There are registers in published form, available at
the New York Public Library, for other parishes in the area around Rock and
Ribbesford, such as the counties of Staffordshire and Shropshire, which record
Hubballs most likely with lines of descent similar to ours. The following abstracts
pertaining to Hubballs, from both Rock and Ribbesford registers, date from the
earliest entries upto the time Richard Hubball was definitely established in America.
They were made by me and verified by experienced records searchers to achieve an
accurate transcript. Some readers may enjoy figuring out family relationships, and
descent of Richard Hubball our immigrant ancestor. See also part / where some
known relationships have been set out.
1556/7
1558/9
1559-60
1562
1563/4
1567/8
1572
1587/8
1590
1590
1593
1595
1596/7
1598
1598
1599/00
1601
1603
1604
1607
1609
1611
1614
1614
1618
1622/3
1638
1640/1
Feb 22
Feb 24
Feb 16
Auc 23
Feb 13
Feb 23
June 30
Jan 19
Sep 14
Ocl 17
Apr 14
Oct 5
Feb 27
Jne 2
Nov 12
Mch 9
Nov 29
Dec 2
Sep 22
Nov 1
Nov 19
Nov 22
May 24
Sep 4
Aug 23
Jan 5
Sep 3
Mch 7
1554 Jly22
1560 May 26
1561 Dec 1
1588 June 8
1589 Sep 2
1589/90 Jan 15
1591/2 Jan 22
1600 Nov 2
1624 June 21
1637 Sep 5
1549 Dec 5
1553/4 Mch 23
1559 July 1
1561 May 30
Rock Parish
1548-1641
Baptisms
a child of John Hubbold named Alls
a child of Richard Hubbold named Harry
a child of John Hubbold named Isabell
a child of Harry Hubbold named Richard
Thomas s of Richard Hubbold
Richard s of Richard Hubbold
Peter s of Richard Hubbold
John s of Richard Hubbold
Fortune dau of Richard Hubbold
William s of Richard Hubbold
Anne dau of Thomas Hubbold
Thomas s of Richard Hubbold
Thomas s of Richard Hubbold
Richard s of Richard Hubbold
Elizabeth dau of Thomas Hubbold
Henry s of Richard Hubbold
Katherine dau of Richard Hubbold
Joyce dau of Richard Hubbold
Leawes s of Richard Hubbold
John s of Richard Hubbold
Edward s of Richard Hubball of Parlors
Samuell s of Richard Hubball
William s of Richard Hubball
Johan & Joyce daus of Peter Hubball
Thomas s of Peter Hubball
Robert s of Peter Hubball & Elinor his wife
Samuel s of William Hubbald &Joan his wife
Richard s of William Hubbald &Joan his wife
Roger Smyth and
Jane Hubbold
Richard Monouse
and Anne
Hubbold
Harry Hubbold
and Joan
Palmer''Palms?
Leonard Monox
and Katherine
Hubbold
Phillip Andros
and Margaret
Hubbold
Richard Hubbold
and Elizabeth
Cowlricke
Thomas Hubbo'd
and Anne Derick
William Hubbold
and Anne Cowper
Marriages
Hock Church cl970foio from
John Hubball and Elizabeth Westwood
Richard Andrews and Katherine Hubball
Burials
John Hubbold
Richard Hubbold
John Hubbold alias Lewes
Edward Hubbold
1568 Apr 3 William Hubbold
1570 Aug 16 Margery Hubbold
1570 Dec 13 Joune Hubbold
1570/1 Feb 9 Alis Hubbold
1572 June 30 John s of Richard Hubbold
1584/5 Mch 10 Jone wife of Richard Hubbold
1589 Nov 9 Jone wife of Harry Hubbold
1590 Oct 17 Elizabeth wife of Harry Hubbold
1591 June 3 Richard Hubbold
1596/7 Mch 7 Thomas s of Richard Hubbold
1601 Aug 29 John Hubbold
1603 Mch 30 Thomas Hubbold
1605/6 Feb 16 Johan Hubbold
1611 Nov 5 Richard Hubball
1612/13 Mch 20 Edward sonne of Richard Hubball
1614 Oct 23 Joyce dau of Peter Hubball
1614 Dec 25 Henry Hubball
1624 July 19 Elizabeth wife of John Hubball
1629 May II Lewes s of Richard Hubball & Sarah his wife
1631/2 Feb 27 William Hubball
1638 Oct ? Samuel s of William Hubball & Joan
1640/1 Mch 7 Richard s of William Hubball & Joan
Id 1609 Richard Hubball was Churchwarden.
In 1619 William Hubball was Churchwarden.
