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KK - 2007

KAMALA KRISHNASWAMY
Former Director (NIN)
Emeritus Medical Scientist (ICMR)
National Institute o Nutrition! "amai #smania
H$dera%ad & '(( (()! And*ra +rades*
TURMERIC
THE SALT OF THE ORIENT
IS
THE SPICE OF LIFE

KK - 2007
,urmeric - Fenu.ree/ & ,*e Ma.ic In.redients o t*e
Indian Kitc*en
Kamala Krishnaswamy
Former Director (NIN)
National Institute o Nutrition! "amai #smania
H$dera%ad & '(( (()! And*ra +rades*

KK - 2007
Noncommunica%le
conditions o 0*ic*
'(1 are due to C2D
Communica%le
diseases!
maternal and
3erinatal
conditions and
nutritional
deiciencies
in4uries
'5671
89681
:6;1
Source< WH#6 WHR6 9((8
Deat*s! %$ %road cause .rou3
estimates or 9((9
,otal deat*s< ')!(9)!(((

Cardiovascular and
cerebrovascular diseases

Diabetes and complications

Chronic inflammatory
diseases

Obesity

Cataract

Osteoporosis

Neurodegenerative diseases

Aging
C*ronic Diseases o
Clinical -+u%lic Healt*
Si.niicance

KK - 2007
Ancient =uotes on ood and *ealt*

You are 0*at $ou eat > Ri.?eda

#*! @od ! @i?e us ood 0*ic* does not cause an$
disease and also .i?es us stren.t* > Ya4ur?eda

He! 0*o ta/es ood in 3ro3er measures li?es a lon.
lie and li?es 0it*out disease! .ets stren.t* and
alertness o mind6 His c*ildren are %orn *ealt*$ and
0it*out an$ deormit$ or disease & Ma*a%*arat*a

KK - 2007
International Trade of Spices

India is a land o s3ices and *er%s rom time immemorial

International trade in s3ices *as .ro0n %$ lea3s and %ounds in
t*e last decade

Estimated eA3orts rom India > BS C ):8 A ;(
7
D

An estimated '((!((( tonnes o s3ices and *er%s are im3orted
.lo%all$ e?er$ $ear

An im3ressi?e E71 o t*e su33l$ comes rom India

,urmeric eA3ort ';!'(( tons
D 9((7&()
Source < Economic intelli.ence ser?ice 9(()

KK - 2007
Curcuma longa linn Curcuma longa linn (turmeric) Curcumin

KK - 2007
,RADI,I#NAL BSES #F ,BRMEIC
Tonic/Stimulant Antiseptic/
deworming
agent
Dyspepsia/eptic ulcer
intestinal disorders
Sprains and
!oint pains
"epatic
ailments
!aundice
Cosmetic
Anaemia
#mmenagogue/
$actogogue
S%in
infection
&ound healing
Asthma'
Cough' Cold
Scientiic e?idences or traditional uses
AntioAidant! anti&inlammator$ anti&inecti?e (H&+$lori)! anti&
s3asmodic! Di.esti?e! C*oleretic! C*olo.o.ue! H$3o&li3edemic!
He3ato&+rotecti?e! Anti&,oAic! Antii%rotic! Wound *ealin. (iN#S)
KALEIDOSCOPIC EFFECTS

KK - 2007
Chemical Composition of Curcuma longa $inn
(1)
Essential #ils & 9 & E
Fatt$ #ils & 9 & 8
As* & E & 5
Curcuminoids & 9 & '
+*$tosterols & (659 D
Linolenic acid & (67 & ; DD
Moisture & 8 > )
Me*ra and +uri! ;:);
Srimal and D*a0an! ;:5'
DD +ersonal #%ser?ations
(86:&:6E1) o att$ acids
+roAimate +rinci3les
Ener.$ & 8'E KcalD +rotein & )658. D Car%o*$drate & 7E6:. D
Fat & :6:.D
Micronutrients
Carotene & (6(8 m. Iron & ;'6((( m. Calcium & ;'( m.
,*iamin & (6(8 m. Co33er & (68:E m. +*os3*ate & 95( m.
Ri%ola?in & (6;: m. Man.anese & 5685( m. Ma.nesium & ;:( m.
Niacin & 968( m. Finc & 96)9( m. Sodium & 8( m.
2itamin G7 & ;65 m. D C*romium & (6(7: m. +otassium & 9'( m.
2itamin C & '(6(( m. Selenium & (6(7) m. Fi%re & 9;6; .mD
Folic acid & ;56(( H. 2itamin E & (6() m. D
@o3alan et al6! ;:5:! +rut*i! ;:5(! D BSDA
Nutrient Composition per ())g

