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Tribology International 44 (2011) 187 2 –1877

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect
Tribology International
journal o!e"age# $$$%elsevier%co!&locate&t r iboint
' stu(y on co!"liant layers an( its in)uence on (yna!ic res"onse
o* a y(ro(yna!ic journal bearing
+i! To!sen

, -e(er +lit
1
De"art!ent o* .ecanical /ngineering, Tecnical 0niversity o* Den!ar1, 2ils +o""els 'lle, 3uil(ing 404, 2800 +gs% 4yngby, Den!ar1
a r t i c l e i n * o
'rticle istory#
5eceive( 26 .arc 2011
5eceive( in revise( *or!
27 8uly 2011
'cce"te( 28 8uly 2011
'vailable online 4 'ugust 2011
+ey$or(s# 8ournal
bearing
/lastoy(ro(yna!ic
Dyna!ically loa(e(
-oly!er
a b s t r a c t
9or so!e y(ro(yna!ic bearing a""lications "oly!er:line( bearings are cosen over tra(itional !etal
alloy bearings (ue to teir better $ear an( *riction "ro"erties $en o"erating at very tin ;l!s, e%g%
in te !i<e( lubrication region% Te intro(uction o* a co!"liant layer also a**ects te (yna!ic beavior
o* te bearing% Te in)uence o* te liner sti**ness on te (yna!ic res"onse o* a igly (yna!ically
loa(e( journal bearing is evaluate( by varying te sti**ness an( co!"aring te res"onse% Te
con;gurations $it (i**erent liner sti**nesses are evaluate( on te "ara!eters tat are tra(itionally
use( to evaluate y(ro(yna!ic bearing (esigns# (yna!ic res"onse, !a<i!u! "ressure, !ini!u! ;l!
tic1ness, $ear, "o$er loss an( te!"erature res"onse% Te "ri!ary ;n(ings are tat te
!a<i!u! "ressures are re(uce( signi;cantly an( tis co!es at te e<"ense o* sligtly iger
eccentricity ratios (uring o"eration%
= 2011 /lsevier 4t(% 'll rigts reserve(%
1% Intro(uction
5ecently !any autors ave $or1e( $it "oly!er:line(
y(ro(yna!ic bearings >1–4? an( >7?% .ost $or1 is (one $it
res"ect to $ear, o"erating at static loa(s an( stability criteria *or
a statically loa(e( bearing%
In >2? @lavats1i an( 9illon co!"are teoretical ;n(ings
$it e<"eri!ental results *or -T9/:*ace( trust "a(s% Te
!a<i!u! "ressure is *oun( to (ecrease $en increasing te
-T9/ liner tic1ness% Te !ini!u! ;l! tic1ness also
(ecreases at te lea(ing an( trailing e(ge because te
(e*or!ation o* te co!: "liant -T9/ layer gives a concave
geo!etry% 9urter!ore it is *oun( tat te insulating "ro"erties
o* te "oly!er layer a**ects te ter!al res"onse o* te trust
"a( signi;cantly giving iger lubricant te!"eratures%
In >6? .aieu< co!"ares trust bearings line( $it babbitt,
-T9/ an( -9' e<"eri!entally% Te test results so$ tat te
-T9/: line( trust "a( as a iger !a<i!u! "ressure
tan te babbitt:line( trust "a(% Tis ;n(ing is in contrast
$it te co!!on ;n(ing *ro! oter teoretical an(
e<"eri!ental stu(ies% 'noter interesting ;n(ing in tis stu(y
is tat te -T9/: an( -9':line( trust "a(s so$ signi;cantly
(i**erent y(ro(yna!ic
'bbreviation# /AD, elastoy(ro(yna!icB 9/., ;nite ele!ent !eto(B -//+,
"olyeter eter 1etoneB -9', "er)uoroal1o<yB -T9/, "olytetra)uoroetyleneB
T/AD, ter!oelastoy(ro(yna!ic%