Oct 16 1600
Feb 24 1601/2
Jne 1 1606
Aug 3 1606
Sep 13 1607
Apr 13 1617
Oct 17 1624
Jan 22 1625/6
Jan 14 1626/9
Sep 14 1628
May 31 1629
May 29 1631
Oct 2 1633
Sep 25 1636
.Apr 29 1638
Sep 15 1644
Sep 24 1644
Apr 11 1647
(Mch 23?)
Jne 15 1651
May 27 1653
Ribbesford Parish
Baptisms 1599-1650
Thomas s of
Richard ? [Hubale]
Sara dau of
Richard Hubbould
Elizabeth dau of
William Hubbal
William s of
Richard Hubbond/
ould of Lye Head
Richard s of
Richard
Hubboul(d)e
Hester dau of
Thomas Hubball
Sara dau of
Richard and
Sara Hubball
Richards of Peter
and Joane Hubball
Richards of Peter -r
and Joane Hubball Ribbesford Church before 1878
Mary dau of Richard and Sara Hubball of the Rocke parishe
Alice dau of Peter and Eleanor Hubball
Elizabeth dau of Richard and Sara Hubball
Jonathan s of "
Samuel s of Richard and Sarah Hubbald
Anne dau of William and Joyce Hobdalle
Joseph s of Richard and Alice Hubbald
Thomas s of William and Joyce Hobdall
Thomas s of Thomas and Margery Hubball
Mary dau of " "
Katharine dau of "
Margaret dau of "
Apr 31 1621 (sic)
Jan 25-6 1623/4
Nov 25 1632
Jan 21 1636/7
Jne 29 1641
Jly 27 1641
Jly 14 1642
Jan 20 1646/7
Jne 5 1603
Feb 19 1603/4
Jly 7 1605
Aug 12 1606
Apr 29 1607
May 17 1612
Oct 29 1624
Feb 27 1634/5
Nov 23 1639
Jne 6 1642
Apr 11 1644
Mch 10 1644/5
Nov 24 1645
May 30 1648
(d May 29)
I have visited frequently in Rock, Ribbesford and Bewdley, attending services
in the old churches, gauging distances among the parishes and seeking out the
present location of land holdings recorded in the ownership of Hubballs centuries
ago. One such holding named "Parlors" belonged to a Richard Hubball of Rock in
1609, perhaps father of our immigrant ancestor. This has been interesting work and
reinforces a theory, namely that the conservative tendencies of the English are
reflected in the persistence of old place names as well as certain family Christian
names. Probably the contemporary clustering of Hubballs in a few counties is a
manifestation of this trait, and by inference, the same tendency prevailed in the
17th century and earlier; this narrows the search for a "missing link" between our
line and the Hubands of Ipsley.
Some years ago I was fortunate to make the acquaintance of Robert D. Thomp
son of Rock. He is a scholarly gentleman, a retired school principal, with an interest
in local history. Among his publications is a history and guide of" Rock entitled
"Aka, otherwise called Rock," 1972. a learned examination of the history of the
church and parish. Mr. Thompson shares my belief in a relationship between
Hubballs and Hubands, and wrote me in 1979:
I am coming to the conclusion that the Hubbells/Hubbolls were a cadet branch of the
Hubands of Ipsley. Sir John Huband who gave the Town Mill and Meadow Charity to Bewdley
was a steward to Robert Dudley earl of Leicester, the favourite of Elizabeth I. He was also
sheriff of Herefordshire for a time, and must have been well acquainted with the Coningsbys
who had just acquired Hampton Court near Leominster. Sir Thomas Coningsby belonged to the
Leicester/Essex circle, and he was a friend of Sir Philip Sidney the poet. They toured the con
tinent together in 1573 and his wife was called Philippa after her cousin who was Leicester's
nephew. Ipsley is only four miles from Morton Bagot (Warks) where the Coningsbys settled in
1296 and they had property there until the Civil War.
In the days of large families, the problem of providing for younger sons who survived the
perils of infancy must have been acute, and it is pretty obvious that the patronage of anyone
with influence or available copyhold tenancies would be sought. It seems to me that the Notts
came to Rock in the same way. They came fromShelsley Beauchamp in the Temevalley, and
Marriages 1574-1650
Richard Hubball and Sara Wakeman
Henr)' Hubball and Joyce Sare
William Haboaile and Joyce Sheward
Richard Hubballd and Alice Mannsell
John Hill and Joane Hubball
Thomas Hubball and Margery [? Kings]
Robert Hubball and Mary Noxen, widow
Henrie Hubbald and Anne Robinson
Burials 1601-1650
Brother s of Thomas Hubbold
Thomas Hubbold a laborer
Francis s of Richard Hubbold of the Wood.
William s of Richard Hubboulde
Margaret dau of Richard Hubbord/oud at Patshull.
Brother s of Richard Hubbalde of the Lye Headd.