KK - 2007
C"AN*#S IN CANC#+ C#$$
Continuous
multi3lication
(+rolieration)
Esca3es
3ro.rammed
cell deat*
(A3o3tosis)
Sustained
?ascularisation
(An.io.enesis)
Sel si.nals to
.ro0t* (,umor
.ro0t*)
In?asion
(Metastasis)
Esca3es
.ro0t*
restraints
(,umor
.ro0t*)
D Acti?ation o .ro0t* 3romotin. and Inacti?ation o su33ressor and a3o3tosis .enes
Development of Neoplasia
Re3air
DetoAiication Mutations
in t*e .enome
Mutations D in
@enome o
Somatic
cells
EA6 o altered
@ene
3roducts
C*emicals! +*$sical! Radiation! Giolo.ical
Normal Cell 
 DNA dama.e
Initiation
Altered DNA in cells (Adducts)

Initiated cells
(iAed altered DNA)
+romotion
DNA & altered clones
+ro.ression
,umor ormation
In?asion! metastasis

KK - 2007
Studies and ,ethods
Ames test S6 t$3*imurium
S#S res3onse E6coli
+89 3ost la%el assa$ DNA adducts
Dru. meta%olisin. AHH
enI$mes @SH,
BD+@,
AntioAidant ,GARS
Li?er enI$mes
AntioAidant enI$mes
SS%s S6Cere?isiae
,umor induction Histo3at*olo.$
Comet assa$ L$m3*oc$tes
Cataract Induction
Li3ids H$3oli3idemic eects
Human studies Muta.ens in Brine
DNA adducts and Micronuclei
in ?i?o Nitrosation

KK - 2007
,utagens $oad in -rine in Turmeric .ed +ats
(
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;((
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9((
9'(
8((
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9((
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,A :5 J S: ,A ;(( J S:
,urmeric ( ( ; ; ' ' ;( ;(
G(a)+ ( ' ( ' ( ' ( '
( ( ; ; ' ' ;( ;(
( ' ( ' ( ' ( '
D
D
D 3 K (6((;
Similar results 0ere seen 0it* (6;1! (6'1 turmeric 0it* %ot* G(a)+ and 8MC

KK - 2007
H# CH CH C CH
9
C CH CH #H
# #
H
8
C#
#CH
8
H# CH CH C CH
9
C CH CH #H
# #
H
8
C#
H# CH CH C CH
9
C CH CH #H
# #
Curcumin I > Dierulo$l met*ane
Curcumin II > Demet*oA$ curcumin
Curcumin III > Gisdemet*oA$ curcumin
C-+C-,INOIDS

KK - 2007
#ffects of Curcuminoids/ on -rinary ,utagens TA 01
& S : J S :
J
(6('1
&
J
(6(81
&
J
(6(;'1
&
No6 o Re?ertants
J
Control
&
c
c
%
a
c
c
%
a
0 100 200 300
-150 -100 -50 0
150 100 50 0
J Wit* G (a)+ (;m. - Rat) & Wit*out G(a)+L S: < acti?ated MF#sM
2alues %earin. dierent su3erscri3ts are si.niicantl$ dierent < 3K(6(' (Ano?a)
D I > Dierulo$l met*ane! II > Demet*oA$ curcumin! III > Gisdemet*oA$ curcumin

KK - 2007
& S :
J Wit* G (a)+ (;m. - Rat) & Wit*out G(a)+L S: < acti?ated MF#sM
2alues %earin. dierent su3erscri3ts are si.niicantl$ dierent < 3K(6(' (Ano?a)
J S :
No6 o Re?ertants
c
%
%
a
d
c
%
a
#ffects of Curcumin on -rinary ,utagens TA ())
0 200 400 600
J
(6('1
&
J
(6(81
&
J
(6(;'1
&
J
Control
&
-400 -300 -200 -100 0
400 300 200 100 0