Corres"on(ing autor% Tel%# C 47 60 67 DE E0B *a<# C 47 EEEE2222%
/:!ail a((resses# 1i!tF!e1%(tu%(1 (+%5% To!sen), 1litF!e1%(tu%(1 (-% +lit)%
1
Tel%# C 47 4727D2D7B *a<# C 47 47E61777%
beavior even toug teir !aterial "ro"erties are very si!ilar%
Tere is no e<"lanation *or tis observation%
.cCarty an( @lavats1i >4? stu(y te *riction an( $ear
resistance o* "ure -T9/ an( -T9/:co!"osites (uring te start:
u" "ase o* a journal bearing% It is *oun( tat te co!"osites
"er*or! signi;cantly better tan bot te "ure -T9/ an( babbitt%
3abbitt so$e( al!ost t$ice te coe*;cient o* *riction co!"are(
to te co!"osites%
Si!!ons et al% >7? analyse te use o* large trust "a(s $it
-T9/ lining *or y(ro"o$er "lants an( (escribe te learnings
*ro! u":rating te trust bearing in a y(ro"o$er "lant% Te
e<isting babbitt:*ace( "a(s $ere re"lace( $it -T9/:*ace( "a(s
an( it $as conclu(e( tat te ig:"ressure lubricant:injection
syste!s $ere use( to enable sa*e start:u" an( sut:(o$n can be
(is"ense( $it% Te -T9/ "a(s can o"erate un(er ar(er con(i:
tions allo$ing te bearings to be (esigne( s!aller an( tus !ore
energy e*;cient or $it si!ilar siGe as a babbitte( bearing but
$it iger sa*ety !argin%
-T9/ an( -//+ co!"osites are "o"ular coices *or bearing
a""lications% Te "oly!er co!"osition an( ;llers ave !ajor
in)uence on its !ecanical an( tribological "ro"erties an(
tis !ay be use( to engineer te best co!"ro!ise a!ong te
reHuire( !aterial "ro"erties% 9or e<a!"le a !ajor (isa(vantage o*
using "ure -T9/ is cree"% -T9/ $ill cree" even at lo$
te!"eratures an( it is tere*ore not suitable *or igly loa(e(
a""lications in its "ure *or!% Tere*ore -T9/ is o*ten rein*orce(
$it glass: or carbon:;bers%
Te "oly!er tecnology as been i!"le!ente( *or (iverse
bearing a""lications% /<a!"les *ro! te in(ustry are $ater
y(raulic "u!"s, trust bearings *or y(ro"o$er "lants an(
"ro"ulsion sa*t
0601:D7EI&J : see *ront !atter = 2011 /lsevier 4t(% 'll rigts reserve(%
(oi#10%101D&j%triboint%2011%07%011
+% To!sen, -% +lit & Tribology International 44 (2011) 1872–1877
187 187
+% To!sen, -% +lit & Tribology International 44 (2011) 1872–1877
2o!enclature
a rela<ation *actor (–)
c
"
lubricant:s"eci;c eat ca"acity (8&1g&1C)
c
r
ra(ial clearance o* bearing (!)
( liner (e*or!ation (!)
/ !o(ulus o* elasticity (2&!
2
)
y angular coor(inate (ra()
;l! tic1ness (!)

0
;l! tic1ness o* un(e*or!e( bearing (!)
i no(e nu!ber (–)
I *unctional (8&s)
4 co!"liance (!&-a)
! lubricant viscosity (-as)
n -oissonKs ratio (–)
2 inter"olation *unction (–)
" "ressure (-a)
- "o$er loss (8&s)
L lubricant )o$ (!
6
&s)
r lubricant (ensity (1g&!
6
)
5 ra(ius (!)
t co!"liant liner tic1ness (!)
t ti!e (s)
T te!"erature (1C)
it v sli(ing s"ee( (!&s)
< journal center "osition in <:(irection (!)
<
M
8ournal center velocity in <:(irection (!&s)
y journal center "osition in y:(irection (!)
y
M
journal center velocity in y:(irection (!&s)
G linear coor(inate (!)
o rotational s"ee( (ra(&s)
an( stern tube bearings use( in !arine a""lications% Cases *ro!
te in(ustry so$ tat it is "ossible to u":rate e<isting !acinery
$en
Te ;nite ele!ent *or!ulation so$n in /H% (2) is (erive(
using te variational a""roac >7?%
re"lacing te e<isting !etal alloy *ace( bearings $it "oly!er
liners%
Te u"rating can eiter be use( to (ecrease te bearing siGe
an(
F I
N

