You are on page 1of 32

SCIENTIFIC NAME TRANSMISSION CHARACTERISTICS/

HOSTS CAUSES / AREA OF INFECTION


causes “amoebic
meningoencephalitis” in
man; Route of infection
Naegleria fowleri man – intranasally
Acanthamoeba culbertsoni mice and monkeyproduce meningoencephalitis in mice and monkey if introduce intranasa
Entamoeba coli man, monkey, dogs, pigs
Cysts with 8 nuclei; colon and cecum of man, monkey, dog, pigs
Entamoeba histolytica man and monkeysCysts with 4 nuclei; pathogen causing “amoebic dysentery” in man and
Entamoeba bovis cattle Cysts with 1 nucleus; digestive tract of cattle
Entamoeba
gingivalis man Cysts with unknown number of nuclei
Entamoeba canibucalis dog mouth
Entamoeba suis pig digestive tract
Entamoeba bubalis (dilimanni) carabao digestive tract
Entamoeba ovis sheep digestive tract
Entamoeba gingivalis dog and man mouth
Entamoeba equi horse cecum and colon
Entamoeba muris rat
Entamoeba caviae guniea pig
stagnant water/pools, soil, canal
Entamoeba cuniculi rabbit
Leishmania donovani
sandflies – Phlebotomus man
sp. and dog Causes of “kala-azar”, visceral Leishmaniasis or “dumdum fever”;

Causes “cutaneous
leishmaniasis” or
“oriental sore”; Occurs
in monocytes,
polymorphonuclear,
Leishmania tropica
sandflies – Phlebotomus
man, sp.
dogs and rodents
endothelial cells of skin

Causes “American
mucocutaneous
leishmaniansis” or
“espundia” in south
America, “uta” in the
Leishmania braziliense
sandflies – Phlebotomus
man, dog,
sp. cat, mouse,mountains
rats of peru
Trypanosoma
vivax
Trypanosoma
uniforme
ncipally
rses – chronic
ruminants
tsetse
Trypanosoma.
course;
flies
(cattle,
(Glossina
low/depress
buffaloes,
congolense
morsitans,
spirit
sheep,
(nagana),
G.
goats)
palpalis,
but
anemia,
all
G.other
tachinoides)
weakness,
animals Emaciation,
are affected,edema
wild game
of subcutaneous
animals act astissues
reservoir.
and swollen lymph nod
polymorphic; cyclically
Trypanosoma simiae transmitted
monomorphic; cyclically
Trypanosoma suis tsetse flies (Glossinapigs,
sp.)warthogs, camel transmitted
Trypanosoma
e flies horses,
(Glossina
brucei
mules,
palpalis
donkeys,
and G.camel,
moritans)
dogs,
also
sheep
mechanically
and goatsby are
biting
very
Polymorphic
flies
susceptible;
(Tabanus
(slender,
Cattle
and Stamoxys)
and
stumpy
pigsand
are intermediate
resistant forms); Causes fatal dis
Causes “Gambian
sleeping sickness” in
man or human
Trypanosoma “trypanosomiasis”;
gambiense tsetse flies man in Africa cyclically transmitted
Causes Rhodesian or
African sleeping
sickness in man;
Human
Trypanosoma trypanosomiasis;
rhodesiense tsetse
Affects
flieswild and domestic animals;
cyclically
man transmitted
Trypanosoma
evansi
Tabanus sp. (Stomoxys,
horse, dogs,
Haemotobia,
camel, carabao,
Lyperosia
cattle,
spp)
pig,Non-cyclically
cat, other mammals
or mechanically transmitted; The disease in horses is cal

causing “mal de
caderas” (bad hind
quarters); Non-cyclically
Trypanosoma or mechanically
equinum Tabanus, Stomoxys and Lyperosia
chieflyspp
equines transmitted