KK - 2007
S-,,A+2 O. ANTI,-TA*#NIC ACTI3IT2

Water and alco*ol eAtracts! curcumin ree 0ater
eAtracts! I! II!III curcumins! salic$l-anis$l curcumin!
turmerin (a 3e3tide)

In ?i?o- in ?itro > ?ar$in. doses

Geedi -ci.arettes smo/e condensate! mas*eri! ood
muta.ens (coo/ed)

G(a)+! 8&Mc! DMGA! alatoAin! E&nitro3*en$lene
diamine! met*$l nitroso.uanidine6

Curcumin I!II&more acti?e t*an curcumin III

+ara*$droA$ .rou3s-di/etone moiet$&im3ortant or
acti?it$6

KK - 2007
a
a
%
Eac* ?alue is a 3ool o 8 animalsL No6 o 3ooled sam3les & )
2alues %earin. dierent su3erscri3ts are si.niicant
a
a
%
Li?er Intestine
3K(6((; 3K(6('
#ffect of Turmeric on Drug ,etabolising
en4yme *ST Activity
(
(6'
;
;6'
9
96'
Control (6'1 ;6(1
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8E1 8(1

KK - 2007
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2alues are Mean N SE o 7 o%ser?ationsL
Eac* o%ser?ation is a 3ool o 8 animals
a!% < 3K(6(' %et0een .rou3s (Ano?a)
Dierent su3erscri3ts are si.niicant
a
a
a
%
Intestine
$iver
#ffect of Curcumin on *ST Activity
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
Control (6(;1 C (6(91 C (6(81 C
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
Control (6(;1 C (6(91 C (6(81 C
(97671)
('(6E1)
 OR! BD+@,! EH
 CY+&;A;!

KK - 2007
#ffect of Curcumin on ACA Induced
$ipid ero5idation
a

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2alues are Mean N SEL
a!% < 3K(6(' %et0een .rou3s (Ano?a)
Dierent su3erscri3ts are si.niicant
nP;(
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Serum AL, le?els
Li?er MDA le?els
Control
Control J ACA+
(6(;'1 Curcumin
(6(81 Curcumin
(
(69
(6E
(67
(65
;
;69
;6E
;67
(
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;(
;'
9(
9'
nP;(
%
a
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AN,I#QIDAN,S EFFEC,S #F
,BRMERIC-CBRCBMIN#IDS DERI2A,I2ES (,HC)
ERY,HR#CY,E
MEMGRANE
@H#S,S
A#R,IC
END#,HELIAL
CELLS
CANCER CELLS
(C#L#N)
↓ LI+ID+ER#QIDE! ↓ MDA
MECHANISMS<#QY@EN RADICAL SCA2EN@ERS! LI+ID +ER#QIDE SCA2EN@ERS!
OBENCHIN@ #F SIN@LE, #QY@EN
↓ LI+##QY@ENASE AND CYCL#QY@ENASE! ↑ H#&;MRNA! ↓ +ER#QIS#ME! (↑ @+Q! @7+D!
S#D! @LB,A,HI#NE)! ↓ NF KG
GRAIN LBN@
KIDNEY
HAEM#@L#GIN LDL
LI2ER
(MICR#S#MES)
MACR#+HA@ES

KK - 2007

In ?i?o carcino.enic 3otential

In ?itro cell transormation

,ar.et or.an s3eciicit$

Sensiti?e s3ecies

Acti?ates onco.enes

Le?els *i.* in smo/ers

Human sam3le similar to animals

@enetic correlations
DNA ADD-CTS 6 CANC#+

KK - 2007
Eect o ,urmeric and Curcumin on G(a)+&
DNA Adducts in He3atic ,issue
*
D 3K(6(;
86E)
;96;;
:6)9
;'6:;
E;6(5
;68)
(6'8
(689
(68:
(6;;
(
;(
9(
8(
E(
'(
7(
Control G(a)+ (6;1 G(a)+, (6'1 G(a)+, 81 G(a)+, (6(81 G(a)+C
F

