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Ach: Acetylcholine
ACTH: Adrino Cortico Trophic Hormone
ADH: Anti di Uretic Hormone
ADP: Adenosine Di Phosphate
ANS: Autonomic Nervous
ATP: Adenosine Tri Phosphate
C: Cervical, cervical vertebrae, (C cervical vertebrae !
cm: Centi meter
CNS: Central Nervous System
C"H: Corticotropin "eleasin# Hormone
CS$: Cerebro Spinal $luid
D%T: Di %odo Tyrosine
DNA: Deo&yribo Nucleic Acid
'd: Per day
(C$: (&tra Cellular $luid
(": (ndoplasmic "eticulum
$SH: $ollicular stimulatin#
#: )ram
)H%H: )ro*th Hormone %nhibitin#
Hormone )H"H: )ro*th Hormone
"eleasin# Hormone
)%: )astro %ntestinal
)n"H: )ondotrophin "eleasin# Hormone
HC): Human Chorionic )onadotrophin hormone
Hcl: Hydrochloric acid
h)H: Human )ro*th Hormone
%CSH: %nterstitial Cell Stimulatin# Hormone
%)$: %nsulin li+e )ro*th $actors
%UD: %ntra Uterine Device
,: ,umbar, lumbar vertebrae, (,-, lumbar vertebrae -!
l: liter
,(S: ,o*er esopha#eal sphincter
,H: ,eutini/in# Hormone
,PH: ,ito tropin Hormone
m: 0eter
0%T: 0ono %odo Tyrosine
ml1: 0ili liter
mm: 0illi meter
P: Phosphate
P2%: Protein 2ound %odine
: Po*er o3 Hydro#en
P%H: Prolactin %nhibitin#
PNS: Peripheral Servous System
P40C: Pro54pio 0elano Cortin
P"H: Prolactin "eleasin# Hormone
PTH: Para Thyroid Hormone
"NA: "ibo Neuclic Acid
r"NA: "ibosomal "ibo Neuclic Acid
T: Thoracic, thoracic vertebrae, (T. thoracic vertebrae .!
Tri iodo tyronin
T)2: Tyro #lobulin
T"H: Tyro tropin "eleasin# Hormone
TSH: Thyroid Stimulatin# Hormone
U6: Ultra 6iolet
Learning Objective
At the end o3 this chapter, the students should be able to:
5De7ne Anatomy and Physiolo#y
5(&plain Homeostasis
5Describe levels o3 structural or#ani/ation o3 the human body
5Discuss directional terms, anatomical position, planes and sections
used in Anatomy1
5Di9erentiate body cavities
! "#at are Anato$% an& P#%sio'og%(
Anato$%: the *ord anatomy is derived 3rom a )ree+ *ord :Anatome; meanin#
to cut up1 %t is the study o3 structures that ma+e up the body and ho* those
structures relate *ith each other1
The study o3 anatomy includes many sub specialties1 These are )ross anatomy,
0icroscopic anatomy, Developmental anatomy and (mbryolo#y1
Gross anato$% studies body structure *ith out microscope1 Systemic anatomy
studies 3unctional relationships o3 or#ans *ithin a system *hereas Regional
anatomy studies body part re#ionally1 2oth systemic and re#ional approaches may
be used to study #ross anatomy
Microsco)ic anato$% *Histo'og%+ re<uires the use o3 microscope to study
tissues that 3orm the various or#ans o3 the body1
P#%sio'og%: the *ord physiolo#y derived 3rom a )ree+ *ord 3or study o3 nature1 %t
is the study o3 ho* the body and its part *or+ or 3unction1
Hence, Anatomy and physiolo#y are studied to#ether to #ive students a 3ull
appreciation and understandin# o3 human body1
=hen structure and 3unction are coordinated the body achieves a relative stability
o3 its internal environment called homeostasis ' stayin# the same1 Althou#h the
e&ternal environmental chan#es constantly, the internal environment o3 a healthy
body remains the same *ith in normal limits1
Under normal conditions, homeostasis is maintained by adaptive mechanisms
ran#in# 3rom control center in the brain to chemical substances called hormones
that are secreted by various or#ans directly into the blood streams1 Some o3 the
3unctions controlled by homeostasis mechanisms are blood pressure, body
temperature, breathin# and heart rate1
!, Leve' o- str.ct.ra' organi/ation o- t#e bo&%
The human body has di9erent structural levels o3 or#ani/ation, startin# *ith
atoms molecules and compounds and increasin# in si/e and comple&ity to cells,
tissues, or#ans and the systems that ma+e up the complete or#anism1
0ig.re1 ! Leve's o- str.ct.ra' organi/ation o-
t#e bo&% (source: (laine n1 0A"%(2, (8>>>!,
(ssentials o3 human anatomy and physiolo#y, Addison
*elsey lon#man inc1, San $rancisco, ?
