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**On the limits of stability of ships rolling in head seas
**

´ M A S Neves1*, C A Rodrıguez1, and J E M Vivanco2 1 LabOceano/COPPE, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil 2 COPPE, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil The manuscript was received on 15 January 2009{ and was accepted after revision for publication on 14 July 2009. DOI: 10.1243/14750902JEME144

Abstract: Limits of stability are a well-known and practical way of looking into the problem of parametric resonance. In the present paper an in-depth analysis of parametric rolling is presented employing the concept of limits of stability as a tool for improved understanding and assessment of the complex dynamics embedded in the problem of non-linearly coupled parametric rolling in extreme regular seas. A third-order coupled mathematical model is considered. The coupled modes of heave, roll, and pitch are contemplated. By means of the analysis of the linear variational equation derived from the extended third-order model, the appearance of super-harmonics and increased rigidity – proportional to wave amplitude squared – due to third-order terms is demonstrated. The mathematical model is then cast in the form of a Hill’s equation. Two important new aspects are addressed: the possible appearance of upper limits to the unstable area of the diagram; and the computation of numerical limits of stability. These new limits are compared with the analytical results. Subsequently, by computing the bifurcation diagrams, the dependence of the limits of stability on the initial conditions is shown. Finally, the basins of attraction corresponding to two internal regions of the domain of unstable motions are computed. Keywords: dynamics 1 limits of stability, roll motion, parametric resonance, Hill equation, non-linear

INTRODUCTION

The phenomenon of parametric rolling of ships is a non-linear dynamical instabilization process that has attracted much attention recently. Recent examples can be found in references [1] and [2]. In pure head or following seas, the transverse symmetry of the ship would imply that no waveinduced roll-exciting moment should be present. Nevertheless, for certain frequencies of wave encounter, it is found that a small initial disturbance in roll can trigger an oscillatory rolling that can grow to appreciable amplitude after only a few cycles [3–5]. For many years, more attention has been given to parametric rolling in astern seas [6–8]. Parametric

*Corresponding author: Department of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering, LabOceano/COPPE, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, CP 68.508, Rio de Janeiro, 21.945-970, Brazil. email: masn@peno.coppe.ufrj.br { This manuscript was originally commissioned for the 2009 M3 Fluid–Structure Interactions special issue.

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rolling has usually been modelled as an uncoupled Mathieu type equation [9–11]. Considering the wellknown existence of the Mathieu resonant frequencies, focus has been concentrated on the first region of instability, defined by the proximity of encounter frequency to twice the roll natural frequency. More recently parametric excitation in head seas has received wide attention owing to some recorded accidents, particularly the one with an impressive loss of cargo aboard the APL China in 1998 [12]. It should be noted, however, that there are still relevant aspects to be understood, particularly with regard to the occurrence of unstable motions result´ ing from non-linear coupling. Neves and Rodrıguez [13, 14] have investigated this topic with a thirdorder non-linear mathematical model that couples heave, roll, and pitch motions based on a multivariable Taylor expansion of the restoring actions. This new model has succeeded in reproducing strong parametric resonance conditions in head seas. This has been demonstrated for a fishing vessel [13, 14] and a container ship [15].

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The present paper addresses some important nonlinear dynamical features that have been identified but not yet completely understood. In this context it is important to explore the influence of third-order nonlinearities using the stability limits for the parametric rolling in head seas. Based on the third-order mathematical model for parametric rolling, two different approaches for computing the limits of stability are implemented: an analytical approach and a coupled numerical approach. The hull of a transom stern fishing vessel is used in the computations. First, limits of stability are derived and discussed using analytical approaches related to the linear variational equation of the non-linear set of equations. The resulting system is a Hill type equation. Second, numerical limits of stability are obtained. Taking into consideration the analytical results previously derived, the numerical results are adequately understood. Subsequently, by computing the bifurcation diagrams, the dependence of the limits of stability on the initial conditions is shown. Finally, basins of attraction corresponding to two internal regions of the domain of unstable motions are computed.