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KK - 2007
(6:E9
(6'59
(67:)
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(65)5
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C
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-
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Control G(a)+ G(a)+!
86;9'CB
G(a)+!
769'CB
G(a)+!
;96'CB
@rou3s
rotective #ffect of Curcumin 6 78a9
Induced DNA Damage
(6:88
(6'::
(67::
(6):9
(65;)
(
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(6E
(67
(65
;
;69
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-
D
Control G(a)+ G(a)+!
86;9'CB
G(a)+!
769'CB
G(a)+!
;96'CB
@rou3s
CB < Curcumin in micromoles
Dierent su3erscri3ts are si.niicantl$ dierent! Ano?a 0it*
Duncan Multi3le ran.e test
a
%
c
d
d
a
%
c
d
d
,en
&omen
Strand %rea/s (SS%s) in S6cere?isiae di3loid strain re3aired

KK - 2007
#ffects of T/C on D,7A Induced Tumorigenesis
8"amster Chee%pouch ,odel9
a!% < 3K(6(' + < +aintin. & 8 Wee/sL D < DietL
Duration < ;E Wee/sL DMGA < 7(( H. - 9 0/s
No6 o tumors - animal
a
%
C(+) 71
C(D)(6(81
C(+) 6( 71
,(D) ;1
,(+) ;(1
C(+) (671
,(+) ;(1
J Control
( 9 E
-40 -20 0
,umor %urden in mm
8
E(
9(
(

KK - 2007
( 7(
2II
2I
2
I2
III
II
I
G(a)+ G(a)+ J (6(91 Curcumin
;1 ,urmeric (6(91 Curcumin
G(a)+ J;1 ,urmeric Stoc/ Diet
@rou3s
Strain : swiss mice (ale)
!uration : 60 w"s
!ose : 1.5mg # 4 $ 10 w"s
%oute : &a'age
(arget organ : )orestomac*
+nitiation : 0-10 w"s
,ost initiation : 11-60 w"s
#5perimental Design : 78a9 Induced .ore Stomach
Carcinogenesis
Wee/s ;(
;6 Normal mucosa
96 H$3er/eratosis
86 Acant*osis ocal
E6 Acant*osis diuse
'6 +a3illar$ ocal
76 H$3er3lasia diuse
)6 +a3illomas R adenomas
56 D$s3lasia ocal
:6 Carcinoma in situ
;(6In?asi?e s=uamous cell
carcinoma (ISCC)
NE#+LAS,IC INDEQ
(CELLBLAR E2EN,S IN
CARCIN#@ENESIS)

KK - 2007
Eect o , - C on G(a)+ Induced Forestomac* Carcino.enesis
+rolieration IndeA ;&;(
G(a)+
,
C
J
&
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J
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J+I
J
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J+I
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-alues are ean . S/
( ) : 0o. o1 2nimals
(3 (urmeric 14
C3 Curcumin 0.024
+ 3 +nitiation (10w"s)
,+3 ,ost +nitiation (50w"s)
0on ,arametric (est
5 6 0.001 or 0.01
!ose 7(a), 1.5mg # 4 $ 10 w"s
78 ga'age
-alues are ean . S/
( ) : 0o. o1 2nimals
,roli1eration in9e#
,ercent in*i:ition
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KK - 2007
878a9 /TA' D,7A/TA' Nitrosamine' AO,' D,"' +adiation/viral ;
induced tumors9 Delay in onset' ↓ number/volume
C"#,O+#3#NTI3# /T-,O+ICIDA$ #..#CTS
O. T-+,#+IC /C-+C-,IN
,urmeric and its eAtracts curcumin
Curcumin ree 0ater eAtract
(Diet -local a33lication)
S%in
rostate
.ore stomach
$iver
$ung 7reast
Colon
Oral cavity
Several
cells lines

KK - 2007
Turmeric Doses in Diet and
+elevance to "umans
1 o ,urmeric in Diet
Diet inta/e ;' .-da$
Human Doses D
m.-/.
.-'(/.
.-)(/.
(6;
;' m.
56:
(6E'
(679
(6'
E' m.
EE67
968
86;
;6(
;'( m.
5:69
E6'
769
D +*armacolo.ical %asis
Freireic* et al6! ;:776