Causes a veneral
disease called “dourine”
(Arabic term for
“unclean”) or “mal de
coit”; Non-cyclically or
Trypanosoma mechanically
Usually through
equiperdum
coitus; Rarely by biting flies; Contamination
horse andof ass
mucous
transmitted
membrane
Trypanosoma
Tabanustheileri
sp., Haematopota sp.; Transmitted
antelopes,bycattle,
contamination
carabaos,with
Has
buffaloes
feces
been associated by “turning sickness” in Uganda, associated with
Trypanosoma Melophagus
melophagiumovinus or sheep kedsheep cyclically transmited; Not very pathogenic. Does not multiply fast
Trypanosoma flea – Ceratophilus fasciatus rats
ratlewisi Transmitted cyclically; Not very pathogenic. Does not multiply fast
Trypanosoma canorini monkeys, rats,
Triatoma or kissing bugs

Causes “chagas
disease” in man;
cresent-shaped;
Kinetoplast usually
large; Not very
pathogenic. Does not
multiply fast
Trypanosoma man;
cruzi
Cyclically
Reservoir:
by Triatoma
dog, cat, pig,
sp. foxes, monkeys, opossums, armadillo
Trypanosoma avium birds
Trypanosoma gallinarum chickens
Trypanosoma. Calmetti ducklings
Trypanosoma chattoni frogs
Trypanosoma miyagii frogs
Trypanosoma palawanense rat
Tritrichomonas 3 anterior flagella
Trichomonas 4 anterior flagella
Pentatrichomonas 5 anterior flagella
Coitus;
Tritrichomonas
AI; Instruments,
foetus
hands, gloves duringcows
veterinary
and bull
examination
occurs in the genital tract of cows and in the preputial cavity of bulls. It
Tritrichomonas suis pigs gastro-intestinal tract and nasal passages
Tritrichomonas equi equine cecum, colon
Trichomonas
“pigeon’s
gallinaemilk”, Contaminated
pigeon; Chickens,
drinking water,
turkeysContaminated
and other birds
Causes
feed
may“avian
be affected
trichomoniasis” of upper intestine; It causes a serious di
Trichomonas
Ingestion
gallinarum
of contaminated
chickens in feed
particular.
and water
May occuroccurs
in other
in birds
lower intestine and liver; Liquid pale yellow diarrhea
Trichomonas anseri geese ceca
Trichomonas anatis duck ceca
Trichomonas ovis sheep cecum
Trichomonas felistomae cat mouth
Trichomonas canis dog intestine
Trichomonas vaginalis man and laboratory animals
vagina, prostate and urethra; causes vaginitis
Trichomonas tenax man, monkeys (between gummouth; and teeth)
Most commonly associated with dental disorders and pyorrhea
Pentatrichomonas hominis man, monkeys, gibbon and other 5 anterior
animalsflagella. Intestine
Hexamita meleagridis adults turkeys small intestine; causing a condition known as Hexamitiasis or Catarrhal
Hexamita columbae pigeon
Giardia lamblia (intestinalis) pig, monkey and man occurs in the small intestine; causing a condition known as “giardiosis”.
Giardia canis dogs, Philippine Island
G. cati cats
G. bovis cattle
G. caprae goats
Histomonas
n of infected meleagridis
feces
turkeys,
or indirectly
chickens,through
quail, pheasant
ingestion of
peafowl,
infectedpartridge;
Heterakis
Occurs
Chickens
eggsinorthe
are
infected
liver
important
and
earthworms
ceca;
reservoirs
A serious disease of turkeys causing a dis
No sporocyst or spore;
Cryptosporidium 4 sporozoites
No sporocyst or spore;
Tyzzeria 8 sporozoites
2 sporocysts or spores;
4 sporozoites in each
Isospora sporocyst
4 sporocysts or spores;
2 sporozoites in each
Eimeria sporocyst
4 sporocysts or spores;
4 sporozoites in each
Wenyonella sporocyst

