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WORK MEASUREMENT

TIME STUDY

(Direct Time Study & Activity Sampling) (Direct Time Study & Activity Sampling)

7-2 Design of Work Systems

Work Measurement Work Measurement

TIME STUDY

Standard time

Stopwatch time study

Historical times

Predetermined data

Work Sampling

7-3 Design of Work Systems

Historical Experience Historical Experience

Relatively easy, convenient, and inexpensive

Not objective, unknown accuracy

Not recommended

7-4 Design of Work Systems

Labor processing standards are based on

observing worker doing task

Observe only a sample of work

Time Studies Time Studies

Use average time & pace to set standard

Disadvantages

Requires a trained & experienced analyst

Standard cannot be set before task is

performed

7-5 Design of Work Systems

The Eight Steps to Conducting a The Eight Steps to Conducting a

Time Study Time Study

1. Define the task to be studied (after a methods

analysis)

2. Break down the task into precise elements

3. Decide how many times each element of the task 3. Decide how many times each element of the task

must be measured

4. Record the times and ratings of performance for

the task elements

[Rating = (Observed rating / standard rating)]

(*Rating = assessment of a worker relative work rate based on observers

observation compared with standard pace.)

7-6 Design of Work Systems

The Eight Steps to Conducting a The Eight Steps to Conducting a

Time Study Time Study - - continued continued

5. Compute the average observed cycle time (element

times adjusted for unusual influences)

6. Compute the normal time for each task element

Normal time = (Average actual cycle time) x (Rating factor)

7-7 Design of Work Systems

7. Sum the normal times for each element to

develop a total normal time for the task

8. Compute the standard time:

The Eight Steps to Conducting a Time The Eight Steps to Conducting a Time

Study Study - - continued continued

8. Compute the standard time:

Standard time =

Total normal time

(1- Allowance factor)

7-8 Design of Work Systems

Allowances Allowances

Personal time allowance - 4% - 7% of total

time - use of restroom, water fountain, etc.

Delay allowance - based upon actual delays

that occur that occur

Fatigue allowance - to compensate for

physical or mental strain, noise level,

tediousness, heat and humidity, assumption

of an abnormal position, etc.

7-9 Design of Work Systems

(Example 1) (Example 1) - - Direct Time Study Direct Time Study

Work Element Cycle 1 Cycle 2 Cycle 3 Cycle 4 Cycle 5

1 Take glass 8 9 8 10 8

2 Place on jig and turn on the

machine

10 12 10 11 12

3 Milling Operations

(fully automatic)

25 25 25 25 25

(fully automatic)

4 Lift glass and put it on conveyor 8 8 6 8 6

Time study data using snap back stop watch. Time in seconds. Total allowance is

15% of the normal time. Workers rating is 110%.

Compute the total standard time.

Calculate the labor cost per product if the workers wage is RM 3 per-hour.

7-10 Design of Work Systems

Direct Time Study (Example) Direct Time Study (Example)

Element Cycle 1 Cycle 2 Cycle 3 Cycle 4 Cycle 5 Average Normal

time

Std

time

1 8 9 8 10 8 8.6 9.46 11.129

2 10 12 10 11 12 11 12.1 14.235

3 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25

4 8 8 6 8 6 7.2 7.92 9.318

Element 1:

Average time = (8+9+8+10+8)/5 = 8.6 sec

Normal time = Average time x Rating = 8.6 x 1.1 = 9.46 sec

Standard time = Normal time /(1-allowance) = 9.46 / (1-0.15) = 11.129 sec

Total Standard Time = 11.129+14.235+25+9.318 = 59.682 sec/product

7-11 Design of Work Systems

Direct Time Study (Example) Direct Time Study (Example)

Calculate the labor cost for each product if the workers wage is RM

3 per-hour.