KK - 2007
(
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&S: JS: &S: JS:
Gasal ;' da$s 8( da$s
-rinary ,utagens 6 In Smo%ers
a
%
%
%
%
a
Non Smo/ers
2alues %earin. dierent su3erscri3ts are si.niicantl$ dierent
(3K(6((;) 0it*in eac* cate.or$
Smo/ers
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Gasal ;' da$s 8( da$s
Non Smo/ers Smo/ers
TA ())
a
%
%
%
%
a

KK - 2007
E+IDEMI#L#@Y
+re?alence o +reneo3lastic lesions & 9(( - ;(((
Incidence o +reneo3lastic lesions & ;(7 - ;(((
Mali.nant transormation & (67 - ;((( - $r
Incidence o mali.nanc$ & ;E - ;((!(((
Me*ta et al! ;:5(

KK - 2007
'(1 s*o0ed remission
0it*in : mont*s ?s
;(1 natural remissions

KK - 2007
Eect # ,urmeric (;.-d) #n Micronuclei
*
D +K(6((;!
( ) No o Su%4ects
Eect o ,urmeric (;.-d) on DNA adducts
•3K(6((;!
( ) No o su%4ects
5.=
<.6
0
5
10
15
7( (25) 2( (25)
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KK - 2007
In Vivo Nitrosation
8$6roline Test9
;6 Gaseline
96 '((m. +roline
86 '((m. +roline J '. ,urmeric
E6 '((m. +roline J 9. ,urmeric
'6 '((m. +roline J ;. ,urmeric
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9 ?s 8!E!' <& 3K(6('
ED6'( & ;6:'.
In&?itro ED6'( & ;6;' to 86'E .
1 2 3 4 5

KK - 2007
(
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,urmeric Bn%oiled ,urmeric Goiled
ENO#
,urmeric
J J J
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IN"I7ITION O. SOS +#SONS# IN #< CO$I 72 T-+,#+IC
Inihibition of SOS +esponse in #<Coli by Curcumin
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5(
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;9(
,reatment @rou3 Not ried 7( ;)'
Curcumin (n.)
ENO# (;(n.)
J J J
SC
J
SC
Curcumin ;(n. Curcumin 8(n. Curcumin '(n.

KK - 2007
↓ Cell 3rolieration
mito.enesis c$clin D;
↓ Si.nal
transduction
↓ +rotein/inases
(C&"un n&terminal
+KC MA+KS ,ranscri3tion actors
NF&/G! A+&;! E.r! IαG
α/inase ↓
#nco.ene eA3ression
C&"un! Cm$c! Gcl&9!
Gcl&Al ↓
+'8 -+ro.rammed
cell deat* ↑
↓ 2ascularit$
s3read
DetoAiication ↑
↓ Inlammation
↓ DNA
dama.e
↓ #Aidant
enI$mes
E3idermal
.ro0t*actor ↓
,elomerase ↓
AN,I CANCER AC,I2I,Y #F
CBRCBMIN M#LECBLAR
MECHANISMS

KK - 2007
0
50
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150
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0 4 <
?ee"s
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@irid*aran et al! 9((8
a
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:
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:
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Eect o turmeric on li3id 3roile o WNIN-#% rats
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Control ;1 ,urm6 '1 ,urm6
+ K (6(' %$ one 0a$ AN#2A (;9)
LDL oAidation
+latelet a..re.ation
Fatt$ strea/s
Ad*esion molecules - ,issue actor
Smoot* cell 3rolieration
Endot*elial cell 3rolieration
CoQ II ! L#Q
,*rom%oAane
+rostac$clin
C*oloretic

KK - 2007
@alactose (8(1) induced cataract & Dela$ed %$
curcumin ((6((91) & E 0ee/s
;((
(
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'(
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@SH 
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;((
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Control ,est (6((9
Clear
Sta.e I
Sta.e II
Sta.e III
Sta.e I2
G*anu3ra/as* Redd$ et al6! 9((8

KK - 2007
CBRCBMIN #N #,HER
DISEASES
Anti
Ne3*rotoAic
Anti&
*e3atotoAic
AlI*eimers
3la=ues
Anti&AIDS (re3lication
enI$mes)
Anti&
cataracto.enesis
S/in 3ro%lems
(3soriasis)
M$ocardial
in4ur$
Lun.
diseases
Anti&
dia%etes
Radiation
in4ur$
Gone
resor3tion
AN,I#QIDAN, R AN,I&INFLAMMA,#RY EFFEC,S

