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Three reinforced concrete elements have been designed according to Eurocode 2 ; a simply supported slab, a simply supported beam and a column. The slab is a two-way spanning slab so the moment values are determined by the coefficients given in the British Standards and the dimensions were assumed according to structural class and environmental conditions. The moment and the axial load acting on the column were slightly low, so the column has been designed with smaller dimensions. Hence, the beam had to have smaller dimensions, but had to carry the moment on it due to relative larger opening and the uniformly distributed load acting on it. This has been made possible by designing the beam with a singly reinforced section, to take the advantage of larger lever arm. This also made the need of reinforcement less on the tension side, and none on the compression. Also, with the less reinforcement required, the concrete space between the reinforcement bars were at acceptable values.

1

Simply Supported Slab Design to Eurocode 2

Properties of the Slab ly = 6.75 m lx = 4.50 m ly / lx = 1.50 Bending Moment Coefficients According to BS8110 αsx = 0.104 αsy = 0.046 Assumptions of Height of Slab and Reinforcement Coverage to Eurocode It is assumed that Structural Class is S3 and exposure class related to environmental conditions is XC1. From Eurocode 2 Table 4.4 the minimum cover is 20 mm. Assumed height of the slab = 200 mm Assumed reinforcement coverage = 20 mm

Ultimate Load Ultimate Load given in Eurocode = 1.35 g × 1.50 q 1.35 × (0.20 × 24) + 1.50 × 3.5 = 11.73 kN / m2

Bending Moment for Short Span Msx = αsx × n × lx2 Msx = 0.104 × 11.73 × 4.52 = 24.70 kN m Determining Ko K0,sx = Moment / fck / b / d2 K0,sx = 24.70 × 106 / 30 / 1000 / 1802 K0,sx = 0.0254 < 0.167 Singly Reinforced Section

Determining Lever – Arm for Short Span zsx = d × [ 0.5 + ( 0.25 – ( K0,sx / 1.134 ) )0.5 ] zsx = 180 × [ 0.5 + ( 0.25 – ( 0.0254 / 1.134 ) )0.5 ] zsx = 175.87 mm 2

Reinforcement Calculation Asx = Msx / 0.87 / fyd / zsx Asx = 24.70 × 106 / 0.87 / 460 / 175.87 Asx = 350.92 mm2/m Minimum Reinforcement According to Eurocode Clause 9.2.1 The total amount of longitudinal reinforcement should not be less than Asmin As,min = (0.26 × fctm × bt × d) / (fyk) but not less than 0.0013 × bt × d As,min = (0.26 × 2.9 × 1000 × 180) / (460) = 295.00 mm2/m As,min = 0.0013 × 1000 × 180 = 234.00 mm2/m Calculated Reinforcement is greater than the minimum reinforcement clauses. Calculated Reinforcement will be used Provide T8 at 125 mm (=402mm2/m) ρ = As / b / d ρ = 402 / 1000 / 180 = 0.0022 ς = 310 × 460 × 350.92 / 500 / 402 ς = 248.96 kN/m2 300 / 248.96 = 1.2050 20 × 1.2050 = 24.10 d = span / (span / depth ratio) d = 4500 / 24.10 = 186.72 > 180 Deflections are too much. Increase the reinforcement to prevent this situation. Provide T8 at 100 mm (=503mm2/m) ρ = As / b / d ρ = 503 / 1000 / 180 = 0.0028 ς = 310 × 460 × 350.92 / 500 / 503 ς = 198.97 kN / m2 300 / 198.97 = 1.5580 20 × 1.55 = 31.16 d = span / (span/depth ratio) d = 4500 / 31.16 = 144.42 < 180 With the increased reinforcement area, deflections are in the limits. [ Modification Factor ] [ Modified Span /Depth Ratio ] [ Minimum Effective Depth ] [ Design Service Stress ] [ Reinforcement Ratio ] [ Modification Factor ] [ Modified span/depth Ratio ] [ Minimum Effective Depth ] [ Design Service Stress ] [ Reinforcement Ratio ]

3

Bending Moment for Long Span Msy = αsy × n × lx2 Msy = 0.046 × 11.73 × 4.52 = 10.93 kN m Determining Lever – Arm for Long Span zsy = 175.8780 – 8 = 167.8780 mm Reinforcement Calculation Asy = Msy / 0.87 / fyd / zsx Asy = Msy / 0.87 / 460 / 167.8780 Asy = 162.69 mm2/m As,min = (0.26 × 2.9 × 1000 × 180) / 460 = 295 mm2 /m Minimum reinforcement is greater than the necessary reinforcement area. Minimum reinforcement will be used. Provide T8 at 150 mm (=335mm2/m)