where superscripts (1), (2), and (3) refer to first-, second-, and third-order restoring terms, respectively and subscript r refers to restoring actions. First-order restoring actions correspond to the wellknown hydrostatic actions Zrð1Þ ~Zz zzZh h~rgA0 z{rgA0 xf 0 h Krð1Þ ~Kw w~rg+GMw Mrð1Þ ~Mz zzMh h~{rgA0 xf 0 zzrg+GML h ð2Þ Second- and third-order actions are each composed of two terms. Subscripts (m) refer to nonlinear hydrostatic forces and moments, whereas (w) refer to wave passage effects. Derivation of these actions, based on multivariable Taylor series expan´ sions, has been presented by Neves and Rodrıguez [13, 14]. According to the derivations, second-order restoring actions (motions) may be defined as Zr ðmÞ ~

ð2Þ ð2Þ

1 Zzz z2 z2Zzh zhzZww w2 zZhh h2 2

2

MATHEMATICAL MODEL

Employing Taylor series expansions up to third order, ´ Neves and Rodrıguez [13, 14] expressed restoring actions in the heave, roll, and pitch modes in a coupled way. Wave actions are taken into consideration not only in the Froude–Krilov plus diffraction first-order forcing functions, but also in the secondand third-order terms resulting from volumetric changes of the submerged hull due to vertical motions and wave passage effects. The model corresponds to an extension, in both the order of non-linearities and the levels of coupling, of the model introduced by Paulling (see references [16] and [17]). Non-linear restoring actions are expressed as 6 7 7 6 7 6 7 6 ð2Þ ð2Þ C r ~6 Kr 7~6 Krð1Þ 7z6 Kr ðmÞ zKr ðwÞ 7 7 4 5 4 5 6 4 5 ð1Þ ð2Þ ð2Þ Mr Mr Mr ðmÞ zMr ðwÞ 2 ð3Þ 3 ð3Þ Zr ðmÞ zZr ðwÞ 6 7 6 ð3Þ 7 ð3Þ z6 Kr ðmÞ zKr ðwÞ 7 6 7 4 5 ð3Þ ð3Þ Mr ðmÞ zMr ðwÞ 2 Zr 3 2

ð1Þ Zr

Kr ðmÞ ~Kzw zzKwh h 1 ð2Þ Mr ðmÞ ~ Mzz z2 z2Mzh zhzMww w2 zMhh h2 2 ð3Þ The coefficients are obtained as derivatives computed at the origin. For instance ð2Þ L2 Zr ðmÞ Zzz ~ Lz2 ð2Þ L2 Kr ðmÞ Kzw ~ LzLw

;

z~0

z~w~0

Analogously, second-order restoring actions (wave passage) corresponding to non-linear pressure effects due to the incident wave field acting on the displaced hull are defined as Zr ðwÞ ~Zfz ðt ÞzzZfh ðt Þh KðwÞ ~Kfw ðt Þw Mr ðwÞ ~Mfz ðt ÞzzMfh ðt Þh ð4Þ

ð2Þ ð2Þ ð2Þ

3

2

2 Zr ðmÞ zZr ðwÞ

ð2Þ

3

ð1Þ

where subscript f refers to wave elevation, defined as fðx, y, t; xÞ~Aw cos½kx cosðxÞzky sinðxÞ{ve t ð5Þ

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**Third-order restoring actions (motions) are Zr ðmÞ ~
**

ð3Þ

À

1 Zzzz z3 z3Zzzh z2 hz3Zhhz zh2 zZhhh h3 6 z3ZQQz zw2 z3ZQQh hw2

Á _ Jyy zM€ €zMh hzM€ €zMz z _ __ zz h h 1 1 1 zMz zzMh hz Mzz z2 z Mww w2 z Mhh h2 2 2 2 1 1 1 zMzh zhz Mzzz z3 z Mzzh z2 hz Mwwz w2 z 6 2 2 1 1 1 z Mwwh w2 hz Mhhz h2 zz Mhhh h3 zMfz ðt Þz 2 2 6 zMfh ðt ÞhzMffz ðt ÞzzMfzz ðt Þz2 zMffh ðt Þh zMfzh ðt ÞzhzMwwf ðt Þw2 zMhhf ðt Þh2 ~Mw ðt Þ ð10Þ