No spore; Produce
Klossiella sporoblast/sporozoites

most pathogenic. Small


Eimeria zuernii and large intestines
Eimeria bovis next to E. zuernii in pathogenicity
Eimeria auburnensis cause mild coccidiosis
Eimeria ellipsoidalis
and feed contamination;
Eimeria bukidnonensis
Mechanical vectors
Coccidia
are of
flies,
Cattle,
beetles,
Carabaos,
rodents,
Buffaloes
man and animals.
Eimeria ahsata most pathogenic; confined only to young animals (Kids and lambs). Sig
Eimeria faurei mildly pathogenic; confined only to young animals (Kids and lambs). Si
most common; confined
only to young animals
(Kids and lambs).
Significant sign is
Eimeria arloingi diarrhea

Eimeria crandallis

and feed contamination;


Eimeria granulosa
Mechanical vectors
confined
are
Coccidia
flies,
only
beetles,
oftosheep
young
rodents,
and
animals
goat
man
(Kids
andand
animals.
lambs). Significant sign is diarrhea
Eimeria debliecki most common; Profuse Diarrhea, may occur concurrently with colibacill

and feed contamination; Mechanical vectors are flies,


Coccidia
beetles,
of swine
rodents, man and animals.
Eimeria spinosa
Eimeria scabra
and feed contamination;
Isospora suis
Mechanical vectors
Profuse
are flies,
Diarrhea,
Coccidia
beetles,
may
of swine
rodents,
occur concurrently
man and animals.
with colibacillosis/scouring in piglets
Eimeria leuckarti

Eimeria solipedum

Eimeria uniungulati
and feed contamination;
Klossiella equi
Mechanical vectors are flies,
Coccidia
beetles,
of Horses
rodents,
Occursman
in low
andgrade
animals.
infection
Eimeria canis
Eimeria felina
Eimeria cati

Isospora bigemina
(now Sarcocystis
bigemina) bloody diarrhea
Isospora rivolta
and feed contamination;
Isospora felis
Mechanical vectors are
Coccidia
flies, beetles,
of Dogsrodents,
and Cats
extra-intestinal
man and animals.
tissue forms (zoites) are seen in the liver, brain, spleen,

Eimeria perforans
G.I. tract causing
Eimeria media diarrhea
Eimeria magna

Eimeria intestinalis
and feed contamination;
E. stiedai Mechanical vectors are flies,
Coccidia
beetles,
of rabbits
rodents,
liverman
(bileand
ducts)
animals.

Eimeria falciformis
Cryptosporidium muris
C. parvum Mouse
Eimeria separata
E. nieschultzi Rats
E. cavial colon
Cryptosporidium
wrairi
Klossiella kobayae G. Pig kidney
Eimeria aurata gold fish
E. carpelli carp
E. cyprinid carp
E. truttae salmon

most common and most


pathogenic species
causing “cecal”
coccidiosis. Usually
affects chicken 3-5
weeks of age. Mortality
may range from 80-90%
in severe untreated
cases; Hemorrhagic
Eimeria tenella ceca
Eimeria necatrix next to tenella in pathogenicity. Causes distention of the middle intestin
Eimeria acervulina duodenum, characterize by numerous gray or whitish transverse pathe
duodenum; Sloughing
Eimeria praecox of mucosa
Eimeria hagani duodenum; less pathogenic
Eimeria mivati duodenum; middle intestine
S.I. qualification
necrosis/ sloughing of
Eimeria maxima the mucosa
Eimeria mitis chicken S.I., cecum less pathogenic

lower SI and LI most


pathognenic bloody
droppings and mortality
Eimeria adenoides of up to 100%
E. gallopavovis lower SI, ceca, rectum
1-90% mortality; bloody
diarrhea; necrotic
E. meleagritis Coccidia of Turkeysentritis

kidney, very pathogenic


to gooseling; may
Eimeria truncata cause 100% mortality
E. anseris Geese and ducks SI moderately pathogenic
Eimeria columbae SI non-pathogenic
E. lasseana SI pathogenic to squabs
E. tropicalis Pigeon pathogenic to squabs
Causes of ballooning of
Small Intestine –
hemorrhagic enteritis of
ducklings 2-3 weeks of
Eimeria anatis age
E. bocchadis kidney; Causes of ballooning of Small Intestine – hemorrhagic enteritis
E. matthae ballooning of SI; hemorrhagic enteritis of 2-3 week old ducklings; Cause
E. saitame ducks Causes of ballooning of Small Intestine – hemorrhagic enteritis of duck