6

1 F2
i
I
F 2
j
O
2
"
j
C
F 2
i
I
F2
j
j
tereby re(uce loss or to si!"ly use te sa!e bearings to carry
a
F"
i '
! 5 Fy Fy F G F G
F2
i

iger loa( an( ereby increase te loa( (ensity o* te
!acinery%
Te u"scaling is "ossible because te "oly!er bearings are less
sensible to i!"er*ections in te bearing sur*ace geo!etry% Tis is
"articularly interesting *or large ra(ial bearings%
Pen using "oly!er:line( bearings it is *urter!ore
"ossible to (esign y(ro(yna!ic bearing syste!s, $ic $oul(
tra(ition:
QDo
0
C 12<
M
sin y 12y
M
cos y
F y
2%2% Ter!al res"onse
(' R2S
ally nee( jac1:u" syste!s, $itout jac1:u"% Tis is because o* te
"oly!ersK lo$ bra1e a$ay *riction an( goo( $ear "ro"erties
$en o"erating in te !i<e( lubrication region% Te better
o"erational
' constant viscosity is a""lie( an( te eHuivalent te!"erature
rise is use( *or evaluating te ter!al res"onse o* te bearing#
-
caracteristics at tin ;l!s !a1e it "ossible to use
alternative lubricants, in so!e cases even $ater, or to use
tinner oil in or(er
DT O
L rc
R6S
to re(uce "o$er loss%
In tis $or1 te res"onse *ro! a igly (yna!ically loa(e(
journal bearing is investigate( an( a tra(itional bearing $it a
sti** !etal alloy liner is co!"are( to bearings $it co!"liant
"oly!er liners%
Te bearing geo!etry an( loa(s *ro! te connecting ro( big
en( bearing o* te Aornsby DT/3:I .1 III 4 stro1e (iesel engine
ave been selecte( as a basis *or tis $or1 (ue to its very
(yna!ic loa( cycle an( because it as been stu(ie( by !any
autors "reviously%
Te in)uence o* te bearing structure elasticity *or tis bearing
is investigate( in >D? an( it is *oun( tat te elasticity as a
signi;cant i!"act on te journal center orbit an( tus cannot be
neglecte(% Te *ocus o* tis $or1 is to stu(y te e**ect o*
i!"le!enting a co!"liant liner in a (yna!ically loa(e( journal
bearing% Tere*ore te elasti: city o* te surroun(ing structure is
not o* (irect interest *or tis $or1 an( as not been
i!"le!ente(% Descri"tion o* te Aornsby loa(s an( bearing
(i!ensions can be *oun( in >D?%
2% .o(el use( *or si!ulation
2%1% 5eynol(s eHuation
' tree:no(e triangular 9/. !o(el is use( *or solving
5eynol(s eHuation in its cylin(rical *or! (1) an( tus ;n(ing
te "ressure (istribution% Te coor(inate syste! is "resente( in
9ig% 1#
"
"
+% To!sen, -% +lit & Tribology International 44 (2011) 1872–1877
187 187
+% To!sen, -% +lit & Tribology International 44 (2011) 1872–1877
Te eHuation (escribes a stationary state an( only inclu(es te
!ass )o$, not te total !ass o* te lubricant $ic re"resents a
big eat sin1% Tere*ore te eHuations can only be use( to give a
"icture o* te instantaneous ratio bet$een lubricant )o$ an(
viscous "o$er loss%
2%6% Cavitation
Cavitation is an(le( troug an algorit! $ere consecutive
iterations solve *or te "ressure " using (1)% 2o(es $ic *ul;ll
te cavitation reHuire!ent, " o 0, are i(enti;e( an( a *raction
o* te no(es, counting *ro! te trailing e(ge o* te cavitate(
region,
y