KK - 2007
To5icology #valuation Studies on
Turmeric / Curcumin
Animal ,oAicit$ Dosa.e Sc*edule Eect
model test
Rat Acute 5(&;5(( m. - /. A)D Not let*al
Mouse Curcumin
Rat C*ronic ;5(( m.! 5(( m.-/. No E?idence o
%od$ 0t6 A :(( a%normalities
Curcumin
Mice ,erato& 5((&;7(( Not terato.enic
Ra%%it .enic 8((&7(( m.-/.
%od$ 0t6 Curcumin
Mice @enetic Same as a%o?e No si.niicant
Ra%%it c*an.e in c*romo&
Mon/e$ somal a%errations

KK - 2007
C$INICA$ T+IA$S IN "-,ANS
ANTI6IN.$A,,ATO+2 ACTI3IT2
(< +heumatoid arthritis
=< ost operative inflammation
>< Idiopathic orbital tumors
?< Chronic anterior -veitis
OT"#+ #..#CTS
(< eptic ulcer 8"ealing9
=< soriasis 8ph@/histology9
>< "yperlipidemia
?< Normal 3olunteers
8chole%inetic9
ANTI CANC#+
(< recancer and Cancer
=< Oral pre cancerous lesions
>< Colo rectal cancers
?< ,utagens in smo%ers
A< DNA damage in lymphocytes
Double blind cross over' Open trials' $aboratory studies'
Oral curcumin and turmeric' Ointment of turmeric' T#' TO+
Dose: Turmeric (6(<A g/d B Duration : Ad60 months
Curcumin A)) mg ; (=g/day ,ost studies :?6C months
Curcumin +ro3osed as c*emo3re?entor
Multi3le m$eloma @I ,ract cancer
+ancreatic cancer Melanoma
Colon Cancer AlI*eimerMs Disease
+rostate Cancer M$elod$s3lastic s$ndrome
Cer?ical Cancer

KK - 2007
$#IOT+OIC #..#CTS O. C-+C-,IN
AN,ICANCER
AN,I&
A,HER#SCLER#,IC
AN,I&
INFLAMMA,#RY
CANCER
CARDI# 2ASCBLAR
DISEASES
INFLAMMA,#RY
DIS#RDERS
DE@ENERA,I2E
DIS#RDERS
AN,I&INFEC,I2E AN,I&DE@ENERA,I2E
-The salt of the Orient Is the Spice of life
Turmeric

KK - 2007
Nutrient Composition of .enugree%
8Trigonella foenum graecum9
,acronutrients 8g/())g9
Com3onent Lea?es Seeds
Moisture 576; 96E
+rotein E6E 9'6E
Fat (6: )6:
N8 att$ acids (69 96(
,otal dietar$ i%er E6) E5
Insolu%le dietar$ i%er 869 95
Solu%le dietar$ i%er ;6' 9(
As* ;6' 86:
Car%o*$drate 7 867
Source < @o3alan et al 9((( (Nutriti?e ?alue o Indian oods)
Srid*ar R La/s*minara$ana! ;::8
+BS Rao R S*arma ! ;:5)6
@*aoorunnisa R +an.re/ar "! ;::8
Wealt* o India (;:)7)! 2ol Q! 3u%lis*ed %$ CSIR

KK - 2007
,ime in *ours
G
l
o
o
d

.
l
u
c
o
s
e

(
m
.
-
d
l
)
Eect o enu.ree/ seeds on oral @,, in NIDDM
Duration < ;( da$s
;(( . deatted enu.ree/ seed 3o0der
*
Source < Sarma! RD and Ra.*uram ,C & Nutr6 Res6 ;::(L ;(< )8;&:

KK - 2007
#ffect of .enugree% Seeds on Serum Insulin
$evels
0
1 0
20
30
4 0
50
60
0 6 0 5 1 6 1 5 2
Geore Ater
ABC < Area under Cur?e
Le?el o si.niicance D3K(6('
Source< S*arma RD and Ra.*uram ,C! ;::(
D
D
D
D
0
1 0 0 0
20 0 0
30 0 0
4 0 0 0
D
ABC
m
B
-
l

m
B
-
m
l
-
l
<
m
i
n

Hours

KK - 2007
#ffect of .enugree% seeds on =?h -rinary
sugar and serum lipids 8,ean D S#9
0
4
8
1 2
1 6
20
24
1 1 0
1 30
1 50
1 70
1 90
21 0
230
2 20
2 30
2 4 0
2 50
2 60
2 70
2 80
2 90
30 0
31 0
320
330
34 0
350
360
Brinar$ su.ar
(.-9E*)
Serum C*olesterol
(m.-dl)
Serum ,ri.l$cerides
(m.-dl)
Geore Ater ;( da$s Ater 9( da$s