Check For Bar Spacing: Main Reinforcement Spacing = 100mm < 400 √ Secondary Reinforcement Spacing = 150mm < 450 √

Section of short – span. T8 bars at 100 mm

Section of long – span. T8 bars at 150 mm

4

Maximum Reinforcement According to Eurocode Clause 9.2.1 The cross-sectional area of tension or compression reinforcement should not exceed As,max outside lap locations. As,max = ( 0.04 × Ac ) As,max = ( 0.04 × 1000 × 200 ) As,max = 8000 mm2 / m Provided reinforcements are in within range with the minimum and maximum reinforcement clauses given in Eurocode 2.

5

Simply Supported Beam Design to Eurocode 2

Loading on the Beam Total ultimate load on the slab is 11.70 kN / m2. The loading on the beam will be trapezoidal, with a maximum of value of 26.39 kN /m starting at 2.25 meters and ending at 4.50 meters as shown in the figure.

Support Reactions Support Reactions = Total Load on the Beam / 2 Support Reactions = (26.39 × 2.25 × ½ × 2 + 26.39 × 2.25) / 2 = 59.38 kN

Maximum Moment Maximum Moment will be in the midpoint of the beam. Taking moment about that point: Moment = 59.38 × 6.75 / 2 – [ 2.25 × 26.39 × ½ × ( 2.25/2 + 2.25 /3 ) ] – 2.25/2 × 26.39 × 2.25/4 Design Moment = 128.04 kN m The system is symmetrical so the maximum moment and the support reactions will be doubled.

Considered Loads Designing the Beam Reaction at the Support = 59.39 × 2 = 118.76 kN Design Moment = 128.04 × 2 = 256.08 kN m

Estimate The Depth Of The Beam To Design It Singly Reinforced The necessary dimensions will be checked for if the beam can be designed singly reinforced. 0.167 > Moment / bw / d2 / fck Assume bw = 250 mm 0.167 > 256.08 × 106 / 250 / d2 / 30 d > 452.1617 mm [ Boundary Value For Single Reinforced Beam ]

6

Properties of the Beam Assume Concrete cover to reinforcement = 25 mm Links ø = 10 mm, Reinforcement ø = 25, h = 500 mm d = h – d’ – links – reinforcement / 2 d = 500 – 25 – 10 – 25 / 2 = 452.50 452.50 > 452.1617 so 250 × 500 is enough for singly reinforced cross section. The dimensions are reasonable so design the beam to 250 × 500 mm. [ Effective Depth Of Reinforcement ]

Determining K0 K0 =Design Moment / fck / b / d2 K0 = 256.08 × 106 / 30 / 250 / 452.502 K0 = 0.166 < 0.167 Singly Reinforced Section

Determining Lever – Arm z = d × [ 0.5 + ( 0.25 - K0 / 1.134 )0.5 ] z = 452.50 × [ 0.5 + ( 0.25 - 0.166 / 1.134 )0.5 ] z = 371.90 mm

Reinforcement Calculation As1 = Design Moment / 0.87 / fyd / zsx As1 = 256.08 × 106 / 0.87 / 460 / 371.90 As1 = 1720.57 mm2 π × 252/4 = 491 mm2 1720.57 / 491 = 3.50 [ Area of single T25 bar ] [ T25 bars needed ]

2

4T25 bars selected for the longitudinal bars (Total area = 1964.00 mm )

Check for Minimum And Maximum Reinforcement Limits ρ min = 0.0013 As,min = 0.0013 × 250 × 452.50 = 147.06 mm2 As,min = (0.26 × fctm × bt × d) / (fyk) As,min = (0.26 × 2.9 × 250 × 452.50) / (460) = 185.43 mm2 ρ max = 0.04 As,max = 0.04 × 300 × 452.50 = 5430.00 mm2 4T25 bars are in the limits of the conditions

7

Design for Shear VEd = 118760 Newton Shear Resistance of Concrete Alone The design value for the shear resistance without any shear reinforcement is

VRd,c = [CRdC × k × (100 × ρ1 × fck )

1/3 0.5

[ Design Shear Force ]