Kr ðmÞ ~

1 KQQQ w3 z3KzzQ z2 wz3KhhQ h2 wz6KzQh zwh 6 1 ð3Þ Mr ðmÞ ~ Mzzz z3 z3Mzzh z2 hz3Mhhz zh2 zMhhh h3 6 z3MQQz zw2 z3MQQh hw2

ð3Þ

Finally, third-order restoring actions (wave passage) are expressed as Zr ðwÞ ~Zffz ðt ÞzzZfzz ðt Þz2 zZffh ðt ÞhzZfzh ðt Þzh zZwwf ðt Þw2 zZhhf ðt Þh2 Kr ðwÞ ~Kffw ðt ÞwzKfzw ðt ÞzwzKfzh ðt Þwh Mr ðwÞ ~Mffz ðt ÞzzMfzz ðt Þz2 zMffh ðt ÞhzMfzh ðt Þzh zMwwf ðt Þw2 zMhhf ðt Þh2 ð7Þ The coupled equations of motion are taken here in the explicit form described in detail in references [13] and [14]. Taking into account equations (1) to (3) and (5) to (7), the non-linear heave, roll, and pitch equations are established as _ ðmzZ€ Þ€zZz zzZ€ €zZh hzZz zzZh h __ _ z z hh 1 1 1 1 z Zzz z2 z Zww w2 z Zhh h2 zZzh zhz Zzzz z3 2 2 2 6 1 1 1 1 z Zzzh z2 hz Zwwz w2 zz Zwwh w2 hz Zhhz h2 z 2 2 2 2 1 z Zhhh h3 zZfz ðt ÞzzZfh ðt ÞhzZffz ðt ÞzzZfzz ðt Þz2 6 zZfzh ðt ÞzhzZwwf ðt Þw2 zZhhf ðt Þh2 ~Zw ðt Þ _ __ € Jxx zKw wzKw wzKwjwj wwzKw wzKzw zw € _ _ _ 1 1 1 zKwh whz Kzzw z2 wz Kwww w3 z Khhw h2 w 2 6 2 zKzwh zwhzKfw ðt ÞwzKffw ðt ÞwzKfzw ðt Þzw zKfwh ðt Þwh~0 ð9Þ ð8Þ

ð3Þ ð3Þ ð3Þ

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ð6Þ

On the left-hand side of equations (8) to (10), added masses and wave damping terms are assumed to be linear. A quadratic roll damping is considered in equation (9). On the right-hand sides of equations (8) to (10), [Zw(t) Kw(t) Mw(t)]T represent linear wave excitations. Owing to the particular wave incidence considered, Kw 5 0 has been assumed in equation (9). Once all of the coefficients in equations (8) to (10) are known, the set of three equations may be integrated numerically without much difficulty.

3

ANALYTICAL LIMITS OF STABILITY

The final objective here is to obtain numerical limits of stability. As the non-linear system is a coupled and complicated one, it may be cumbersome to interpret some of the dynamical characteristics that come out from the numerical analysis. In this context, it is important to achieve, as much as possible, a deep understanding of the dynamics behind the non-linear coupling. For this purpose, before discussing the numerical results, let us consider a simplified form of equation (9), corresponding to its complete linear variational equation [18], which represents the restoring actions obtained in terms of a Taylor series expansion of the heave, roll, and pitch perturbations in the vicinity of the steady linear responses sST(t) 3 g3 cosðve tzaz Þ À Á7 6 sST ðt Þ~Aw 4 g4 cos ve tzaw 5 g5 cosðve tzah Þ The following linear version of equation (9) is therefore obtained [19] 2

