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Bastian (1837-1915, from England ) "Monograph of the

Anguillulidae". He described 100 species of 30 genera in which
- Aldrovandus found dead grasshoppers with worms emerging 23 genera were new. Illustrations were fairly good . He also
from their bodies (in De Animalibus Insectis 1623). He was the reported different ways to collect nematode, from soil, plant
one who first used the word Vermes. tissue, fresh and salt water (1866).

- Lister (1672) described similar worms from a plant in his - In Scotland in 1861, Sir John Bulloch described a worm that
garden and compared his findings to that of Aldrovandus. was obviously Sphaerularia bombi. In 1853, Meissner (1829-
1905) described Mermis albicans in detail.
- Reaumur (1742) described a worm that was undoubtedly
Sphaerularia bombi Dufour. - In 1851, Karl Diesing (1800-1867) published Systema
Helminthum, with 175 insect nematode records and involving
- Gould (1747) graphically described the emergence of worms, five entomophilic genera. He listed 118 species of Gordius, 17
probably mermithids, from ants. of Mermis, including M. nigrescens and M. albicans and
Sphaerularia bombi as members of the same suborder and tribe.
- Carl von Linnaeus (1707-1778), in his Systema Naturae, Not surprisingly, he considered Sphaerularia as a genus
listed eight genera in the Vermes Intestini (1758). Two of these inquirendum. He assigned twelve species to Anguillula, nine of
were truly parasitic worms, and the name of the third, Gordius, which had been assigned to Oxyuris spp., and found in intestines
is associated with Linnaeus. of insects. Diesing recognized two genera, Gordius and Mermis,
but kept them in the same suborder and tribe. It remained for
- A Lutheran pastor, J.A.E. Goeze (1731-1793), was the first Vejdovsky (1886) to separate Nematoda and Nematomorpha .
to study nematodes seriously under the microscope and
described the vinegar eelworm (1782). He began to distinguish - Braun in 1883 defined the Mermithidae, a definition that still
between the various kinds of worms. He also described the stands.
emergence of mermithids from soil following a heavy rain
(1782). - Linstow (1842-1916), in Berlin, initiated a series of papers that
extended from 1860 to 1914. The admirable practice of naming
- K. Rudolphi (1771-1832). Rudolphi (1819) included 350 new genera by the use of a new prefix with -mermis originated
species belonging to 11 genera in his works Entozoorum with von Linstow and was first used in establishing the name
Synopsis. He also gave us the scientific name, Nematoidea. Paramermis in 1898. In 1878 , he published a Compendium der
Often considered as "Father of Helminthology". He gave the Helminthologie, which lists several entomophilic nematodes.
name Nematoidea and produced a publication "Entozoorum
Synopsis" with 350 species belonging to 11 genera - Schneider (1831-1890) provided one of the first
classifications of nematodes (1866). He accepted only M.
- Siebold (1804-1885) studies introduced the concept of a life nigrescens and named a new species M. lacinulata. He separated
cycle involving different kinds of hosts, with different ways of Mermis from Gordius, but left Sphaerularia bombi with Gordius
penetration. With studies of Charvet (1834), Berthold (1843), in the same group. In the same monograph, he reveals his
and Dujardin (1842)], Siebold established the Gordiacea (in curiosity about S. bombi by including a chapter on its
1843), he included mermithids in the group. Under the title development.
"Ueber die Fadenwürmer der Insekten" in six works (1842-
1858), von Siebold described and noted 233 nematode species - O. Butschli(1848-1920, from Germany?). The first detailed
from insects. descriptions of the morphological characters used in taxonomy
(1873). Perhaps, credit for founding the science of nematology
- Leuckart (1822-1898) clarified Linnaeus' groups and should belong to him .
established Vermes on a firm basis akin to that which we use
today (Fig. 3). Rudolphi (1809), with true perspicacity, - J. deMan (1851-1930 from The Neitherlands) He suggested
recognized Nematoidea as separate from Acanthocephalea, the ratio alpha, beta, and gamma equivalent to a, b, and c that we
Trematodea, and Cestoidea, but Leuckart (1887) established use in taxonomy (1880).
them as separate groups.
- L. Oerley. Excellent compilation of information on 202
- Hope (1839) wrote "The genera and species of insects infected species of 27 nematode genera with description and illustrations
by filariae" and complicated an already complex puzzle (1881). Very good source for references.
concerning the identity of filariids, mermithids, and gordiids.
- H. Micoletzky. (1883-1929, from Austria) He brought together
- Bremser (1824), in his "New Atlas of Intestinal Worms" all published species in his publication "Die freilebende Erd-
recorded Leblond's discussion of the finding of Audouin of Nematoden". He gave extensive keys to species including their
mermithid worms in cockchafers in France. Another French habitats. This remains as the most valuable source of references
worker, Dujardin (1801-1860), was also a pioneer in the study to papers published up to that time (1922)
of nematodes in insects in France. He described Mermis
nigrescens in 1842 and Mermis aquatilis in 1845. - I. N. Filipjev (1889-1940, from Russia) "Manual of
Agricultural Helminthology". This is a most comprehensive
compendium of nematological information and is especially
valuable as a reference source for plant parasitic, free- living,
and insect parasitic nematodes described up to that time (1934, -Hall (1929) presented "Arthropods as an intermediate host for
English version, 1941). helminths" but regrettably had no references. Stiles' and Hassall'
s 1920 compendium of generic and specific names was praised
- J. Leidy He reported the first record of free living nematodes when published as much as it is esteemed today. It is a valuable