oocysts produced on
mucosa or surface
epithelium of digestive
and respiratory tracts
causing respiratory
symptom emerging
disease of and high
mortality can be
mistaken for chronic
respiratory disease
Cyptosporidium sp. (CRD), coryza, etc.
cecum (extracellularly
Cryptosporidium tyzzeri chicken or the microvilli)
Cryptosporidium melagridis turkey diarrhea and some mortality
Wenyonella anatis ducks
Wenyonella philiplevinei ducks
Wenyonella gallinae chicken
Tyzzeria perniciosa ducks
Tyzzeria anseris geese
nfective material;
If animals
Toxoplasma
lactation,
other gondii
than
blood
thetransfusion;
cat family like
organ
cattle,
transplant;
goat, pig,
clinic
dog,
intracellular
instruments;
man, etc. parasite
which
secretions
serve
of many
and
as initial
excretions
typeshosts
of tissue cells = endothelial, parenc
Sarcocystis
fusiformis F.H. – dogs and cat; I. H. – carabaos (cattle)
Sarcocystis cruzi F.H. – Dogs; I.H. – Carabao, cattle
Sarcocystis
bovicanis F.H. – Dog; I.H. – cattle

Sarcocystis levinet F.H. – dog; I.H. – Carabao, cattle

Sarcocystis tenella F.H. – cat; F.I. – sheep, goats


Sarcocystis
ovicanis F.H. –dog; I.H. - sheep
S. hominis or bovi
hominis F.H. – man; I.H. – cattle
S. bertrami F.H. – dog; I.H. - equines
S. miescheriana F.H. – dog; I.H - pig
Sarcocystis
porcifelis F.H. – cat; I.H. - pig

ed oocyst, sporocysts
Sarcocystis
containing
muris sporozoites or meat
F.H. –with
cat;sarcocyst
I.H. – rats(containing spores or bradyzoites)
thickened and wrinkled
skin; hairs fall off like in
mange but without
pruritus; rapid
ophozoites and
Besnoitia
cyst with
besnoiti
bradyzoites from tissues;
F.H.ingestion
– rats; I.H.
of sporulates
– cattle
respiration
oocyst from the ground
Besnoitia benetti equine I.H
Cyst in skeletal
muscles, brain;
Tachyzoites multiply in
Hammondia lamina propria of
hammondi F.H. – Cats; I.H. – rodents
intestine and muscle
Cyst in brain and spinal
Frenkelia microti I.H. – mice, wolvescord
Cyst in brain and spinal
Plasmodium cord

Avian Plasmodia;
“Avian malaria
gallinaceum”;
Gametocystes are big,
round or irregular with
pigment granules.
Schizonts in RBC round
to irregular in shape; 6-
30 merozoites.
Displaces host cell
nucleus. Host cell
Plasmodium gallinaceum chickens distorted
Avian Plasmodia;
causes “Avian malaria
juxtanucleare”; Anemia
P. juxtanucleare chickens and emaciation
P. relictum pigeon Avian Plasmodia
P. durae turkey Avian Plasmodia
P. lophorae pheasant Avian Plasmodia
P. elongatum sparrow, canariesAvian Plasmodia
P. cathemerium
culicine mosquitoes: culex and aedes
sparrow Avian Plasmodia