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Jxx zKw €

Â _ € wzKw wz Kw zA2 R0 _ w

damped Mathieu equation ð11Þ _ € Jxx zKw wzKw w € _ Â Ã z Kw zAw ðR1C cos ve tzR1S sin ve t Þ w~0 ð17Þ Taking into account equations (11) and (12), it is possible to interpret that the system’s non-linear natural frequency is now defined as Â Ã1=2 v4 ~ v2 zv2 n4 m4 where Kw v2 ~ n4 Jxx zKw € and v2 ~ m4 A2 w Jxx zKw € & 1 1 Kzzw g2 z Khhw g2 3 5 4 4 ð19Þ ð18Þ

zAw ðR1C cos ve tzR1S sin ve t Þ Ã zA2 ðR2C cos 2ve tzR2S sin 2ve t Þ w~0 w where 1 1 1 R0 ~ Kzzw g2 z Khhw g2 z Kzwh g3 g5 cosðaz {ah Þ 3 5 4 4 2 Ã g3 Â Kfzwc cosðaz Þ{Kfzws sinðaz Þ z 2 Ã g Â z 5 Kfhwc cosðah Þ{Kfhws sinðah Þ zKffw0 ð12Þ 2 R1C ~{Kzw g3 cosðaz ÞzKwh g5 cosðah ÞzKfwc ð13Þ

R1S ~{Kzw g3 sinðaz Þ{Kwh g5 sinðah ÞzKfws 1 1 R2C ~ Kzzw g2 cosð2az Þz Khhw g5 2 cosð2ah Þ 3 4 4 1 z Kzwh g3 g5 cosðaz zah Þ 2 Ã g Â z 3 Kfzwc cosðaz ÞzKfzws sinðaz Þ 2 Ã g Â z 5 Kfhwc cosðah ÞzKfhws sinðah Þ zKffwc 2

ð14Þ

ð15Þ

1 1 R2S ~{ Kzzw g2 sinð2az Þ{ Khhw g5 2 sinð2ah Þ 3 4 4 1 { Kzwh g3 g5 sinðaz zah Þ 2 Ã g Â z 3 {Kfzwc sinðaz ÞzKfzws cosðaz Þ 2 Ã g Â z 5 {Kfhwc sinðah ÞzKfhws cosðah Þ zKffws 2 ð16Þ In equation (11), R0, R1C, R1S, R2C, and R2S are time-independent restoring coefficients, Aw is the wave amplitude, and ve is the encounter frequency. In equations (12) to (16), g3 and g5 are the corresponding amplitude transfer functions in heave and pitch, and az and ah are the respective phase transfer functions in these modes. It may be noticed that equation (11), due to the third-order terms, is a Hill type equation. Clearly, if equation (9) had been defined with terms only to second order, its linear variational equation would correspond to the usual

In equations (19) and (20), vn4 is the roll natural frequency and vm4 is the shift in natural frequency, proportional to wave amplitude squared. The hull of a transom stern (TS) fishing vessel is used in the computations. The line plan of the ship’s hull is shown in Fig. 1 and the ship’s main characteristics are indicated in Table 1. Computations are performed for regular head waves at Froude number, Fn, of 0.30. Limits of stability corresponding to equations (11) and (17) without damping are computed, as shown in Fig. 2, in the format Aw versus ve/vn4, which is more meaningful for naval architects than the usual Ince–Strutt plotting. The limits of stability are obtained by employing the algorithm derived by Hsu [19]. Its method of solution combines variation of parameters with perturbation techniques in a unique development. Hsu’s limits are presented in Fig. 2 together with the Stokes first-order approximation to the Ince–Strutt diagram. The two algorithms are discussed further in reference [20].

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&

1 z Kzwh g3 g5 cosðaz {ah Þ 2 Ã g Â z 3 Kfzwc cosðaz Þ{Kfzws sinðaz Þ 2 Ã g5 Â z Kfhwc cosðah Þ{Kfhws sinðah Þ zKffw0 2

ð20Þ

On the limits of stability of ships rolling in head seas

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**Fig. 1 Hull form of the TS fishing vessel Table 1
**

Parameter Overall length (m) Length between perpendiculars (m) Breadth (m) Depth (m) Draft (m) Displacement (ton) Longitudinal radius of gyration (m) Metacentric height (m)

**Main characteristics of the TS fishing vessel
**

Value 25.91 22.09 6.86 3.35 2.48 170.3 5.52 0.37

In Fig. 3 the limits of stability corresponding to equation (11) are shown. Only the first region of stability is shown in this figure. Taking advantage of the analytical model, some relevant dynamical aspects may be observed, interpreted, and clarified. Relevant characteristics intrinsic to the present third-order model are as follows.