z
x
Journal
1 F

6
F "

F

6
F"

F F Clearance for oil film Compliant liner
5 F y
!5 F y
C
F G ! F G
O Do
Fy
C 12
F t
R1S 9ig% 1% 8ournal bearing co!"onents an( stationary coor(inate syste!%
are selecte( an( te "ressure is set to Gero at tese no(es an(
ne<t iteration is initiate(% Ti!e istory is not inclu(e( in te
cavitation algorit! an( tus it is assu!e( tat tere is al$ays
oil to ;ll te clearance% Tis algorit! (oes neiter ensure
5eynol(s boun(ary con(ition ("U(y O 0 at te onset o* cavitation
nor it ensure !ass conservation%
2%4% Co!"liant liner
Te connection ro( ousing an( journal are treate( as in;:
nitely sti** an( tus only te co!"liant liner $ill (e*or!% Te
;l! tic1ness o* te un(e*or!e( bearing is a *unction o* te
ra(ial clearance c
r
an( te journal "osition (e;ne( by <
an( y as e<"resse( in /H% (4)#

0
O c
r
< cosRyS y sinRyS R4S
Te ;l! tic1ness
0
is !o(i;e( $it te (e*or!ation o* te
liner Q4 *"g#
*g O *
0
gC Q4 *"g R7S
Te co!"liance !atri< >4? o* te "oly!er layer is !o(ele(
$it te Pin1ler&Colu!n !o(el >8?, $ic is also use( by oter
autors *or !o(eling co!"liant layers >2?#
1 C n SR1 2n S t
i
2%D% Integration in ti!e (o!ain
' ;rst:or(er "erturbation is use( to (erive te (a!"ing
coe*;cients *or te bearing as (escribe( in >E?% Te coe*;cients
are ten use( *or calculating te sa*t orbit e!"loying an i!"licit
ti!e integration "roce(ure $it variable ste" siGe an( error
control% Te variable ste" siGe an( error control are i!"le!ente(
troug an e!be((e( 5unge–+utta "air% Te use o* te (a!"ing
coe*;cients is an alternative !eto( to te tra(itional .obility
.eto(, (evelo"e( by 3oo1er in 1ED7 >10?%
6% 5esults
Tree (i**erent bearing con;gurations o* te Aornsby connect:
ing ro( bearing are use( *or te analysis in tis $or1# a tra(itional
setu" $it a !etal alloy bearing liner, $ic is consi(ere( as sti**,
an( t$o setu"s $it 1 an( 2 !! tic1 "oly!er liners% Te
(yna!ic res"onses *or tese bearings are ten calculate( an(
co!"are(%
9or eac bearing te loa( cycle is re"eate( several ti!es until
t$o successive loa( cycles give i(entical sa*t orbits% Te orbits
are so$n in 9ig% 2%
4
i,i
O
R
1 n
/
RDS Te res"onses o* te tree bearings are evaluate( base( on te
(esign "ara!eters tat are tra(itionally use( to evaluate a given
Te !o(el assu!es tat te liner tic1ness, t, is !uc s!aller
tan te oter (i!ensions% Tere is no cross:cou"ling o* (e*or!a:
tion an( "ressure an( tus >4? only contains non:Gero coe*;cients
in te (iagonal% I* te !aterial tic1ness t an( !aterial
"ro"erties are o!ogeneous across te sur*ace te (iagonal
coe*;cients are all i(entical%
9or tis $or1 a -//+ co!"osite is use(, aving a !o(ulus o*
elasticity o* / O D @-a an( a -oissonKs ratio o* n O 0#4% Te
!aterial "ro"erties o* "oly!ers can be igly (e"en(ent on
te!"erature% 9or tis "articular a""lication te ig:"ressure
Gone !oves aroun( along te bearing circu!*erence (ue to
te igly
(yna!ic loa( an( "reventing local ot s"ots in te "oly!er%
2%7% Cou"ling o* elasticity an( oil ;l! *orces
' (irect !eto( $as use( to i!"le!ent te co!"liance o* te
liner using strong un(er:rela<ation% Te strong un(er:rela<ation
is reHuire( because tere is a very non:linear cou"ling bet$een
te oil ;l! *orces an( te liner co!"liance% Convergence can be
(i*;cult to acieve because only te liner (e*or!ation is con:
si(ere( an( *urter!ore te colu!n !o(el is use(% Tis
a""roac gives no (irect cou"ling o* (e*or!ation bet$een
neigboring no(es an( ig:"ressure gra(ients are "rone to
cause conver: gence "roble!s% ' ;ne !es in ig:"ressure
regions re(uces instabilities in te iteration "roce(ure% Te
(e*or!ation o* neig: boring no(es is only cou"le(
in(irectly troug 5eynol(s eHuation%
/Hs% (7) an( (8) so$ te iterative !eto( o* un(er rela<ation%
a is te un(er rela<ation *actor an( (
1
is te (e*or!ation at te
1t iteration#
(
1
O a4"
1
CR1 aS(
1 1
R7S