+ k1 × ςcp ] ×b × d given in Eurocode clause 6.2 where k = 1 + (200 / d)

k1 = 1 + (200 / d)0.5 k1 = 1.66 ρ1 = 1473 / 250 / 452.50 = 0.013 ρ < 0.02; ρ = 0.02 NED = 0; ςcp = 0 CRd,C = 0.18 / γC = 0.12 and k1 = 0.15 Vmin = 0.035 × k3/2 × fck0.5 = 0.035 × 1.66483/2 × 300.5 Vmin = 0.4118 N / mm2 VRd,c = [ 0.12 × 1.6648 × ( 100 × 0.02 × 30 )1/3 + 1.66 × 0 ] × 250 × 452.50 VRd,c = 88475 N < VED = 118760 N Shear reinforcement required. [ Normal Force On Section ]

According to Eurocode clause 6.2.2 , the shear force VEd, calculated without reduction, should always satisfy the condition VEd < 0.5 × v × fcd × bw × d where v is a strength reduction factor for concrete cracked in shear. v = 0.6 × [ 1 – (fck / 250) ] v = 0.6 × [ 1 – ( 30 / 250 ) ] v = 0.48 VEd < 0.5 × 0.48 × 30 / 1.5 × 250 × 452.50 118760 < 543000 √ [ Satisfied ]

According to Eurocode 2 clause 6.2.3, element 3, for members with vertical shear reinforcement, the shear resistance VRd is the smaller value of VRd,s = Asw / s × z × fywd × cot ϴ and VRd,max = ( αcw × bw × z × v1 × fcd ) / (cot ϴ + tan ϴ) Calculation Of VRd,max Assuming to use vertical shear reinforcement: α = 90°; ϴ = 45° VRd,max = ( 1 × 250 × 387.7473 × 0.48 × 30 / 1.5 ) / (1 + 1) VRd,max = 465296.67 VRd,c < VEd < VRd,max

8

Shear Resistance with Shear Reinforcement Bars VRd = Asw / s × z × fywd × cot ϴ VRd = Asw / s × 0.9 × 387.7473 × 250 × 1 87243.1425 × Asw / s > VED = 118760 Asw / s > 1.3613 Minimum Shear Reinforcement Required According to Eurocode ρ w,min = 0.08 × fck0.5 / fywk ρ w,min = 0.08 × 300.5 / 250 / 1.15 ρ w,min = 0.0015 0.0015 = Asw / s / bw / sin α Asw / s > 0.3125 Calculated Shear Reinforcement > Minimum Shear Reinforcement

Necessary Shear Reinforcement Asw / s > 1.3613 Area of cross section = 78.50 (for ø = 10 mm) 2 × Area = 157.00 mm2 157 / s > 1.3613 s < 115.4412 mm Chosen value for s = 115.00mm

Maximum Allowed Shear Reinforcement According to Eurocode slmax = 0.75 × d × (1+cot α) slmax = 339.37 mm √ T10 at 115 is in allowed range, provide ø = 10 mm links at 115 mm for whole length of the bar.

Four ø25 bars for the tension zone, having 27.5 millimetres space between them and ø10 bars at 115 millimetres. (Drawing not to scale.)

9

Column Design to Eurocode 2

Normal Force Acting On The Column N1 = [ (6.75 / 2 + 4.5 / 2) × (4.5 / 2 + 4.5 / 2) ] × 11.73 = 296.92 kN NEd = 296.92 × 3 = 890.76 kN Slenderness Ratio Of Column Height of Column = 4.5 m Effective Height of the Column = 0.7 × lcolumn for the given restraint conditions according to Eurocode 2 Clause 5.8 lo = 0.7 × lcolumn = 0.7 × 4500 = 3150 mm The beam has a width of 250 mms so assume the column to be 250 × 250 mm i = ( I / A )0.5 i = ( b × h / 12 / b / h )

3 0.5

[ 3 Stories in total ]

[ Radius Of Gyration ]

i = ( 250 × 2503 / 12 / 250 / 250 )0.5 i = 72.17 mm λ = lo / i λ = 3150 / 72.17 = 43.65 [ Slenderness Ratio ]