Sarah dau of Richard Hubbald
Sarah wife of Richard Hubbald
Peter Hobald
A stillborn child of Thomas and Margery Hubbold
iMagdalene ye wife of Richard Hubball
Richard Hubball
Joyce wife of Henry Hubbald
Joseph s of Richard Hubbald
they appear on the earliest Rock entries on the parish register. They were at Hurtle Bank when
Leicester was at the height of his power, and at Worsley soon after.
An interesting point is that Shelsley is a twin village. On the opposite bank of the Teme is
Shelsley Walsh, where presumably the Celtic Welsh remained when the Anglo-Saxons occupied
Great Shelsley alias Shelsley Beauchamp alias Shelsley Kings. Possibly because they were of
Welsh blood and Walshes of Shelsley Walsh found favour at the Tudor Court and obtained
Abberley when one of them became Groom of the Bedchamber to Henry VIII (an arduous
task?). They were not secure in possession, however, until the time of James I, and I believe
Leicester's enemy Sir Francis Walsingham held Abberley for a time. That would give some
point to having a Nott at Worsley so near to Abberley. Incidentally, "Parlours" strikes me as
being a strategic position, adjacent to Bewdley and the Abberley estate in Nether Linden.
I admit that much of this is speculation, but I find it interesting and when one is dealing with
a jigsawit is encouraging to find that some pieces seem to fit. . . .
Bob Thompson has also researched the early land holdings in the Rock area, those
still bearing place names, seeking to link them with known or suspected owners in
the 17th century. He was kind enough to furnish the views of the Rock and
Ribbesford churches.
Newresearch efforts might profitably be concentrated on careful examination of
the manuscript sources held in the appropriate Midlands county archives and
libraries, as well as manuscript material held by the principal national archives. A
special effort might be made to contact surviving members of the Huband family,
perhaps presently resident in northern Ireland, who may hold ancient court/manor
rolls from Ipsley, and other historical and genealogical data not available anywhere
else. Somewhere in these records probably lies a clue to the cadet member of the
Hubands, suggested by Mr. Thompson, from whom our family likely descends.
Other research should be undertaken on the female lines, those who married
Hubands before 1620s or 1630s, with particular reference to the land holdings
these women brought as dower since discovery of how and when residence of
Hubballs in Rock began will, in all probability, identify the "missing link." None
of this is easy research, particularly for Americans unfamiliar with mediaeval
English documents, laws, language, etc.but for the interested and persistent
researcher, the work promises full and compensating enjoyment.
Friends say the
Waynesville man made
public service a priority.
By Joann Rouse
and Joanne Huist Smith
WARRENCOUNTY BUREAU
Lebanon Municipal Cuun
Judge Fred Hubbell. 56.died from
an apparent heart attack Thurs-
day morning in his home, mi
The Montgomery County coro
ner's stafl", which conducted an
autopsy, will release the official
cause of death today, officials I
said.
Services are pending.
Friends said Mr. Hubbell made
publicservicea priority in his
life and that he worked as a
Peace Corps voltinteer, a foster
parent and as a school board
member in his hometown of
Waynesville.
The OhioSupremeCov^
appointed Franklin Municii)al
Court Judge Jim Ruppcrt to
serve as the acting Lebanon
judgefor the next three months.
He will .continue to work in Fran
klin. MM
The Warren County Republi
can Party and Gov. Robert Taft
will select a replacement for Hub-
kl^eU.
Mr. Hubbell was appointed in
1995to fill the unexpired term of
Judge William Kauftnan. He was
elected in 1995and re-elected in
1997.
Mr. Hubbell graduated from
WaynesvilleHigh School in 1960.
"Everything was pretty simple
back in those days. Fred and I
baled hay together to earn spend
ing money," said a former class
mate, Wendell Amburgy. "Fred
got alongwith everybody."
Mr. Hubbell attended Witten
berg University and graduated
from Vanderbilt University. He
spent three years between col
legeand law school in the
Peace Corps, fie graduated from
Chase Law School in 1970.
SEEJUDGE/5A
MARVIN FONG/DAYION DAIi.Y NEWS
Lebanon Judge Fred Hubbell, who
died Thursday, discusses allegations
against him in March 1998.
juuuEi; oci veq communiiy
CONTINU
;Fred liked the sound and the
puifpose ofthe Peace Corps,"
frlhnd Paul Michener said. "Even
bapkthen hefelt it important to
Ido-public service."
' WaiTt'ii Sheehan surved on the
Wayne Local school board with
Mr. Hubbell between 1978 and
1981. Tho two men always sat
next to each other at board meet
in^.
vFred was never one to hold
things back. He had his opinions
ore things and he wasn't afraid at
all to express them. You always
knew where he was coming
"from," Sheehan said. "He was
tenacious. I had a lot of respect
for him."
Mr. Hubbell became a licensed
foster parent in 1996 in Warren
Cdimty.