RM

hr RM

sec / ) 10 ( 33 . 8

/ 3

wage s Worker'

4

=

=

product RM

RM

RM

hr

/ 0497 . 0

sec / ) 10 ( 33 . 8 x sec 59.682 product per Cost Labor

sec / ) 10 ( 33 . 8

sec/ 3600

wage s Worker'

4

=

=

=

- - Example 2 Example 2 - -

Work Elements Cycle 1 Cycle 2 Cycle 3 Cycle 4

1 0.22 0.26 0.25 0.23

2 0.15 0.18 0.15 0.16

3 0.90 1.10 1.04 1.00

4 0.72 0.80 0.76 0.68

Data from snap back stop watch in minutes of a manual assembly process time Data from snap back stop watch in minutes of a manual assembly process time

study. The worker is rated at 108%. The allowances are 5% for fatigue, 6% for delay,

and 6% for personal relief. The workers salary is RM1000 per month.

a) Compute the total assembly standard time for the assembly process.

b) If the demand is 100,000 unit per month, estimate the number of operators

required for the assembly process. The company is operating 24 days per month

and a single 8 hour shift per day.

c) If the company can only manage to employ 18 workers, compute the over time

cost per day for each worker for the production of 100,000 units per month.

Assume only 15 workers are available for over time and the over time pay rate is 1.5

times of the normal wage.

7-13 Design of Work Systems

Solved Problem Solved Problem

Element Cycle 1 Cycle 2 Cycle 3 Cycle 4 Average Normal

Time

Std

Time

1 0.22 0.26 0.25 0.23 0.24 0.259 0.312

2 0.15 0.18 0.15 0.16 0.16 0.173 0.208

3 0.90 1.10 1.04 1.00 1.01 1.091 1.314

4 0.72 0.80 0.76 0.68 0.74 0.799 0.963

1 Element (a)

min/unit 2.797 0.963 1.314 0.208 0.312 Time Standard Assembly Total

min 312 . 0

17 . 0 1

1

259 . 0

Allowance - 1

1

x Time Normal Time Standard

min 0.259 1.08 x 0.24 Rating x Time Average Time Normal

min 24 . 0

4

0.23 0.25 0.26 0.22

Time Average

1 Element (a)

= + + + =

=

= =

= = =

=

+ + +

=

7-14 Design of Work Systems

Solved Problem Solved Problem

min

520 , 11

min

60 24 8 1 operator 1 of time Working

(b)

= =

mth hr mth

day

day

hr

b) If the demand is 100,000 unit per month, estimate the number of

operators required for the assembly process. The company is operating 24

days per month and a single 8 hour shift per day.

25 24.28

mth

unit

4118.70

mth

unit

100,000

operator per Capacity

Demand Monthly

required operators of Number

mth

unit

4,118.70

unit

min

2.797

min

520 , 11

operator 1 by produced quantity Monthly

= = =

= =

mth

7-15 Design of Work Systems

Solved Problem Solved Problem

unit

25,863 74,137 - 100,000 shortage quantity Monthly

137 , 74 18

mth

unit

4,118.70 operators 18 by produced quantity Monthly

(c)

units

= =

= =

c) If the company can only manage to employ 18 workers, compute the over time

cost per day for each worker for the production of 100,000 units per month.

Assume only 15 workers are available for over time and the over time pay rate is 1.5

times of the normal wage.

(monthly shortage, need OT)

234 . 50

min

014 , 3

min

797 . 2 6 . 1077

day

unit

1077.6 produced to required Time

6 . 1077

24

mth

unit

25,863

shortage quantity Daily

mth

unit

25,863 74,137 - 100,000 shortage quantity Monthly

day

hr

day

unit day

unit

day

unit

mth

day

= =

=

= =

= = (monthly shortage, need OT)

7-16 Design of Work Systems

Solved Problem Solved Problem

RM

1,000

349 . 3

operator 15

234 . 50

day per operator each for hours over time therefore

work, over time for available are operators 15 only to Due

day operator

hr day

hr

= =

RM

26.162

RM

812 . 7 3.349

day per operator per cost Over time

RM

812 . 7

RM

5.208 x 1.5 wage Over time

RM

5.208

8

mth

24

mth

RM

1,000

wage Normal

day operator hr day operator

hr

hr hr

hr

day

hr day

=

= =

=

=

7-17 Design of Work Systems

Labor standard is set using output and % of

time worker spends on tasks

Involves observing worker at random times

over a long period

Advantages

Work Sampling Work Sampling

Advantages

Less expensive than time studies

Observer requires little training

Disadvantages

Ineffective with short cycles

7-18 Design of Work Systems

Used for

Ratio delay studies

Setting labor standards

Measuring worker performance

Work Sampling Work Sampling

Measuring worker performance

7-19 Design of Work Systems

The Five Step The Five Step

Work Sampling Procedure Work Sampling Procedure

1. Take a preliminary sample to obtain an

estimate of the parameter value

2. Compute the sample size required

3. Prepare a schedule for observing the 3. Prepare a schedule for observing the

worker at appropriate times

4. Observe and record worker activities; rate worker

performance

5. Determine how workers spend their time (usually

as a percent)