Plasmodium ovale mild tertian malaria; Philippines, India, Africa

“malignant malaria”;
most common form of
human malaria widely
P. palciparum distributed in the tropics
P. malariae quartan malaria; less common in tropical and subtropical
P. vivax Anopheles mosquitoes – Anopheles Human
spp “benign tertian malaria”; most common and widely distributed
Plasmodium
berghei
P. vinckei
Anopheles mosquitoes – Anopheles Rodent
spp Rodent Malaria
Plasmodium
knowlesi
P. cynomolgi
P. brazilianum
P. kochi
P. inui
P. simiumAnopheles mosquitoes – Anopheles Simian
spp Simian Malaria
Haemoproteus columbae
pigeon louse fly pigeons,
– Pseudolynchia doves
(maura) and wildcausing
canariensis birds “pigeon malaria” prevalent in the Philippines; Only sausage sha
Haemoproteus meleagridis turkey gametocytes – sausage shape
H. nettionis Culicoides sp ducks and geese gametocytes – susage shape
H. sacharovi
Pseudolynchia sp and Culicoides
pigeonssp and dovesgametocytes – irregular or round
Leucocytozoonbiting midges Culicoides sp chicken
cauleeryi cause of chicken leucocytozoonosis; self limiting – after one developme
L. sabrazesi chickens mature gametocytes in spindle shaped WBC.
L. simondi Similium sp. Or black ducks
flies and geese causing “duck and geese malaria”
L. smithi Simulium spp turkeys caused “turkey malaria” or turkey leucocytozoonosis

Causes disease known


as “Texas Fever”, Red
water, Cattle tick fever,
Bovine Malaria or
piroplasmosis, Bovine
Babesia bigemina Boophilus sp cattle Babesiosis.
Disease similar to but
more severe than B.
bigemina premunition
B. bovisIxodes sp. Boophilus
Argentina
sp.Rhicephalus
cattle of temperate
spp does
countries
not last 2 years.
B. divergens Ixodes ricinus cattle of N. Europe.Smallest Bebasia sp. Of cattle (1.5X.40).
B.motasi Babesia of sheep and goats
Fever, anemia, Haemaglobinimia
Anemia icterus but
Hemaglobinuria is rare
Dermacentor
Babesia caballi
spp. Rhicephalus spp. and Hyalomma spp.and not characteristic.
B. equiDermacentor , Rhicephalus, Hyalomma horse
spp Morphology:smaller than B. caballi 2u long and characteristically divide
B. trautmanni Europe
B. peroncitoi swine Sudan
Rhicephalus dogsspp
B. canisspp. Principally; Dermacentor spp., Haemaphysalis worldwide common in the Philippines; Causes “Biliary fever” or ma
B.gibsoni S. Asia
B.vogeli dog S. Asia Africa

small (1.5 – 2u long)


round, oval forms,
divides into four:
organism forming
“maltese cross”
arrangement. Important
signs are anemia,
Babesia felis cat icterus and emaciation
Theileria parva Primary host- ticks bovine causes east coast fever or bovine theileriasis in Africa, High mortality a
T. annuluta ticks cattle and buffaloestropical theileriosis
T. mutans
Rhipicephalus, Haemaphysalis
cattle of Africa,
andAsia,
Boophilus
Australia
spp.
andcauses
Soviet“benign
Union bovine Theleriasis” which is almost non-fatal.
T. hirci sheep and goat
T. ovis sheep and goat benign theilerriosis
Haematonexus veliferus cattle
Haematoxenus separatus sheep Similar to theileria but RBC forms have rectangular veil extending from

irregular fever, anemia,


progressive emaciation
with the enlargement of
spleen, Lumbar
Hepatozoon canis
infected tick (R. dog,
sanguineus)
cat (Present in the Philippines)
paralysis may occur.
Hepatozoon muris Brown rats (Rattus norvegicus)
Hepatozoon
Anaplasma musculi mouse
Hepatozoon cuniculi
marginale et rabbit
anical tick, Tabanids,
centrale Stableflies, mosquitoes, dehorning,cattlemass vaccination
anaplasmosis
or castration.
or gallstickness; fever, anorexia, weakness recumbency,
Eperythrozoon suis pig May produce anemia and jaundice “icteroanemia” or “yellow belly” in pi
E. parvum pig
E. wenyoni cattle
E. ovis sheep
Haemobartonella felis cats “feline infectious anemia”
causes
H. canis dogs haemobartonellosis
Ehrlichia bovis cattle Ehrlichiosis
E. ovina sheep Ehrlichiosis
E. canis dog “tropical canine pancytopenia” or thrombocytopenia
E. equi horse Ehrlichiosis
Balantidium coli ingestion of cyst pigs and man causes “balantidial dysentery”.; causes mild to severe enteritis resulting
Pneumocystis
man and animals
cariniiin very young and old especially withcauses
debiletative
interstitial
factors
pneumonia
such as AIDS
ce and monkey if introduce intranasally
m of man, monkey, dog, pigs
ing “amoebic dysentery” in man and monkeys; primarily a parasite of man.