in America: Anguillula Longa n.s.. (1851), later became volume filled with names and dates, and remarkably free of
Tobrilus longus. errors. It is known as the Index Catalogue of Medical and
Veterinary Zoology, Roundworms. Checklists of more recent
- Nathan Augustus Cobb “Father of USA Nematology” dates include .
1859-1932. Joined the US Department of Agriculture
in 1907, and nematology began to develop in the Unite States - Gilbert Fuchs published a series of papers on bark beetle
since. Excellent book: "Contribution to a Science of nematodes. The series extended from 1914 to 1938
- Yatsenkowsky (1924) in the USSR provided evidence that a
-Gotthold Steiner. Began to work with Cobb from 1922. He small number of nematodes could cause castration of the bark
worked with all forms of nematodes. He took Cobb's position beetle hosts, and heavy infections killed the beetles.
after 1932. His publication: "Plant parasitic nematodes the Polozhentsev and Negrobov (1967) listed 400 insect species that
growers should know" (1949) is one of his good contribution. are intermediate and definitive hosts for trematodes, cestodes,
acanthocephalans, and nematodes. Another Russian worker,
- Late in the nineteenth century, three Russian researchers, Ipatyeva (1970), provided a list of nematodes associated with
Fedchenko (1874, 1886), Keppen (1870, 1881, 1882), and the Scarabaeoidea..
Radkevitch (1869), gave us information on the entomophilic
nematode fauna of that vast country. They created a tradition - In the United States, Cobb(1927), from his experience with
that was carried into the next century by several researchers. Dr. three entomophilic nematodes, stressed the potential of
E.S. Kirjanova(1900-1976) was one of these. She worked on nematodes in controlling insects. In Britain, Oldham (1933), on
plant, animal, and insect nematodes, but had a special interest in the basis of his own experience and that of T. Goodey (1930) on
the Nematomorpha. She supervised 25 dissertations, and Tylenchinemaoscinellae, made the same recommendation. Both
described 100 new species of nematodes and Nematomorpha. T. Goodey (1951) and J.B. Goodey (1963) produced systematic
books containing nematodes associated with insects.
- Writing about insect nematologists in Russia, Filipjev must be
considered as a prominent nematologist for nematological - Detailed morphological and taxonomic studies were strongly
science. When writing about Filipjev in the book "Plant and pursued in the early decade of this century. Dadai (1911),
Insect Parasitic Nematodes", Nickle and Welch stated "If Daday (1913), and Hagmeier (1912) established many of the
Rudolphi is recognized as the Father of Helminthology, then type species for future genera. Cobb (1859-1932), Steiner (1886-
Ivan Nikolaevich Filipjev (1889-1940) may certainly be 1961), and Christie (1889-1978), three Americans, established
named the father of Insect Nematology. Not only did he insect nematology in North America in single, dual, and triple
contribute indirectly through his work on nematode authorships in a long series of papers. Their " Agamermis
classification, but directly by bringing together the scattered decaudata Cobb, Steiner, and Christie 1923; a nema parasite in
information on insect nematodes and incorporated his own grasshoppers and other insects" is recognized as a classic, as
findings into the synthesis. This formed the second section pointed out by Gerald Thorne (1961).
(about 80 pages) of a monograph published in Russian in 1934
entitled "Nematodes that are harmful and useful in Agriculture" - Two other Americans, Rudolf William Glaserand Norman
(Filipjev, 1934). Sections of this book were sent to Dr. Prof. R. Stoll , had outstanding contributions. Glaser (1888-1947)
J.H. Schuurmans-Stekhoven in Belgium who, as junior author, was the first to mention the potential of Neoaplectana nematodes
had the original Russian translated into French and then into the for biological control, and gave much effort to mass-culture
"American Language". This was published in Leiden under the techniques and was the first researcher to culture N. glaseri on
title A Manual of Agriculture Helminthology in 1941. an artificial culture in vitro. Norman Stoll (1892-1976)
Also in 1934, Filipjev's "Classification of the free-living continued Glaser's work on vermiculture (Stoll, 1959).
nematodes and their relation to parasitic ones" was published in
English by the Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections (1934). - Steiner described S. kraussei (1923) and S. glaseri (1929)
Micoletzky (1925) and Cobb (1919) dropped their classification
in favor of Filipjev's. Western workers lost contact with - P. Bovien (1933, 1937, 1944), made three excellent
Filipjev, and Kirjanova (1959) reported his death on October 22, contributions, in one of them he described Neoaplectana affinis
1940. and N. bibionis . Also in this contribution, he suggested the
Filipjev's book on harmful and helpful helminths in agriculture interrelationship among bacteria, nematodes, and insects (1937).
combines both plant and insect nematodes..
Filipjev (1934) included those nematodes that have insects as - S.R. Dutky and W.S. Hough (1955), and the
"intermediate" hosts, the Spirurida and Filariida as well as Czechoslovakian, J. Weiser (1955), simultaneously found a
Nematomorpha. The limits of a scientific field have no sharp nematode in the Codling moth that the former designated by its
boundaries. Poinar (1975), for example, includes the Spirurids, accession number, DD-136, and the latter named the worm
Filarids, and Nematomorphs, whereas this book combines the Neoaplectana carpocapsae. Dutky, and later Weiser, confirmed
insect-parasitic nematodes and the plant-parasitic nematodes." the presence of an associated bacterium.
- J.R. Christie(1974) reviewed the parasites of invertebrates,
noting many newly discovered species, chiefly in insects.