1
O
0
C (
1
R8S
Ty"ical a:values *or te results "resente( in tis $or1 are
10
1
–10
6
(e"en(ing on te eccentricity ratio% 0sing tese
un(er rela<ation *actors convergence is acieve( $itin 280–
14,000 iterations% Pen selecting te rela<ation *actor it is
i!"ortant tat te (e*or!ation !ay never be overesti!ate(
since tis $ill lea( to (iverging results (ue to te very non:
linear beavior o* 5eynol(Ks eHuation%
(esign o* a y(ro(yna!ic bearing# (yna!ic res"onse, !a<i!u!
"ressure, !ini!u! ;l! tic1ness, $ear, "o$er loss an( te!:
"erature res"onse%
6%1% Dyna!ic res"onse
/valuate( *ro! te (yna!ic res"onse o* te sa*t, te sti**
liner "er*or!s sligtly better tan te co!"liant ones because
te eccentricity ratio (9ig% 6) is s!aller at al!ost te co!"lete
cycle% Vnly at t O 0%087 an( 0%16 s (te "oints are !ar1e( on te
;gure) te sti** liner as a iger eccentricity ratio, but te ratio
is in te range o* e O 0%77 an( tere*ore not critical $it
res"ect to "otential bearing (a!age because te lubricant ;l!
tic1ness is ig% 9ro! tis *ollo$s tat te sa*t center
velocity is generally iger *or te con;gurations $it a
co!"liant layer% Tis is because te total travele( (istance
(uring a co!"lete sa*t orbit is iger%
9ig% 2% 8ournal orbit *or a co!"lete co!bustion cycle giving t$o journal rotations%
Te blac1 circle re"resents a journal eccentricity o* 1%
1400
0.9
1200
Stiff
1mm
2mm
1000
0.8
800
0.7
0.6
Stiff
1mm
2mm
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2
Time !ec"
9ig% 6% /ccentricity ratio (uring te co!"lete co!bustion cycle%
600
400
200
0
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2
Time !ec"
9ig% 7% /Huivalent te!"erature rise (uring te co!"lete co!bustion cycle%
#5
Stiff
1mm
2mm
#0
25
#5
#0
Stiff
1mm
2mm
25
20
20
15
15
10
5
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2
Time !ec"
10
5
0
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2
9ig% 4% .a<i!u! "ressure (uring te co!"lete co!bustion cycle%
Time !ec"
6%2% -ressure
9ro! 9ig% 4 it is seen tat te !a<i!u! "ressure in te
bearing (rastically (ecreases $it te co!"liance o* te bearing
liner an( ence a tic1 "oly!er is (esirable% Te "ositive e**ect o*
te co!"liant layer $ill increase i* te bearing is e(ge:loa(e(,
*or e<a!"le (ue to sa*t !isalign!ent or ben(ing% So!e ri""les
can bee seen on te "ressure curves% Tese originate *ro!
using a ;<e( an( relatively coarse !es% /very ti!e te
cavitate( Gone e<"an(s or srin1s te !a<i!u! "ressure ju!"s
a little because te non:cavitate( area is not a continuous
*unction o* ti!e% Te a<ial an( circu!*erential "ressure "ro;les
at t O 0%076 s are so$n in 9igs% E an( 10% Te t$o vertical lines
in te ;gures so$ te circu!*erential an( a<ial locations o* te
section vie$s res"ectively%