shmaniasis or “dumdum fever”;

intermediate forms); Causes fatal disease known as “nagana"; cyclically transmitted


smitted; The disease in horses is called “surra” a hindu word meaning “rotten”; In Sudan they call it “gufar” for camel; . In Panama it is called

ckness” in Uganda, associated with abortion; Not very pathogenic. Does not multiply fast
ogenic. Does not multiply fast
hogenic. Does not multiply fast

and in the preputial cavity of bulls. It causes a venereal disease known as bovine trichomoniasis which is characterized by infertility, pyomet

pper intestine; It causes a serious disease of pigeons; Nodules contain caseous materials “yellow buttons in crop and proventriculus
Liquid pale yellow diarrhea
with dental disorders and pyorrhea

known as Hexamitiasis or Catarrhal enteritis; inflammation of the intestine; intestinal contents are thin, watery and foamy

ng a condition known as “giardiosis”. Common in Philippine Island. ; 7. convex dorsally and concave or flattened ventrally; Diarrhea and dys

ous disease of turkeys causing a disease known as “histomoniasis”, enterohepatitis or “black head”; combs and wattles may become cyano

young animals (Kids and lambs). Significant sign is diarrhea


young animals (Kids and lambs). Significant sign is diarrhea

may occur concurrently with colibacillosis/scouring in piglets


uses distention of the middle intestine (ballooning)
ous gray or whitish transverse pathes; Hemorrhagic duodenum

mall Intestine – hemorrhagic enteritis of ducklings 2-3 weeks of age


ritis of 2-3 week old ducklings; Causes of ballooning of Small Intestine – hemorrhagic enteritis of ducklings 2-3 weeks of age
stine – hemorrhagic enteritis of ducklings 2-3 weeks of age
of tissue cells = endothelial, parenchymal, epithelial, muscular, blood and other cells of almost all animals including man (zoonotic).
opical and subtropical
mon and widely distributed

in the Philippines; Only sausage shape gametocytes are found in RBC

s; self limiting – after one developmental cycle, the chicken becomes free of parasite and recover; hemorrhagic spots (petechiae) in the com

eucocytozoonosis
2u long and characteristically divides into 4 daughter cells which frequently form a “maltese” cross appearance

lippines; Causes “Biliary fever” or malignant jaundice

heileriasis in Africa, High mortality among susceptible imported stock

which is almost non-fatal.

have rectangular veil extending from their sides

er, anorexia, weakness recumbency, dehydration. Loss of weight, pale mucous membrane (anemia). Marked icterus. Slow labored breathin
“icteroanemia” or “yellow belly” in pigs

hrombocytopenia

uses mild to severe enteritis resulting to watery diarrhea and dehydration and dehydration particularly among the weanling pigs
ar” for camel; . In Panama it is called “murina” in horses, and in Venezuela, “derrengadera” in horses; Philippines – “Bayawak” in horses

s characterized by infertility, pyometra and abortion

ns in crop and proventriculus


watery and foamy

flattened ventrally; Diarrhea and dysentery

mbs and wattles may become cyanotic; sulfur-yellow droppings(black head)


ngs 2-3 weeks of age
mals including man (zoonotic).
orrhagic spots (petechiae) in the combs, liver, muscles and other organs, may be absent
arked icterus. Slow labored breathing, constipation.

mong the weanling pigs


Philippines – “Bayawak” in horses