Classification of Column Eurocode 2 places an upper limit on the slenderness ratio of a single member below which second order effects may be ignored. The limit is given by : λlim = 20 × A × B × C / (n)0.5 A = 0.7 B = 1.1 C = 2.2 n = 890.76 × 103 / 250 / 250 / ( 30 / 1.5 ) = 0.71 λlim = 20 × 0.7 × 1.1 × 2.2 / ( 0.71 )0.5 λlim = 40.15 λlim < λ Column is Slender The First Order Moment M0,Ed ϴ i ϴ i = ϴ 0 αh αm ϴ0 = 0.005, m = 4 αh = 2 / l0.5 = 0.94 αm = [ 0.5 × ( 1 + 1 / m) ]0.5 = 0.7905 ϴi = 0.005 × 0.9428 × 0.79 = 0.00372 ei = ϴi × lo / 2 = 5.85 × 10-3 M0,ED = ei × NED = 5.85 × 10-3 × 890.76 = 5.21 kN m [ Eccentricity ] [ Imperfections ]

10

Assumptions : Cover To All Reinforcement = 20 mm 4 longitudinal bars with diameter ø = 25 mm are used at four corners of cross – section Diameter of links ø’ = 8mm d’ = 0.5 × ø + ø’ + c = 40.50 mm

The Nominal Stiffness of the Column E × I = kc × Ecd × Ic + Ks × Es × Is Ecd = Ecm / ɣce = 32 × 103 / 1.2 = 27.5 × 103 Is = As × ( 250 / 2 – 40.50 )2 As = 4ø25 = 1962.50 mm2 Is = 14.01 × 106 mm4 Ic = b × h3 / 12 – Ic = 269.99 × 106 mm4 Es = 200000 N / mm2 ρ = As / Ac ρ = 1962.50 / 250 / 250 = 0.03140 > 0.002 Ks = 1 K1 = ( fck / 20 )0.5 = ( 30/ 20 )0.5 = 1.22 K2 = n × λ / 170 = 0.71 × 40.15 / 170 = 0.182 < 0.20 Kc = K1 × K2 ( 1 + φf ) = 1.22 × 0.182 / ( 1 + 0 ) = 0.22 E × I = 0.22 × 27.50 × 103 × 269.99 × 106 + 200000 × 14.01 × 106 E × I = 43.45 × 1011 Nmm2 NB = π2 × E × I / Io2 = π2 × 43.45 × 1011 / 31502 = 4317.45 × 103 N MEd = M0,Ed / ( 1 – ( NEd / NB ) = 5.21 × 106 / [ 1 – ( 890.73 × 103 / 4317.45 / 103 ) ] MEd = 6.56 × 106 kN m 50 > 6.56 Design Moment will be 50 kN m

Coefficients Needed for Determining the Reinforcement Area MEd = 50 kN m d’ / h = 40.50 / 250 = 0.1620 Round up to 0.20 and use the relevant chart to get the values needed for designing the column. N / b / h / fcd = 890.76 × 103 / 250 / 250 / ( 30 / 1.5 ) = 0.7126 M / b / h2 / fcd = 50 × 106 / 250 / 2502 / ( 30 / 1.5 ) = 0.16

11

**Reinforcement Required As × fyd / b / h / fcd = 0.21 As,required = 656.25 mm
**

2

[ From the Relevant Chart ]

As,provided = π × 252 / 4 × 4 = 1962.50 mm2

[Asprovided > Asrequired ]

Longitude Reinforcement Rules and Details for Columns According To Eurocode 2 The rules governing the minimum and maximum amounts of reinforcement in a load bearing column according to Eurocode 2 are

i )A minimum of four bars is required in a rectangular column (one bar in each corner). Bar diameter should not be less then 12mm. 4ø20 bars are provided at each corner.

ii) The minimum are of steel is given by; As,min = 0.10 × NED / fy As,min = 0.10 × NED / fyd = 75 mm2 As,min = 0.002 × AC = 0.002 × 250 × 250 = 125 mm2 iii)The maximum area of steel allowed is given by; As,max = 0.08 × AC As,max = 0.08 × 250 × 250 = 5000 mm2 As provided is in the acceptable range

Links Reinforcement Rules and Details for Columns According To Eurocode 2 i) Minimum size = ¼ × size of the compression bar but not less than 6mm ii) Maximum spacing should not exceed the lesser of 20 × size of the smallest compression bar or the least lateral dimension of the column or 400mm iii) Every longitudinal bar placed in corner should be held by transverse reinforcement. Provide, R8 links at 250 mm centres. Diameter of links is greater of 6 mm and ¼ ø = 6.25 mm. Spacing of links does not exceed the least of 20 × ø = 20 × 25 = 500mm and least dimension of column = 250.

12

by fatabass

Structural Elements Design To Eurocode 2.

Structural Elements Design To Eurocode 2.

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