6%6% .ini!u! ;l! tic1ness an( $ear
@enerally te !ini!u! ;l! tic1ness at te bearing e(ges is
al$ays lo$er *or te bearing con;gurations $it a co!"liant
bearing liner% Tis is so$n in 9ig% D an( can be e<"laine( by te
overall lo$er sti**ness an( (a!"ing coe*;cients *or bearings $it
co!"liant liners% Te lo$er (yna!ic coe*;cients cause te bear:
ings to o"erate at iger eccentricity ratios% 't te e(ge o* te
9ig% D% @lobal !ini!u! ;l! tic1ness (uring te co!"lete co!bustion cycle%
bearing tere is no "ressure buil(u" an( ence no (e*or!ation o*
te "oly!er% Te co!bination o* tese circu!stances entails tat
te "oly!er bearings $ill al!ost al$ays ave a lo$er ;l!
tic1nesses%
Tis general caracteristic *or "oly!er bearings is only vali(
*or journal bearings $ic are rigi(ly su""orte( un(er te entire
bearing sur*ace% ' tilting "a( bearing $ic is only su""orte( in
te !i((le o* te "a( $ill not necessarily ave te !ini!u! ;l!
tic1ness at te e(ge (ue to (e*or!ation an( ter!al cro$ning%
In *act te (e*or!ation o* te "oly!er counteracts te (e*or!a:
tion an( cro$ning o* te entire "a( an( can give a better overall
geo!etry *or "ressure buil(:u"%
Pen loo1ing at te ;l! tic1ness at te bearing centerline
(9ig% 7) it is seen tat co!"liant liners generally increase te
!ini!u! ;l! tic1nesses e<ce"t at every local !ini!u! o* te
curve $ere te bearings $it co!"liant liners ave s!aller ;l!
tic1nesses *or a sort (uration o* ti!e% Tis is because te
in)uence o* te sHueeGe ter! in 5eynol(Ks eHuation is iger tan
te $e(ge ter! (te Couette ter!) an( $en te journal as
reace( its !a<i!u! eccentricity ratio an( starts to !ove bac1
to$ar( te bearing center, te area o* te bearing $it !ini!u!
;l! tic1ness $ill cavitate%
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#5 sut(o$n an( tus te transient start:u" an( sut(o$n "ases
are also i!"ortant *or tis co!"arison%
#0
Te above co!"arison is base( on ;l! tic1ness only an( can
naturally only be use( as a gui(eline% @enerally te $ear "ro"er:
ties o* "oly!er bearings are !uc better tan !etal alloy
25
bearings% Tis is so$n e<"eri!entally by .cCarty an( @lavats:
1i >4?% Tey co!"are te $ear o* a $ite !etal alloy bearing
20
$it te $ear o* a si!ilar -T9/:line( bearing an( so$ tat tere
can be a (i**erence o* u" to 800X in $ear rate in *avor o* te
-T9/:
15
line( bearing% Pen tis *actor is inclu(e( in te co!"arison it is
evi(ent tat te $ear "ro"erties o* te (yna!ically loa(e(
10
co!"liant "oly!er bearings are !uc better tan tat o* te
sti** !etal alloy bearings%
5
6%4% -o$er loss
0
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2
Time !ec"
9ig% 7% .ini!u! ;l! tic1ness at center line (uring te co!"lete co!bustion
cycle%
Te "o$er loss is integrate( over te co!"lete cycle *or te