'.'He was always wanting to
help someone," said Celina Mey
er,-program specialist for Warren
County Children's Services.
"Anytime we called on Fred, he
-was eager to do whatever was
"requested ofhim."
Mr. Hubbell al.RO took Hiinear-
Calvert. One of the teen-agers
attends Middletown Fenwick
High School, another Miami Uni
versity and a third is about to
enroll at the University of Day
ton, Calvert said.
"He was always saying that it's
.so hard to get an education in
Hungary and that if you didn't
get an education, you can't get
anywhere." Calvert said. "He \va.s
super nice. When he gave lo peo
ple, he gave his whole heart, ffipl
When 1 heard, I nearly tell
apart."
Mr. Hubbell's partner, Marvin
Young, said Mr. Hubbell began
working for him as a law student,
thenjoinedthe Young andJones
law firm in 1971, which became
the Young and Hubbell firm in
1978.
Mr. Hubbell practiced personal
injury, probate and real estate
law.
Controversy surrounded Mr.
Hubbell last year when a busi
ness associate and longtime
friend, James McCarty, became
the subject of a federal drug
investigation. Mr. Hubbell was
never tareeted in the inve.Rtiea-
"Fred had the highest of integ
rity and truly you could trust
Fred with anything," Young said.
Mr. Hubbell never bragged
about how much he helped others
or complained ofhaving heart
problems, Young said.
Young said he learned of
Hubbell's heart condition Thurs
day morning when emergency
personnel said they found heart ,i
Uiedication in his home,
fLebanon police saidthey
i^ceived a call at 9:11 a.m. One of
the boys who lived with Mr. Hub
bell heard his alartn go off and e, A
went to investigatewhenMr. - *J
Hubbellfailed to turn it off, I
Young said. Mr.Hubbell was I
found on the bathroomfloor, |
Young said.
"We were sworn in the same
day29 years in November,"
said attorney Jack Quinn. "He
had a unique laugh, a kind of gig
gle. He was the conservative
Republican, I was the liberal
Democrat. We got along famous-
October 15. 1997-The Western Star
*
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History and Genealogy of the Hubhell Family
Third Edition-Compiled and edited "by-Harold Berresford
Huhbell, Jr. and Donald Sidney Hubhell, Ph.D.-Published
for the Family-1980
in
ENGLISH ORIGINS
.e Wa,^ Hu^cu^ .^c.ain, o. Wean
family descends from one S ( 6 ^rchilionship between our
tZZTl twort 'ht contmttion.
CVlU^^n^-' ^ hiinrBf rWfin ' 1
Common sense should have warned me parish of Ipstey" by L. R. Stewardson,
that a problem which had so long J969.
resisted solution was not likely to yield too readily.
M m
i n 1 8 8 7 , r e n d e r e d i n t o w o v e n
c o l o r e d s i l k i n J a p a n i n I 9 S 8
( o r H a r o l d R . H u b b e l t o f L o s
A n g e l e s .
A r m s a i l r i h u i e d t o ( h e H u b b e l t
f a m i l y , d r a w n b y a n " h e r a l d i c
a r t i s t . "
A r m s o f \ t i l l i a m W h e e l e r H u b -
b c H q i i a r i e r i n g " a r m s o f h i s
n i o i h o r ' s , i n d w i f e ' s f a m i l i e s , s a i d
t o h a s c b e e n g r a n t e d i n 1 7 9 7 .
A r m s g r a n t e d t o S i r J o h n
H u b a n d o f H a m p i o n , S h r o p
s h i r e . E n g l a n d i n 1 5 7 8 f r o m a
d r a w i n g i n B r i t i s h a r c h i v e s .
A r m s g r a n t e d t o M . J . H u b -
b a l l o f L o n d o n i n 1 9 7 0 b y i l i c
C o l l e g e o f A r m s .
A r m s a t t r i b u t e d t r ^ t h e H u b h e l l '
H u b b l e f a m i l y u s e d a s o r n a
m e n t s i n t h e H i w r v .
s - e u a V v / M - - < %
A ' - n s g ' j r - ! d 1 - - W i l l i a m H u b -
" . t i d o l S s e . S u r r e y . E n g l a n d
n I " O " i h e r o l t r g e o f A i m s
- . 1 ' . " g m - I m e d d i s p l a y .
A r m s u s e d a s f r o n t i s p i e c e o f J n d
e d t l i o n i s f H h i o r \ \ o b t a i n e d b y
H e n r s W . H u b b c l l o f N e w Y o r k
C ' l s i n L o n d o n i n 1 8 , 1 1 .
F a - r i f u l d e p i c t i o n o f a r m s a t -
t ' l b u ' e d t o H u g o H u b b e l l " i n
n t h c e n t u r j E n g l a n d , b e f o r e
j - m s w e r e r e c o s m a e d .