7-20 Design of Work Systems

Normal Time =

(Total Observation Time) x (Productive %) x (Rating)

Total Output

Work Sampling Equations Work Sampling Equations

Standard Time =

Normal Time

(1 Allowance)

7-21 Design of Work Systems

Work Sampling (Example) Work Sampling (Example)

Status Tally Sum Percentage

Productive IIIII IIIII IIIII IIIII IIIII IIIII IIIII IIIII I 41 41/45 = 91%

Idle IIII 4 4/45 = 9%

Work sampling studies were conducted for 6 consecutive days at a factory. Work sampling studies were conducted for 6 consecutive days at a factory.

A total of 45 observations were made during the 8 hours working period for

each day. The number of units managed to be produced are 3000 units for 1

week. The factory is operating 6 days a week. The data above are included

with rating and allowance of 97% and 15%.

Compute the process standard time.

7-22 Design of Work Systems

Work Sampling (Example) Work Sampling (Example)

Status Tally Sum Percentage

Productive IIIII IIIII IIIII IIIII IIIII IIIII IIIII IIIII I 41 41/45 = 91%

Idle IIII 4 4/45 = 9%

min 2880 day 6

hr

min

60

day

hr

8 n time observatio Total = =

unit

min

0.997

15 . 0 1

1

97 . 0 91 . 0

unit 3000

min 2880

ST Time, Standard

allowance 1

1

Rating] % Productive

output Total

n time observatio Total

[

ST Time, Standard

hr day

=

=

=

7-23 Design of Work Systems

Tutorial 1 Tutorial 1

Proses Description Average Time (min)

1 Manual 23

2 Manual 32

3 Automatic machine 9

4 Manual 8

Rating : 110%

Allowance: 20%

(a) Compute the standard time for each process.

(b) If the company has no problem with the availability of manpower,

recommend the maximum capacity for the factory for a 8 hour shift work.

7-24 Design of Work Systems

Tutorial 1 Tutorial 1

Proses Description Average Time

(min)

Normal

time

Std Time

1 Manual

2 Manual

3 Automatic

(a)

3 Automatic

machine

4 Manual

(b)

7-25 Design of Work Systems

Tutorial 2 Tutorial 2

Emirates Consultant conducted a work sampling studies for 5 consecutive days at an

assembly factory. A total of 48 observations were made during the 8 hour working

period for each day. The data collected during the 5 day studies is illustrated in Table

1. The whole assembly process is operating on 5 working days per week, 95% rating

and the companys allowable allowances is 20%.

(i) Compute the standard time (min/unit) for the assembly process.

(ii) At peak demand period, the factory is normally required to produce 3,100 units per

week. If only 60% of the employee is willing to work over time, compute the average week. If only 60% of the employee is willing to work over time, compute the average

overtime per day must be arranged in order to meet the peak demand.

Item Data

Total output over 5 days studies 2,500 unit

Assembly process at fast speed 35%of observations

Assembly process at moderate speed 45%of observations

Assembly process at slow speed 5%of observations

Production is stopped due to no operator 5%of observations

Production is stopped due to no material 10%of observations

7-26 Design of Work Systems

Tutorial 2 Tutorial 2

Time Std

n time observatio Total

(i)

=

=

day

unit

wk

unit

hours 8 normal during Capacity

Demand Peak

(ii)

=

=

7-27 Design of Work Systems

Tutorial 2 Tutorial 2

day

min

hours over time the over time, do to forced are employees all If

unit/day shortage Capacity

=

=

day

hour

overtime then total

over time, for available are employees of 60% only g Considerin

=

7-28 Design of Work Systems

END OF CLASS END OF CLASS

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