tree con;gurations giving te total energy loss% Te results are
so$n in Table 2 an( it is clear tat tere are only !arginal
(i**erences%
6%7% Te!"erature res"onse
1800
1600
1400
1200
1000
800
600
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2
Time !ec"
Te eHuivalent te!"erature rise is calculate( accor(ing to /H%
(6) an( te result is so$n in 9ig% 7% Te !ean values are so$n
in Table 6%
It is clear tat a !ore co!"liant bearing liner gives a s!aller
eHuivalent te!"erature rise *or te bearing% Te (i**erence in
te!"erature rise cannot be e<"laine( by overall (i**erence in )o$
rate, since te )o$ rate integrate( over ti!e is al!ost i(entical%
Te big (i**erence in eHuivalent te!"erature rise is cause( by
te very lo$ )o$ rate at te tree te!"erature "ea1s in 9ig% 7% 't
tese locations te )o$ *or te co!"liant bearings is u" to 220X
iger% Te iger )o$ rate is a little counterintuitive because, at
tese "ea1s, te !ini!u! ;l! tic1ness at te e(ges o* te
co!"liant bearings is s!aller $en co!"are( to te sti** bearing%
Te s!aller ;l! tic1ness is !ore tan counterbalance( by a
iger "ressure gra(ient at te e(ges an( a bigger "ressure area
in circu!*erential (irection% ' !ore co!"liant liner $ill give a
)atter "ressure "ro;le at te bearing center an( a iger
gra(ient at te e(ges% 'n e<a!"le o* tis is so$n in 9igs% E an(
10 $ere te a<ial an( circu!*erential "ressure "ro;les at
t O 0%076 s
9ig% 8% Pear !easure
5
R1US (' (uring te co!"lete co!bustion cycle%
Table 1
Pear !easure#
5
R1US (' (t%
4ining caracteristics Pear !easure (!s)
Sti** 210
1 !! 207
2 !! 211
In >11? it is re"orte( tat te $ear rate can be !o(ele( $it
goo( a""ro<i!ation as a *unction o* ;l! tic1ness only% Tis
!eto( is a""lie( to evaluate te $ear at every ti!e ste" o* te
bearings by "lotting 1U integrate( over te bearing sur*ace as
so$n in 9ig% 8% Te curves are ten integrate( over te co!"lete
cycle o* 0%2 s an( te results are so$n in Table 1%
Table 1 so$s al!ost i(entical values *or te $ear !easure
in(icating tat te overall ;l! tic1ness trougout te
co!"lete cycle is te sa!e *or te tree con;gurations% Te
$ear (uring o"eration at *ull y(ro(yna!ic lubrication is
e<"ecte( to be insigni;cant co!"are( to te $ear occurring
at start:u" an(
are so$n%
Te !eto( o* te eHuivalent te!"erature rise is base( on te
instantaneous "o$er loss an( volu!e )o$ an( (oes not consi(er
te eat sin1 co!"ose( by te lubricant volu!e% Te eat sin1
$ill (a!"en te "ea1s on 9ig% 7 but te ;gure is still believe( to
Table 2
/nergy loss#
5
- (t%
4ining caracteristics /nergy loss (8)
Sti** 127
1 !! 12D
2 !! 128
Table 6
.ean eHuivalent te!"erature rise%
4ining caracteristics /H% te!"erature
rise (1 C)
Sti** 106
1 !! 80%0
2 !! 72%E