M . i l - l w i ( < > w . ^ v T
A r m s a t t r i b u t e d t o t h : H u b b e l l
f j i n i l y . d r a w n f o r a n h e r a l d i c
i n s t i i u l e . "
C O A T S O F A R ^
7 ^ ^ - s ' a o r y b e g a n i n E - g i a n d i n t f t e 1 2 t h c e n t u r y , T t i e
r 3 - e s i ' a m i t y r e c o ' c s f r o m D u o d a l e ' s T h e A n t i o m t i e s /
- " ' ' a r w ' C k s h i r e d e s - t n o i n a A r m s n f . ^ I r . l o h n H i i h a n r t
- * 3 4 7 S a b l e a c h e / r o n b e t w i x t 3 L e o p a r d s h e a d s
r 5 3 " i ' ' b v e r 5 o e I ' j c e s A r o e n i .
^ i ' " i 2 _ s n e r a i d i c c c o r s . c a l l e d t i n c t u r e s , a r e e x - f
r - = S 5 ? 3 " N o r m a r s P r g n c h , T h e M o d e r n e q u i v a l e n t s /
i ? .
I
7 7 7 ^ s i ' c * .
T I - I
tn?
History and Genealogy of the Hubhell Family, Third Edition,
Compiled and edited by Harold Berresford Hubbell, Jr. and
Donald Sidney Hubbell, Ph.D., Published for the Family, 1980.
COLONIAL CONNECTICUT
WhUe this book is intended to record the genealogy of our family and to furnish
biographical notes on its members, I think that readers will want to consult a history
book or so concerning the founding of America in general, and of Connecticut in
particular. This is the state where our family began in America, and where our
antecedents for several generations resided before setting out on their migrations
to other colonies and places, wanderings which have not diminishcrl very niuch In
the centuries since tlicn. Part Vl, References & Sources, names books unti jiublica-
tions used in the preparation of this which I found to be useful, and also good
reading.
The early records of Connecticut can be consulted to glimpse the daily life of our
ancestors. These few examples from the History refer to issues with which our
people were directly concerned and intimately familiar. Writing of Charles Chauncey
(Stratfield church's first minister) as well as other aspects of town life, Walter
Hubbell noted:
"Mr. Chauncey's ministry lasted for over twenty years, during which time both the church
and the settlement steadily increased in numbers. Besides the Sabbath services he was in the
habit of delivering a religious lecture once in seven weeks, according to the custom of the
times. These lectures must have been solid affairs, for it was usual to commence ihem wlicn the
fliiii wiiN 111 IciiNl Uii'cc fioiiin liigli, iiinl llioy iiiiiloiiiilctlly limlcil iiiilll ^iiimcl. On Siiinhiy iiKci
noon the youth of both sexes were assembled in the church and catechi.sed publicly. No levity
of demeanor was allowed upon such occasions, but . . . Puritan'young folks were sumeliincs
tempted in that direction. . . .
"Besides the catechism, 'ye boyes' were taught upon the week day.s to read, write, and cipher,
at least in the winter season, for in summer they helped carry on the farms. The first school-
house was built in 1703, near the corner of Division Street and the old road. It was 21 feet
in length and 16 feet wide. The school-teacher stood only second in estimation to the minister,
and was always dignified with the honorary title of master. His ordinary compensation was 40s.
per month. All the text-books used in the schools were the Bible and Youth's Instructor, which
last was afterwards superseded by Dilworth's Spelling Book. Instead of using an arithmetic it
was customary for the master *to set sunts' The rod was used freely in the schools, it being
the popular opinion that *to spare the rod was to spoil the child.* Who the first school-master
was in the parish we are not informed, but among the first was Master William Rogers. The
agreement entered into between him and the school committee for the parish of Stratfield, in
the year 1710, is still extant, and is as follows. The members of the committee that year
were Samuel Hubbell, Sr., and Benjamin Fayerweather.
" 'The said William Rogers, Schoolmaster of the said Plantation, is to keep a Reading and
writing School in the said Plantation, to teach the children &Youth to Read, write &cypher,
the terme and time of Six months, commencing on the first day of the Instant Janry (1710).
And if said Rogers shall be wanting in said six months, he is to keep a night school,viz.;
five nights every week (unto) the Tenth day of March next, and the said Plantation istopay to
(said) Rogers the sum of Nineteen pounds as Provition pay, and the remaynder as hath been
payd to other Schoolmasters, to be judgd by the Treasurer of the place, at or before the first
day of April next.'