1. Bending to the right of the stability curves in the third-order model, not observed in second-order models. This is due to the non-linear stiffening of the system introduced by non-linear coupling R0, defined in equation (12). 2. Exact tuning in the first region of instability, which in the second-order model is represented by a vertical backbone line, in the third-order model is given by a backbone curve defined by ve/v4 5 2, where v4 is the non-linear frequency of oscillation of the system in waves defined in equation (18). For waves with higher amplitudes, the curve of exact tuning bends to the right introducing, for a given exciting frequency, a detuning to the system, as a function of wave amplitude squared. 3. Reduced areas of instability in comparison with the areas obtained in the second-order model, as a direct consequence of the higher rigidity (nonlinear) discussed in point (1) above. 4. It should be observed that in some cases, as in Fig. 3, the area of instability displays upper frontiers as a consequence of the bending to the right of the stability curves. This implies that at a given frequency, above a certain level of wave amplitude, the increase in rigidity defuses the unstable increase of the amplitude of parametric excitation. Comparing the limits shown in Figs 2 and 3 it is possible to conclude that the main influence of damping is to raise the set of limits of stability. 4 NUMERICAL LIMITS OF STABILITY

An alternative and more direct way of computing the instability regions is by numerically solving the

Fig. 2

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**Limits of stability, analytical, without damping
**

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Fig. 3

Limits of stability, analytical, damping included

non-linear equations of motion for a large set of wave amplitudes and tuning factors (encounter frequency/natural roll frequency, ve/vn4), which may be varied systematically. Then, at each time that instabilization takes place (roll amplification), a point may be plotted in the corresponding plane (Aw versus ve/vn4). Depending on the magnitude of the steady roll amplitude, these points will have an identifying colour, as shown in Fig. 4. Numerical integrations are all computed for the following set of initial conditions, IC#01: z0 5 0.0 m, z0 5 0.01 m/s, ˙ ˙ ˙ w0 5 2u, w0 5 20.5u/s, h0 5 0.0u, and h0 5 0.01u/s. In spite of the fact that this procedure is much more time-consuming for computation than the previous

analytical approach, it has the advantage of letting us know what happens inside the instability regions not only qualitatively, but also quantitatively. As can be noted in Fig. 4, in general the shape and location of the regions of stability agree well with the analytical approach, Fig. 3. Relevant aspects are as follows. 1. The minimum threshold value for parametric amplification is defined at ve/vn4 5 2.25, not at the exact tuning. 2. The upper frontiers of the numerical limits are in accordance with the analytical approach. In other words, for increased wave amplitude at a given

Fig. 4

**Limits of stability, numerical approach, coupled equations (this image is produced in colour online only)
**

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3.

4.

5. 6.

exciting frequency, parametric rolling may not necessarily increase; in fact, it tends to disappear. Roll amplitude results inside the unstable area are relevant information made available in this numerical procedure. Roll amplitude results inside the unstable area change abruptly near the upper frontiers, whereas near the lower frontiers roll amplitudes tend to increase in a smooth pattern. Upper boundaries have fractal geometry. A second area of unstable motions appears as a vertical trace at lower encounter frequencies. This limited region is not observable in Figs 2 and 3. BIFURCATIONS

5

It is certainly relevant to have a closer look into the complexities observed in section 4. For this purpose, the changes in dynamic characteristics are investigated as the area inside the limits of stability is crossed vertically upward; that is, a virtual vertical line defined at the exact tuning ve/vn4 5 2.0 in Fig. 4 is followed and the corresponding bifurcation diagrams are computed having the wave amplitude as control parameter. A brute-force algorithm is implemented for capturing the branching of solutions for a specified set of initial conditions. Initially, the same set of initial conditions, IC#01, defined in section 4, is adopted. As shown in Fig. 5, for low wave amplitudes, roll amplitudes tend to increase almost linearly. How-