Ato$s $o'ec.'es an& co$)o.n&s: 5 At its simplest level, the body is
composed o3 atoms1 The most common elements in livin# or#anism are carbon,

hydro#en, o&y#en, nitro#en phosphorus and sul3ur1

Atoms @ 0olecule @ Compounds1
Ce''1 The smallest independent units o3 li3e1 All li3e depends on the many
chemical activities o3 cells1 Some o3 the basic 3unctions o3 cell are: #ro*th,
metabolism, irritability and reproduction1
Tiss.e1 tissue is made up o3 many similar cells that per3orm a speci7c 3unction1
The various tissues o3 the body are divided in to 3our #roups1 These are
epithelial, connective, nervous and muscle tissue1
Epithelial tissue: - $ound in the outer layer o3 s+in, linin# o3 or#ans, blood and
lymph vessels and body cavities1 Connective tissue: - Connects and supports most
part o3 the body1 They constitute most part o3 s+in, bone and tendons1
Muscle tissue: - Produces movement throu#h its ability to contract1 This constitutes
s+eletal, smooth and cardiac muscles1
Nerve tissue: - $ound in the brain, spinal cord and nerves1 %t responds to various
types o3 stimuli and transmits nerve impulses1
Organ1 5 %s an inte#rated collection o3 t*o or more +inds o3 tissue that *or+s
to#ether to per3orm speci7c 3unction1 $or e&ample: Stomach is made o3 all type o3
S%ste$1 %s a #roup o3 or#ans that *or+ to#ether to per3orm maAor 3unction1 $or
e&ample: "espiratory system contains several or#ans1
Organis$ 'eve'1 2 The various or#ans o3 the body 3orm the entire
!3 Anato$ica' Ter$ino'ogies
The lan#ua#e o3 anatomy *ill probably be un3amiliar to you at 7rst1 2ut once you
have understood the basic *ord roots, combinin# *ord 3orms, pre7&es and suB&
you *ill 7nd that anatomical terminolo#ies are not as diBcult as you 7rst ima#ined1
!3!! Anato$ica' Position!
Anatomical positions are universally accepted as the startin# points 3or positional
re3erences to the body1 %n anatomical position the subAect is standin# erect and
3acin# the observer, the 3eet are to#ether, and the arms are han#in# at the sides
*ith the palms 3acin# 3or*ard1 !, Re'ative &irectiona' ter$s o- t#e
bo&%1 (Source: Carola, "1, Harley,D1P1, Nobac+ "1C1,
(.EE8!, Human anatomy and physiolo#y, 0c )ra* hill
inc, Ne* For+, 8
ed, pp .C!
!3!, Re'ative Directiona' ter$s
Standardi/ed terms o3 re3erence are used *hen anatomists describe the location o3
the body part1 "elative means the location o3 one part o3 the body is al*ays
described in relation to another part o3 the body
Tab'e1 ! Directiona' ter$s (source: Carola, "1, Harley,D1P1, Nobac+
"1C1, (.EE8!, Human anatomy and physiolo#y, 0c )ra* hill inc, Ne*
For+, 8
ed, pp .C!
Ter$ De4nition
an& e5a$)'e Superior (cranial!
To*ard the head1 The le# is supper to the 3oot1
%n3erior (caudal! To*ard the 3eet1 The 3oot is
in3erior to the le#1 Anterior (ventral!
To*ard the 3ront part o3 the body1 The nose is
anterior to the
Posterior (dorsal! To*ards the bac+ o3 the body1
The ears are posterior to the nose1
0edial To*ards the midline o3 the body1 The
nose is medial to the eyes1
,ateral A*ay 3rom the midline o3 the body1
The eyes are lateral to the nose1
Pro&imal To*ard (nearer! the trun+ o3 the body
or the attached end o3 a limb1 The
shoulder is pro&imal to the *rist1
Distal A*ay (3arther! 3rom the trun+ o3
the body or the attached end o3 a
limb1 The *rist is distal to the
Super7cial Nearer the sur3ace o3 the body1
The ribs are super7cial to the
Deep $arther 3rom the sur3ace o3 the body1
The heart is deeper to the ribs1
Peripheral A*ay 3rom the central a&is o3 the
body1 Peripheral nerves radiate a*ay
3rom the brain and spinal cord1
!3!3! 6o&% )arts Regions
The body can #enerally be described to have areas o3:
A5ia' bo&% )art1 5 %t is the part o3 the body near the a&is o3 the body1 This
includes head, nec+, thora& (chest!, abdomen, and pelvis1
A))en&ic.'ar bo&% )art1 5 %t is the part o3 the body out o3 the a&is line1 This
includes the upper and lo*er e&tremities1
%t is customary to subdivide the abdominal area into nine re#ions or more easily in
to 3our <uadrants1 !3 Ab&o$ina' s.b &ivisions (Source:
Carola, "1, Harley,D1P1, Nobac+ "1C1, (.EE8!, Human
anatomy and physiolo#y, 0c )ra* hill inc, Ne* For+,
ed, pp .G!