"The frequent mention of sheep, and the recurrence of the word sheep-masters upon-the
parish records about this time, may require some explanation. The following is believed to
be substantially correct:
"Every farmer had his fiock, from whose wool the thrifty housewife prepared the homespun
clothing for the family. The care of all the flocks in summer was entrusted to three sheep-
masters, who for many years were chosen annually. The sheep were permitted to graze on the
commons under the care of a shepherd during the daytime, but at night were all folded in a
single inclosure. After a time it occurred to the prudent sheep-masters that their revenues
might be increased by renting the sheep each night to the neighboring farmers for the purpose
of enriching their land.
" 'The Town gives power to yeSheep-Masters att anytime when they Judge urgent occasion
to allow to any yt shall kill a wolf within a mile where ye flocks are usually folded, out of ye
town treasuary of yedoing wt may beEncouraging as they think meet, as an addition to wt ye
town and Country do allow, provided they do not give for ye killing of each wolf out of ye
said Treasury aboue twenty shillings; this order tostand tillye town shall otherwise order, Feb.,
1671.' It is probable that the sheep-masters of Stratfield Parish also paid for killing wolves.
"'September The 11th, 1723. Att a lawful Meatlng of The Society of Stratfield, Then Voted
and Agreed With John Hubbell, that he shall Cart mr. Cook's fire wood for the year Insueing,
and To have teen pound for His paines, and voted. That he shall have his Money by ye 20Ui
of march. Voted that Lieut Hubbell, Serg Samuell Summers and Searg Joseph Booth shall be
schoole Committee to heire and agree with a School master for the year Insueing, also voted
that Lemuele Sherwood Shall bee ye keeper for ye pounds for the year Insueing; also voted
that Thomas Chambers Shall Seet in ye west Gallery to look after ye boyes on Sabbath days,
to keep tbem in Good order, for the year Insueing; voted that John Hubbell Shall seet in ye
front Gallery to lookafter ye boyes on ye Sabbath dayes to keep them in good order, for the
Yeare Insueing.'"
In his excellent book, Ancestry of Elizabeth Barrett Gillespie (Copyright (c) 1976
by The New York Public Library, Astor, Lennox and Tilden Foundations) Paul
Prindle offers definitions of many of the important town oflBces of colonial Con
necticut villages with which we should be famUiar. Our ancestors filled some of
these positions.
Tithingman
A town officer chosen chiefly for enforcing observance of the Sabbath and presen'ing order
during church services. He was sometimes equipped with a long pole, one end of which
was sharpened for use in subduing unruly boys or for prodding men lulled to sleep by the
seemingly endless drone of the minister's voice. ... A feather was sometimes attached to the
other end of the pole for use in tickling the noses of drowsing women.
Town Clerk or Recorder
His duties were to maintain a record of each man's holdings of land, and of all deeds and
mortgages, agreements, divisions, etc. involving local property. He was also to keep a record
of all births, marriages and deaths occurring within his town, notification of which was to be
m-:
i :SirV':
given him within three days of the event upon penaltyof a fine of five shillings for failure to
report,
A principal duty of the town clerkwas the recordingof the minutes of all townmeetings.
Townsmen, later called Selectmen
While the town meeting in New England was the legislative body of the town, it delegated
to the executive body, called selectmen . . . duties respecting legislative and administrative
mattersexcept, generally, thosepertaining to taxes, grants of land, admission of newinhabitants,
the layout and maintenance of highways, and the election of town officers and app<^tment
of committees.
Townsmen were usually the outstanding men of the community. . . . They, as was the case
withmany other townofficials, received no pay for their services....
Surveyor of Highways, often called Surveyor
Highways were generally laid out by committees charged with that responsibility, but their
maintenance was entrusted to surveyors of highways. Main roads were intentionally made wide
to reduce the probability of Indian ambushes, and underbrush at the sides of highways was
kept cut down for the same reason. Additionally, ruts and mud holes had to be filled and.
graded.. . .
Shepherd or Sheep Master
His duties are rather obscurely defined in the minutes of a townmeeting held 1682 in Stam
ford: "Daneli Weed & Joseph Webb are apointed & impowered to let out ye sheep to ye best
advantag, &every sixth day of ye week, at night, then to attend at ye meeting house in order
to letting out ye sheep; &those yt hire ymare to take care to preserve ym by faithfull watching
of ye flock for thair security."
Meeting House and Town House
As its name implies, the meetinghousewas originally used for all secular and religious meet
ings of the townspeople. A separate Town House or Town Hall was later used for secular meet
ings. Under date of 8 February 1748/9 it is stated that the "meeting is adjourned from ye town
house to ye meeting house."
Seating in the meeting house was strictly by "pecking order," determined on the basis of
social, economic, etc. standing in the community. The sole exception to the rule was made for
the hard of hearing, who were permitted to sit nearer the pulpit than would otherwise be the
case. Men and women were seated separately, assignments to the latter generally being made on
the basis of their husbands' standing in the community.