ever, for 0.6037 m , Aw , 0.6129 m, one can observe the appearance of a solution with three periods that ends with the sudden appearance of a burst of nonperiodic solutions. With additional increase in wave amplitude the period-3 solution disappears and multistability is observed. Further continuous increase in wave amplitude leads to flip bifurcation, ending in chaos; as shown in Fig. 5, for Aw . 0.679 m chaotic motions are dominant. It is interesting to observe that slightly different initial conditions, IC#02: z0 5 0.0 m, z0 5 0.01 m/s, ˙ ˙ ˙ w0 5 2.5u, w0 5 20.8u/s, h0 5 0.0u, and h0 5 0.01u/s, determine changes in the bifurcation diagram as shown in Fig. 6, compared with Fig. 5. In particular, it is noticed that the period-3 solutions disappear completely and period-1 solutions displaying dynamical jumps take place in the range of 0.613 m , Aw , 0.647 m.

6

BASINS OF ATTRACTION

Dependence of the limits of stability on the initial conditions has been verified in section 5. Hence, it is appropriate to investigate the evolution of the safe basin with the same parameter, wave amplitude. Safe basins are defined for a grid of initial conditions [11, 21]. In the present computation, 120680 initial _ conditions regularly spaced (Dw 5 1u; Dw 5 1u/s) are considered. Two frequency tunings are studied, the exact tuning ve/vn4 5 2.0, and a higher one,

**Fig. 5 Roll bifurcations, ve/vn4 5 2.0, IC#01
**

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Fig. 6

Roll bifurcations, ve/vn4 5 2.0, IC#02

ve/vn4 5 2.2, which, as may be observed in Fig. 4, corresponds to a condition for which parametric amplification starts for the lowest wave amplitudes. Considering the first tuning ve/vn4 5 2.0, Fig. 7(a) shows the safe basin corresponding to simulations of roll decrement in calm seas (Aw 5 0.0 m). The first interesting aspect to be observed is that as head waves start to excite the ship, there is a marked enlargement of the safe basin, as shown in the sequence of Figs 7(b), (c), and (d). This is thought to be due to the increased rigidity – dependent on the wave amplitude squared – introduced by the nonlinear coupling, as shown in reference [20]. However, as shown in Fig. 7(d) for Aw 5 0.5 m, local areas with fractal geometry start to erode the safe basin. In Fig. 7(d) (Aw 5 0.5 m) it is noticed that the whole safe basin is still larger than in the previous cases. This two-sided phenomenon of increased fractal erosion with enlargement in other areas of the same basin persists, as seen in Fig. 7(e), up to wave amplitudes slightly below Aw 5 0.7 m, which is shown in Fig. 7(f). Roll amplitudes are progressively higher but now fractal erosion is dominant, and destruction of the safe basin is observed for Aw 5 0.8 m, Fig. 7(g). Figure 8 shows the set of basins of attraction for the higher tuning, ve/vn4 5 2.2, for increasing values of the control parameter. A similar tendency is observed as seen in Fig. 7, but now deterioration of the safe basin takes place quite earlier. A good perception of the differences in growth of the two basins of attraction in the two frequency tunings

may be obtained from Fig. 9, in which integrity curves for the two tunings considered, ve/vn4 5 2.0 and ve/vn4 5 2.2, are compared. ¯ The integrity curves are defined as A(Aw), the area of safe basin ASB(Aw) normalized with respect to the safe area associated with simulations of roll decrement in calm seas, ARD, for increasing values of the parameter Aw, wave amplitude. In the first case, it is seen that at approximately Aw 5 0.68 m the area of safe basin reverts its growth tendency into a twostage no-return process of deterioration of the safe basin (Fig. 9(a)). For the higher tuning, the maximum of the integrity curve occurs at a lower value of wave amplitude, Aw 5 0.64 m, at which a sharp change of tendency takes place (Fig. 9(b)). 7 CONCLUSIONS