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$ill bene;t *ro! a tic1 "oly!er liner% /<a!"les o* tis are
!acinery $ere te bearing ousing is $ar!er tan te oil
an( tus a lo$ con(uctivity is "re*erable% 'noter a""lication
is a
15
tilting "a( bearing $ere ter!al cro$ning can be re(uce(
signi;cantly by insulating te "a( *ro! te oil an( tus
re(ucing te "a( te!"erature (i**erence%
10
4% Conclu(ing co!!ents
5
0
%0.02 %0.01 0 0.01 0.02
-xial .earin/ location 0z1 m"
9ig% E% '<ial "ressure "ro;le at t O 0%076 s%
Stiff
1mm
2mm
15
It is so$n tat igly (yna!ic loa(e( y(ro(yna!ic journal
bearings can bene;t *ro! a co!"liant liner because "ea1
"ressures are re(uce( signi;cantly% Tis co!es at te e<"ense o*
a sligtly iger eccentricity ratio an( conseHuently a s!aller
;l! tic1ness at te e(ges o* te bearing% Te eHuivalent
te!"erature rise in(icates tat te bearing $it a co!"liant
liner $ill "er*or! better% ' !ore (etaile( !o(el, $ic inclu(es
con(uctivity an( transient ter!o:viscous e**ects, !ust be
establise( be*ore !a1: ing any (e;nite conclusions on tis% I*
te rigt !aterial is cosen *or te co!"liant liner, it can ave
!uc better $ear "ro"erties an( also better *riction "ro"erties%
Tis !eans less *riction an( $ear $en o"erating in te !i<e(
lubrication regi!e%
'"art *ro! te (yna!ic res"onse one !ust also consi(er te
o"erational boun(aries *or te !aterials $en co!"aring tra(i:
tional !etal alloys $it "oly!er bearings% In >1,4? an( >7? several
i!"ortant !aterial "ara!eters are (iscusse(# $ear rate, corro:
sion resistance, te!"erature range, bra1e a$ay *riction, *riction
coe*;cient at !i<e( an( boun(ary lubrication, "v value range,
cree" an( "ressure ranges%
10
'c1no$le(g!ents
Te ;nancial su""ort o* te Danis 'gency *or Science,
5
Tecnology an( Innovation is grate*ully ac1no$le(ge(%
5e*erences
0
0 2 4 6
-n/ular coor2inate ra2"
9ig% 10% Circu!*erential "ressure "ro;le troug center o* bearing at t O 0%076 s%
so$ i* tere is an a(eHuate ratio bet$een "o$er loss an( )o$
rate% 9urter!ore te !eto( is base( on an a(iabatic !o(el
concerning eat e<cange $it te bearing an( sleeve an(
tere*ore conservative in te case o* a !etal alloy bearing liner,
since tis sur*ace $ill con(uct so!e o* te *riction "o$er a$ay
*ro! te oil an( tere*ore a s!aller )o$ is reHuire( to 1ee" te
oil at te sa!e te!"erature co!"are( to te co!"liant bearing
con;gurations%
9ro! 9ig% 7 it is seen tat tere is a signi;cant "o$er
(issi"ation co!"are( to te lubricant )o$, so it is i!"ortant to
stu(y te local ter!al res"onse in or(er to acieve results
$ic rese!ble actual con(itions%
3ase( on te ter!al "ro"erties !ost general "ur"ose
bearings $ill bene;t *ro! a tin or no "oly!er layer (ue to
ig con: (uctivity resulting in better cooling o* te oil% So!e
a""lications
>1? @lavats1i S, 9illon .% 0niHue "er*or!ance as"ects o* -T9/ line( trust
bearings% Ay(ro 5evie$ Porl($i(e 2007B16(D)#62–7%
>2? @lavats1i S, 9illon .% T/AD analysis o* trust bearings $it -T9/:*ace( "a(s%
8ournal o* Tribology 200DB128(1)#4E–78%
>6? .aieu< C% /<"eri!ental caracteriGation o* te in)uence o* coating !ateri:
als on te y(ro(yna!ic beavior o* trust bearings# a co!"arison o*
babbitt, "t*e, an( "*a% 8ournal o* Tribology 2007B127(6)#7D8–74%
>4? .cCarty D, @lavats1i S% 'ssess!ent o* "oly!er co!"osites *or y(ro:
(yna!ic journal:bearing a""lications% 4ubrication Science 2008B21(8)#
661–41%
>7? Si!!ons 8, +no< 5, .oss P% Te (evelo"!ent o* "t*e:*ace( y(ro(yna!ic
trust bearing *or y(rogenerator a""lication in te unite( 1ing(o!% 8ournal
o* /ngineering Tribology 1EE8B212(-art 8)#647–72%
>D? .cIvor 8, 9enner D% 9inite ele!ent analysis o* (yna!ically loa(e( )e<ible
journal bearings% 8ournal o* Tribology 1E8EB111(4)#7E7–D04%
>7? Auebner +, De$irst D, S!it D, 3yron T% Te 9inite /le!ent .eto( *or
/ngineers% 8on Piley = SonsB 2001% IS32:16 E78:0:471:67078:E%
>8? 5a(es .% Dyna!ic analysis o* an inertial *oun(ation !o(el% International
8ournal o* Soli(s an( Structures 1E72B8(12)#1676–72%
>E? +lit -, 4un( 8% Calculation o* te (yna!ic coe*;cients o* a journal bearing
using a variational a""roac% 8ournal o* Tribology 1E87B108(6)#421–4%
>10? 3oo1er 8% Dyna!ically loa(e( journal bearings# !obility !eto( o* solution%
8ournal o* 3asic /ngineering 1ED7B187(6)#767–4D%
>11? To!sen +, +lit -% '""lication o* a ne$ $ear !o(el in y(ro(yna!ic !etal:
"oly!er bearings, in# Et /D9&-"ri!e (4.S) -oitiers Por1so"# 9uturosco"e,
Vctober 2010%
Stiff
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