The records of the town of Wethersfield, Connecticut Colony, reveal the rules of procedure
to be followed in the assignment of seats in their meeting house: 1st, Dignity of descent; 2nd,
Place of public trust; 3rd, Pious disposition; 4th, Estate, and 5th, Peculiar serviceableness of
any kind.
Pounder, Pound Master, Impounder or Haywarden
He was the keeper of the town pound, an officer chosen to take possession of and impound
livestock at large. He fed and cared for these strays until claimants proved ownership and paid
a specified fee, or until the town disposed of the unclaimed animals. His services and those of
the fence viewer frequently overlapped and in the mid-17th century one man might hold both
offices concurrently.
In part V, Genealogy & Biography readers will note that certain dates of the
17th and 18th century may be shown thus: 1653/4. The use of the slash mark is
important as it fixes the year of events occurring in the months from January thru
March 24, up to 1752, when the New Year began on March 25. Do not confuse
this usage with a simple hyphen (-) between digits, a convention to express uncer
tainty as to a precise year or day. An understandingof the calendar change of 1752
is necessary to calculate accurately ages of persons bom beforethe change but who
died after it. I have reproduced extracts of an article by the late D. L. Jacobus
which appeared in "The American Genealogist" 9:130-5, reprinted in 1973 in the
quarterly of The Stamford Genealogical Society. The subject is coveredin meticulous
(tetail and requires careful reading.
. , . The Julian calendar was used throughout the Middle Ages in Europe, its inaccuracy
amounted to about three days in every four centuries. By the time the Gregorian Calendar
(named after Pope Gregory XIII) was adopted in 1582, calendar dates were ahead of actual
time by ten days. Since actual time is the time it takes the earth for one complete revolution
about the sun (a year), if the calendar had been left uncorrected, in course of centuries the
present summer months would have come in the winter, andvice versa.
Although the Roman Catholic countries adopted the Gregorian calendtir in 1582, the con
servatism of the English, and the fact that the newcalendar was sponsored by a Pope, delayed
the acceptance of it in Great Britain and her colonies until after the passage of an Act al
Parliament in 1751. By this time, the old calendar was eleven days ahead of sun time, so the
Act provided that in 1752, the second dayof September should be followed by the fourteenth
day of September. In other words, what would have been September 3rd was called the 14th,
exactly eleven days being thus dropped out of the year.
The cause of the error was the addition of a day to the calendar each fourth year (Leap
Year). This very nearly made the average year correspond with sun time, but not quite. In
every 400 years, as above stated, thecalendar went three days ahead of sun time. The dropping
of the eleven days in 1752 brought the calendar back into harmony with sun time; and to
provide against a recurrence of the trouble, it was also provided that on the evencenturies, no
Leap Year day should beadded except in a century divisible by400. Thus 1800 and 1900 were
not LeapYears, but the year 2000 will be. In this way, in the 400years beginning with 1752,
there will be three days less than there were in each 400years preceding 1752, hence the old
error will not be repeated.
So little did the people understand the need for the calendar revision, that an angry mob
gathered outside the Houses of Parliament, demanding that the eleven daysfilched out of their
lives be restored to them. Actually, calling the third day of September the fourteenth day did
not deprive any person of eleven days of his life any more thanchanging a man's name from
Bill to Tom would make him a different person. The real effect was to make every person bom
on or before 2 Sep 1752 eleven days older (by the new calendar) than the record of his birth
(in Old Style) would indicate. Achild born on 2 Sep 1752 (the last day of Old Style) would
be, by the calendar, twelve days old on the following day, 14 Sep 1752 (the first day of the
New Style).
People do not like to be considered olderthan theyreally are, not even eleven days older. It
was natural than those livingin 1752should "rectify" their birth dates. George Washington was
born 11 Feb 1781/2. In 1752 the calendar change automatically made him eleven days older,
so like most men of his generation, he rectified his birth date, making it 22 Feb 1732. The
latter is the date on which he would have been born if the New Style Calendar had been in
effect in 1732^which it was not.
Although it was (and is) incorrect to change the dates prior to Sep 1752 into New Style, it
was done to such an extent by those living in 1752 that the genealogist has to make allowance
for it. Suppose, for example, that a group of brothers and sisters were born between the years
1743 and 1760. The older children were born before the calendar change, and in the town
records theOld Style dates were therefore used in entering their births. Thefirst chfld was bora,
let us say, 25 May 1743. Now, after all the children had been born, the parents bought a Bible,
say about 1765, and entered in it their own marriage and the births of the'children, giving
New Style dates for all the children, including those born before 1752 whose birth-days should
properly have been entered Old Style. As a result, we find that the eldest child (whose birth in
the contemporary town records had been entered as 25 May 1743) was entered in the Bible as
born 5 June 1743. Both dates are correct, but the former is the date that ought to be used,
unless the latter has the words "NewStyle" added to indicate that it is a "rectified" date.. . .
