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University of the Philippines Manila

BIO 160 Lec- Part 1-B


The Organism and its
environment: Adaptability,
Nutrients and Soil

1: What is the modern view of
species?
Species are not static, they are
changing and evolving
2. Nothing makes sense in Biology
without?
Evolution
3. A kind of soil that is not sorted
by size?
Till
4. Inherent character for evolution
to take place
Genetic Variation
5. The physical environment
variables changes daily and
seasonally. This includes latitude,
region and locality. Implication?
Organisms are in a changing
environment
6. Refers to the mechanism to
maintain a constant internal
environment
Homeostasis
7. When does an organism learn
to adapt and be integrated in
prevailing environment?
When environment pressures
become intense and unbearable
8. Adaptation is yielded by?
Evolution (Genetic Change)
9. It is altered with superior
genotype as they stay
Genetic Equilibrium
10. What is the continuing process
in nature?
Evolution yields adaptation
11. What resulted to the process
of evolution?
Genetic Drift, Speciation, Natural
Selection
12. What is the essence of the
previous statements?
Species are able to adapt due to
evolutionary past not to current
conditions
13. In the example provided in the
book, what is the role of the bird
to bugs?
Selection pressure
14. Is it possible for evolution not
to take place?
Yes, when conditions exceed
homeostatic plateau
15. What limits the abundance,
distribution and over-all ecology
of biotic components?
Abiotic components
16. Organisms adapt so as to
reduce the limiting effects of
abiotic factors
Factor Compensation
17. What are the two great
ecological laws?
Law of the Minimum; Law of
Tolerance
18. Who authored the law of the
minimum?
Justus von Liebig
19. Nutrient that is primary to
growth of crops?
Boron
20. Least available to diatoms?
Silica
21. For aquatic systems?
Phosphate (PO4)
22. What is the law of the
minimum?
The growth/survival of the
organism is primarily dependent
on the nutrient that is least
available
23. Who authored the law of
tolerance?
Victor Ernest Shelford
24. What is the statement of the
law of tolerance?
Existence of the organisms are
within definable range of
conditions
25. What is the implication of the
law of tolerance?
Organisms live between
conditions of too much and too
little
26. What corresponds to the
optimum range?
Preferred niche, peak of curve as
the max or optimum range
27. Zone for unavailable niche
Zone of death or avoidance
28. Marginal niche zone
Zone of Physiological stress
29. Describe the zone of
Physiological stress
Unviable, no movement
30. What do diatoms use as
substitute for Silica?
Strontium
31. Range of tolerance
determines what?
Survival and distribution
32. What increases the range of
tolerance?
Adaptation
33. Why we dont take factors in
isolation?
Because there is interaction
between variables
34. What interacts with
temperature in terrestrial e?
Relative humidity
35. in aquatic e?
Oxygen concentration
36. When is the narrower range
observed?
Reproductive Age
37. Explain why fishes exist in
springs of volcanic geysers
Range of tolerance is not a fixed
point due to evolutionary or
genetic change, physiological or
behavioral changes
38. Pertains to the self-world of
animals where they live
Umwelt
39. Who defined Umwelt?
Jacob von Uexkull
40. Narrow, high-peaked
tolerance curves
Stenotopic
41. Broader, flatter curve
Eurytopic
42. Refers to stenotopic condition
in the higher region
Polytopic
43. Refers to stenotopic condition
in lower region
Oligotopic
44. Organism that eat wide-range
of food
Euryphagic
45. What are the energy elements
Carbon, Nitrogen, Oxygen
46. Why are they called energy
elements?
Because they take part in
photosynthesis
47. Describe a plant that has
Oxygen deficiency
Protoplasm is not built, ATP less (no
final acceptor)
48. What is the result of excess N?
Algal bloom due to
eutrophication from nitrogen
fertilizers
49. How and why N shall be fixed?
It is an inert gas and can be fixed
by bacteria as ammonium ions or
nitrates
50. Why is carbon seen more in
terrestrial environment?
Decomposition
51. Why is ashfall from fires
different from that from
volcanoes?
From fires, it is Ca and K rich
52. What are the main sources of
nutrients?
Atmosphere, Geologic sources,
plant uptake, decomposition
53. Why is warmer climate better
source of nutrients than cool
climate
Greater leaching may occur
54. What kind of transport is
cation-exchange?
Active transport
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