!7 6o&% )'anes an& sections
2ody planes are ima#inary sur3aces or planes lines that divide the body in to
sections1 This helps 3or 3urther identi7cation o3 speci7c areas1
Sagitta' )'ane1
5divides the body into ri#ht and le3t hal31
50id sa#ittal plane: 5 divides body into e<ual le3t and ri#ht halves1
5Para sa#ittal plane: 5 divides body into une<ual le3t and ri#ht
0ronta' )'ane1 5 divides the body into asymmetrical anterior and
posterior sections1
Transverse )'ane1 5 divides the body into upper and lo*er body
Ob'i8.e )'ane1 5 divides the body obli<uely into upper and lo*er
E !7 6o&% )'anes (Source: Carola, "1,
Harley,D1P1, Nobac+ "1C1, (.EE8!, Human anatomy and
physiolo#y, 0c )ra* hill inc, Ne* For+, 8
!9 6o&% Cavities
The cavities o3 the body house the internal or#ans, *hich commonly re3erred to as
the viscera1 The t*o main body cavities are the lar#er ventral (anterior! and the
smaller, dorsal (posterior! body cavity1
T#e ventra' bo&% cavit% constitutes the thoracic cavity and the abdomino5pelvic
body cavity1
The Thoracic cavity houses lun# and heart1 %t is protected by the rib ca#e I
associated musculature and the sternum anteriorly1 %t consists o3 the ri#ht and le3t
pleural cavities and mediastinum (the portion o3 tissues and or#ans that separates
the le3t and ri#ht lun#!1
Abdomino-pelvic Cavity e&tends 3rom the diaphra#m in3erior to the Joor o3 the
pelvis1 %t is divided into superior abdominal and in3erior pelvic cavity by ima#inary
line passin# at upper pelvis1
Abdominal cavity contains the stomach, intestine, liver, spleen and
The pelvic cavity contains urinary bladder, rectum, and portions o3 the
reproductive or#ans1
T#e &orsa' bo&% cavit%: it constitutes the cephalic cavity containin# brain
and the vertebral canal containin# the spinal cord1
0ig.re1 !9 6o&% cavities (Source: 0emmler,
"uth ,undeen, 2arbara Dansen Cohen and Dena ,in
=ood (.EE?!, The Human 2ody in Health and Disease,
(d, pp E!1
Revie: ;.estions
.1 The anatomical term opposite to
lateral is: 5 a! Pro&imal
b! Distal
c! 0edial d!
Super7cial e! Caudal1
81 =hen structure and 3unction coordinated the
body #ets a relative stability1 This phenomenon is
a! Anatomical inte#rity b! Physiolo#ical
stablity c! Homeostasis d!
e! 2ody stasis
-1 =hich o3 the 3ollo*in# is not the correct
description o3 anatomical positionK
a! 2ody 3acin# 3or*ard b! Head turned
to side c! Palms 3acin# 3or*ard d! 2ody
e! $eet to#ether1
1 A plane that divided the body into anterior and
posterior parts is: 5
a! 0edial plane b! Coronal or 3rontal
plane c! Sa#ital plane d! Transverse
e! 4bli<ue plane
C1 The abdominal cavity contains
the a! Heart and lun#
b! "eproductive or#ans and urinary
bladder c! ,iver, spleen and stomach
d! Urinary bladder and lun#s
e! Testes and ovaries
Learning objective
At the end o3 this chapter, the students should be able to:
5 (&plain structure and characteristics o3 human cell
5 Describe movements o3 particles across cell membrane
5 Discuss or#anelles o3 human cell I their 3unction
5 (&plain abnormal cellular 3unction (cancer!