Limits of stability computed with the analytical approach have shown good agreement with the numerical responses, and owing to its relatively easy implementation, the analytical approach should find good applicability in the ship preliminary design stage. On the other hand, numerical limits of stability have clear advantages in comparison with the Ince– Strutt type of stability map, as the new diagrams not only display information on the boundaries of stability, but also give the roll amplitudes in the domain inside the boundaries. A rich picture is obtained, including the appearance of upper boundaries, a

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Fig. 7

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**Basins of attraction, ve/vn4 5 2.0: (a) Aw 5 0.0 m; (b) Aw 5 0.2 m; (c) Aw 5 0.4 m; (d) Aw 5 0.5 m; (e) Aw 5 0.6 m; (f) Aw 5 0.7 m; (g) Aw 5 0.8 m; (h) Aw 5 0.85 m
**

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Fig. 8

**Basins of attraction, ve/vn4 5 2.2: (a) Aw 5 0.1 m; (b) Aw 5 0.2 m; (c) Aw 5 0.4 m; (d) Aw 5 0.55 m; (e) Aw 5 0.6 m; (f) Aw 5 0.62 m; (g) Aw 5 0.65 m; (h) Aw 5 0.7 m
**

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Fig. 9

Integrity curves: (a) ve/vn4 5 2.0; (b) ve/vn4 5 2.2

general tendency of the system to get stiffer due to coupling, abysmal (sudden) decrease in the upper boundaries, and upper boundaries with fractal geometry. Bifurcation diagrams of the roll motion solutions at the exact Mathieu tuning of frequencies have been obtained taking the wave amplitude as control parameter. Some ranges of wave amplitude corresponding to quite distinct types of responses have been identified. In particular, interesting dynamical characteristics such as sudden burst of non-periodic solutions, multistability in a scenario of a continuous period doubling process, and finally chaotic motions have been observed. Safe basin analysis has been performed for two tuning conditions, again having wave amplitude as the control parameter. For both tunings, for relatively small wave amplitudes the appearance of fractal boundaries was counterbalanced by an increase in other areas of the safe basin, which resulted in an overall increase of the safe area. However, for higher wave amplitudes, erosion of the safe basin proceeded very rapidly. Integrity curves for the ship at the two tunings were obtained. In the case of the exact tuning it was noticed that the critical maximum value of the integrity curve is defined for the wave amplitude that corresponds approximately to the point in the bifurcation diagram at which chaotic motions begin to occur. It was shown that the higher tuning ve/ vn4 5 2.2 has a critical value at a lower value of wave amplitude as compared with the lower (exact) tuning condition. This is a quantitative measure of the tendency of the TS ship to respond critically in parametric rolling at a tuning frequency somewhat above the exact tuning.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The present investigation was supported by CNPq within the STAB project (Non-linear stability of ships). The authors also acknowledge financial support from CAPES, FAPERJ and LabOceano. Thanks are extended to Professor Marcelo A. Savi for many fruitful discussions. F Authors 2009 REFERENCES

1 Neves, M. A. S. (Ed.) Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Stability of ships and ocean vehicles (STAB 2006), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, September 2006. 2 Neves, M. A. S. and Belenky, V. L. Review of 9th International Conference on Stability of ships and ocean vehicles (STAB 2006). Marine Technol., 2008, 45(3), 147–156. 3 Kerwin, J. E. Notes on rolling in longitudinal waves. Int. Shipbuilding Progr., 1955, 2(16), 597–614. 4 Blocki, W. Ship safety in connection with parametric resonance of the roll. Int. Shipbuilding Progr., 1980, 27(306), 36–53. 5 Paulling, J. R. Parametric rolling of ships – then and now. In Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Stability of ships and ocean vehicles (STAB 2006), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 2006, pp. 903–912. 6 De Kat, J. O. and Paulling, J. R. The simulation of ship motions and capsizing in severe seas. Trans. Soc. Nav. Architects Mar. Engrs, 1989, 97, 138– 168. 7 Oakley, O. H., Paulling, J. R., and Wood, P. D. Ship motions and capsizing in astern seas. In Proceedings of 10th Symposium on Naval hydrodynamics, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1974, IV-1, 1-51.