*
*
*
*
*
Source< S*arma RD and Ra.*uram ,C! ;::(
D 3K(6('

KK - 2007
Eect o Fenu.ree/ on I2 @,, in ;( ,$3e 9 Dia%etes
+arameter Control diet Fenu.ree/ diet
(9'. - da$)
Glood .lucose
ABC (m.-ml6 min) ;'96E N ;(65 ;8565 N 769 D
Hal lie (*ours) ;6)' N (6;8 ;68E N (6() DD
Clearance (ml-min) 9;767 N ;:69 99:6; N ;56;DDD
2olume o distri%ution 8;6: N 967 976' N 96; DD
(L)
RGC insulin rece3tors ;E6' N '6: ;76; N )69 DD
(n.-ml)
Statistical anal$ses %$ 3aired TtM test6
D + K(6('L DD + K(6(;L DDD + K(6(;L
Source < Ra.*uram et al! ;::E

KK - 2007
.enugree% and Cataract
8#5perimental Studies9
0
1 0
20
30
4 0
50
60
70
80
90
1 0 0
S,F (Dia%etic) & J J J J
Fenu.ree/ (1) & & ' ;( 9(
 Water content  @lucose content (li?er - 3lasma)
 Aldose reductase  Sor%ital de*$dro.enase
 @SH  #Aidati?e stress  #smotic stress
G*anu3ra/as* Redd$ et al6! 9((8

KK - 2007
#..#CTS O. ONIONS AND *A+$IC

Counteracte9 mutagenicit8 o1 7(a),B 3C (2/S C
CD/( assa8)

7oile9 $ 1rie9 garlic C onion same e11ect in SDS
res5onses (E. coli PQ 37)

&arlic *as *85oli5i9aemic C anti-aggregator e11ects

!ecrease in !02 a99ucts (in-'i'o C in-'itro)

+ncrease in conEugating enF8mes

KK - 2007
Conclusions

(urmeric is a strong antimutagenB 9eto#i1icantB antio#i9antB
anti in1lammator8B anti cancer an9 tumourici9al agent

(urmeric is a *85oli5i9aemic anti aggregator8 agent

Dnion an9 garlic *a'e anti-cancer B *85oli5i9aemic C
antiaggregator8 e11ects.

)enugree" is *85ogl8cemic an9 *85oli5i9aemic agent

2ggregate e11ects o1 s5ices in small 9oses (1-2g) ma8
*a'e sustaina:le :ene1icial e11ects

)oo9 :ase9 a55roac*es are :est 1or 5re'ention an9 $ or
control o1 c*ronic 9iseases

KK - 2007
#at well
$ive well
MAN IS A +R#DBC, #F NA,BRE -
NBR,BRE AND NB,RI,I#N
DIE,ARY A++R#ACHES
F#R +RE2EN,I#N #F CHR#NIC DISEASES
IS
C#S, EFFEC,I2E! CBL,BRALLY ACCE+,AGLE
AND SBS,AINAGLE

KK - 2007
+#S#A+C" T#A,
on
T-+,#+IC/Allium
Dr6K6Kris*nas0am$
Dr6M6A6Mu/undan
Dr6K6+olasa
Dr6G6Sesi/eran
Dr6M6C*ac/o
Dr62626Anna3urna
Dr6M6+6R6+rasad
Dr6,6+rasanna Kris*na
Dr626K6@oud
Dr6N626@irid*aran
Dr6@6G*anu3ra/as* Redd$
FENB@REEK
Dr6R6D6S*arma
Dr6,6C6Ra.*uram
Dr6Si?a/umar
Dr6+6Bda$se/*ara Rao
Dr6+6Ramulu
Dr6+6Sur$anara$ana

KK - 2007