- Poinarhas worked with different kinds of insect parasitic

nematodes, especially mermithids and rhabditids. He is a "key
milestone" in the development of entomopathogenic nematodes.
He has authored or coauthored five books and more than 400
publications on nematode systematics, structure, bionomics,
paleontology, natural enemies, epizootiology, and host parasite
relationships. At the present time (2002), he is still working in
evolutionary of nematodes at Oregon State University.

- Nickle provided lengthy papers (1967a, 1972, 1973, 1974)

showing worms in situ and reviews on taxonomy and biology of
insect parasitic nematodes. He has retired from USDA since

- Shephard (1974) published the compendium of abstracts, this

is of considerable value.

- Massey(1974) produced a monograph on the taxonomy of

nematodes of bark beetles in the United States.

- In the United States, insect pathology was beginning to develop

from late 1940's. Steinhaus (1949) devoted a chapter to
nematodes. Welch (1956, 1963, 1965) revived interest and
reviewed progress in the field, which he named entomophilic

- In Europe (late 1940's and early 1950's) at the University of

Erlangen, Professor H.J. Stammer established a school of insect
nematology and from which outstanding students, such as Drs.
H. Korner , E. Liebersperger, G. Osche, W. Riihm , and F.
Wachek, had great contribution to insect nematology.
-In Brazil, L. Travassos has a long series of publications (1925-
1965) contributing to our knowledge of the oxyurids and
thelastomatids in Diplopoda, Chilopoda, and Insecta. Her 1953
paper is a typical example of her work. P.T. Artigas published
his work in "Systematica dos nematoideos dos arthopodes",
1929. This is a very good document for workers in the field. He
also had some good contributions in 1926, 1928