A further effect of this change must be mentioned. When a man died after 1752, assuming
that he was born before September 1752, and his age at death was stated exactly in years,
months and days, the resultant date of birth (figured from the age at death) is the New Style
date of birth, and therefore eleven days later than the recorded Old Style date of birth.
For example, Ephraim Burr, byhis gravestone, died 29 Apr 1776 aged 76years and 13days.
Subtractingthe age givesus 16 Apr 1700for bis birth, but of course to get the Old Style date
thenin use we must subtract eleven days more. Hisbirth was not recorded, but he was baptized
14Apr 1700, two days before his New Style date of birth. After subtracting the eleven days,
we find that his real date of birth, in accordance with the Old Style calendar then in use, was 5
Apr 1700, which was nine days before he was baptized. Obviously he could not have been
born two days after baptism, which is the result we get if we fail to make allowance for the
calendar change. .. .
14
In order to make quite clear the effect of the calendar change, to those having difficulty in
gasping it, the following was the order of days in 1752 beginning with August 31:
31 August
1 September
2 September
14 September
15 September
One other change was made in 1752, and that was the date of beginning the New Year. It
is understood by everyone that between one Spring and the next a year has elapsed, similarly
between one Autumn and the next. But when we assign numbers to the years for convenience
in referring to them, it is necessary to begin the new year on a particular day. The succession
of seasons and years is entirely natural, caused by the orbit of the earth about the sun. But
selectingone certain day on whichto start a newyear is an artificial and arbitrary thing. Con
sequently, various peoples in various ages have celebrated different New Year's Days. Some
of the ancient races ended their year with a Harvest Festival, and the Jews still retain that
season. Others began the year with the Vernal Equinox, and since Easter fell near that season,
the date quite generally used for the religious New Year's Day by Christians was 25 March.
There was no uniformity in the early centuries, and some began the year on 25 December,
the traditional birthday of Christ.
The only dates for New Year's Day which were in use in American colonial days among the
English settlers were 25 March and 1 January. The latter was the beginning of the legal year,
while the former, as we have seen, had more religious significance. The Act of Parliament in
1751 established 1 January as New Year's Day for 1752 and subsequent years. Thereafter, we
are not bothered by the confusion that existed when the year had two possible beginnings.
Now this change did not, like the dropping of eleven days, have any effect on the ages of
persons then living. This will be seen if we suppose that it should be decided hereafter to cele
brate the Fourth of July on Armistice Day. A person born 4 May would still be born on 4
May; and when New Year's Day was shifted from 25 March to 1 January, it did not affect the
birthday of a man born on 4 May. His birthday was still 4 May, Old Style, or 15 May, New
Style.
Some have misunderstood the effects of the change in New Year's Day, and have supposed
that it caused a difference of nearly three months in people's ages. When the names of the
months of birth were entered, such a notion is unthinkable. Before 1700, the early recorders
sometimes used the number of the month instead of its name. This was the practice of the
Quakers, and occasionally survived until a later period. Of course, March was then numbered
as the first month, since New Year's Day fell in it, and dates before the 25th were considered
as belonging to the first month, as well as dates after the 25th. April was the second month, and
May the third. The early Quaker records were often very precise, stating that an event occurred
"on the 10th of the 5th month which is called July."
When the number of the month was stated in any record prior to 1752, the genealogist should
reckon March as the first month, and February as the twelfth.
If a record states that John Jones was born on the 10th of the fifth month, 1710, this must
be Old Style, and means that he was born in July. After 1752, July became the seventh instead
of the fifth month, but this does not affect the fact that John Jones was born in July.
Before 1752, there is likely to be some confusion with regard to dates between 1 January and
24 March, unless we know what New Year's Day a particular recorder used. It is apparent
that if the year began 25 March, a man born on 20 February was born before the new year
began, hence a year earlier than it would be by New Style. If 1710 began on 25 March, then a
man born on 20 February following was born in 1710, since 1711 did not begin until the next
month. Dates between 1 January and 24 March fell in the preceding year if Old Style was used;
but if New Style was used, this threw all dates after 1 January into the new year.
The onlyproblem in this connection is the year in which a manwas born, and we always run
the chance of an error of exactly a year if we do not know which calendar the recorder used.
Back of 1700, we can usually assume that the year began on 25 March, and this is true of most
church registers until 1752. But after 1700, the use of 1 January was gradually coming into
favor, e^ecially in legal documents and town records.
Careful recorders used a double date, and when this was done all confusion or uncertainty
is eliminated. George Washington was born 11 Feb 1731/2, which means that the year was
still 1731 if theNew Year was reckoned as not beginning until 25 March, but that the year was
already 1732 if it had begun 1 January. That is, it was 1731 Old Style, or 1732 New Style.
Genealogists should always copythe double date when it is given in the records, for the single
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