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8 Umeda, N., Hamamoto, M., Takaishi, Y., Chiba, Y., Matsuda, A., Sera, W., Suzuki, S., Spyrou, K., and Watanabe, K. Model experiments of ship capsize in astern seas. J. Soc. Nav. Architects Jpn, 1995, 177, 207–217. 9 Spyrou, K. J. Designing against parametric instability in following seas. Ocean Engng, 2000, 27(6), 625–653. 10 Arnold, L., Chueshov, I., and Ochs, G., Stability and capsizing of ships in random sea – a survey, Technical Report 464, Institut fur Dynamicsche Systeme, Universitat Bremen, Bremen, 2003. 11 Belenky, V. L. and Sevastianov, N. B. Stability and safety of ships: risk of capsizing, edition 2, 2007 (SNAME, Jersey City, New Jersey). 12 France, W. N., Levadou, M., Treakle, T. W., Paulling, J. R., Michel, R. K., and Moore, C. An investigation of head-sea parametric rolling and its influence on container lashing systems. Mar. Technol., 2003, 40(1), 1–19. ´ 13 Neves, M. A. S. and Rodrıguez, C. A non-linear mathematical model of higher order for strong parametric resonance of the roll motion of ships in waves. Mar. Syst. Ocean Technol., J. Sociedade Brasileira de Engenharia Naval, 2005, 1(2), 69–81. ´ 14 Neves, M. A. S. and Rodrıguez, C. On unstable ship motions resulting from strong non-linear coupling. Ocean Engng, 2006, 33(14-15), 1853–1883. ´ 15 Rodrıguez, C. A., Holden, C., Perez, T., Drummen, I., Neves, M. A. S., and Fossen, T. I. Validation of a container ship model for parametric rolling. In Proceedings of the 10th International Ship Stability Workshop, Hamburg, Germany, September 2007, pp. 33–43. 16 Paulling, J. R. and Rosenberg, R. M. On unstable ship motions resulting from non-linear coupling. J. Ship Res., 1959, 3(1), 36–46. 17 Paulling, J. R. The transverse stability of a ship in a longitudinal seaway. J. Ship Res., 1961, 4(4), 37–49. 18 Cesari, L. Asymptotic behaviour and stability problems in ordinary differential equations, edition 3, 1971 (Springer-Verlag, Berlin). 19 Hsu, C. S. On the parametric excitation of a dynamic system having multiple degrees of freedom. J. Appl. Mech., 1963, 30(3), 367–372. ´ 20 Neves, M. A. S. and Rodrıguez, C. A. Influence of nonlinearities on the limits of stability of ships rolling in head seas. Ocean Engng, 2007, 34(1), 1618–1630. 21 Seydel, R. From equilibrium to chaos: practical bifurcation and stability analysis, 1988 (Elsevier Science Publishing, New York).

ARD ASB(Aw) Aw ¯ A(Aw) Cr Fn g GM GM L Iyy0 Jxx Jyy k Kr m Mr R0 R1C R1S R2C R2S SST(t) xf0 z Zr az ah f g3 g5 h r w x ve vn4 vm4 +

area of safe basin in a roll decrement simulation area of safe basin wave amplitude normalized area of safe basin vector of non-linear restoring actions Froude number acceleration due to gravity transversal metacentric height longitudinal metacentric height second moment of inertia of waterline area transversal mass moment of inertia longitudinal mass moment of inertia wave number roll non-linear restoring moment ship mass pitch non-linear restoring moment constant coefficient of third order parametric excitation cosine coefficient of second order parametric excitation sine coefficient of second order parametric excitation cosine coefficient of third order parametric excitation sine coefficient of third order parametric excitation vector of linear steady responses longitudinal coordinate of centroid of waterline heave non-linear motion heave non-linear restoring force heave phase transfer function pitch phase transfer function wave elevation heave amplitude transfer function pitch amplitude transfer function pitch non-linear motion density of water roll non-linear motion wave incidence encounter frequency roll natural frequency shift in roll natural frequency volumetric displacement

APPENDIX Notation A0 waterline area at average hull position

Proc. IMechE Vol. 223 Part M: J. Engineering for the Maritime Environment

JEME144

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Good paper on parametric rolling phenomena

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