,! Ce''
Cell is the basic livin# structural and 3unctional unit o3 the body1
Cytolo#y: 5 %t is a branch o3 science concerned *ith a study o3 cells
Cell Theory e&plains about
a! All livin# or#anisms are composed o3 cell and cell products1
b! Cell is the basic unit o3 structure I 3unction o3 all livin#
c! All cells come 3rom the division o3 pre e&istin# cell1
d! An or#anism as a *hole can be understood throu#h the collective activities I
interactions o3 its cells1
To +no* more about cell, *e can divide the cell in to 3our
principal parts: 5
Plasma cell! membrane: it is the outer linin#, limitin# membrane separatin# the cell
internal parts 3rom e&tra cellular materials I e&ternal environment1
Cytoplasm: cytoplasm is the substance that surrounds or#anelles and is
located bet*een the nucleus and plasma membrane
"rganelles: these are permanent structures *ith characteristic morpholo#y that are
hi#hly speciali/ed in speci3ic cellular activity1
#nclusions: they are the secretions and stora#e products o3 cells1
(&tra cellular materials are also re3erred to as the matri&, *hich are
substances e&ternal to the cell sur3ace1
0ig.re1 ,! o- a ce'' (Source: Carola, "1,
Harley,D1P1, Nobac+ "1C1, (.EE8!, Human anatomy and
physiolo#y, 0c )ra* hill inc, Ne* For+, 8
(d, pp
,!! P'as$a Me$brane
Plasma membrane is a thin outer membrane, *hich maintains the inte#rity o3 the
cell1 %t +eeps the cell and its contents separate and distinct 3rom the
surroundin#1 %t is a double layered measurin# about 1C nm and made o3
phospholipids, cholesterol, #lyco5lipid, I carbohydrate (oli#osaccharides!1 The bi5
layer is sel35sealin#1 %3 a needle is inAected and pulled out, it automatically seals1
$unctions: 5
.1 Separate the cytoplasm inside a cell 3rom e&tra cellular Juid1
81 Separate cell 3rom one another
-1 Provide an abundant sur3ace on *hich chemical reaction can
1 "e#ulate the passa#e o3 materials in to and out o3 cells1 %t also let some thin#s
in and +eeps others out1 The <uality selective permeability
Move$ent across2ce'' $e$brane
0ovements a cross membrane ta+es place in t*o *ays1 These are passive and
active movements1 Passive movement uses ener#y *hereas active movement
consumes ener#y in the 3orm o3 ATP1
Passive $ove$ent1 includes
a1 Simple di$usion, the random movements o3 molecules 3rom area o3 hi#h
concentration to the area o3 lo* concentration1 (&ample air in alveoli o3 lun#
b1 %acilitated di$usion& lar#er molecules, *hich are not soluble in lipid need
protein channel to pass throu#h the plasma membrane1 No direct ener#y needed1
(&ample: 5 Amino acid passes throu#h the cell membrane1
c1 "smosis& a special type o3 di9usion re3errin# to the passa#e o3 *ater
throu#h a selectively permeable membrane 3rom an area o3 hi#h *ater
concentration to lo*er *ater concentration1
d1 %iltration& small molecules pass throu#h selectively permeable membrane in
response to 3orce o3 pressure1 (&ample: 5 7ltration in the +idney in the process o3
urine 3ormation1
Active $ove$ents across $e$branes
Substances move throu#h a selectively permeable membrane 3rom areas o3 lo*
concentration on side o3 a membrane to an area o3 hi#her concentration on the
other side1 This is a#ainst concentration #radient1 There3ore, it re<uires ener#y1
a! Active Transport: till e<uilibrium substances could more by passive
movement1 2ut i3 e<uilibrium reached and still more molecules are needed,
they must be pumped throu#h the membrane a#ainst concentration #radient1
This process re<uires the use o3 ATP1 4ne e&ample o3 such processes is Sodium L
potassium pump and calcium pump1 %n this process all 3ollo*s similar process1
These are molecules bind to carrier protein, molecule5 carrier comple& pass throu#h
the membrane, assisted by an en/yme I ATP and carrier protein returns to its
ori#inal shape I repeat the process1
b! Endocytosis& poc+etin# in by plasma membrane1 %t includes: Pinocytoss
L cell drin+in# "eceptor L mediated (ndocytosis5 (ndocytosis *ith the help o3
receptor1 Pha#ocytosis5 cell eatin#1
c! E'ocytosis& opposite to (ndocytosis, to remove out undi#ested particles1
,!!, C%to)'as$
Cytoplasm is a matri& or #round substance in *hich various cellular components are
3ound1 %t is thic+ semi transparent, elastic Juid containin# suspended particles and a
series o3 minute tubules and 7laments that 3orm cytos+eleton1 =ater constitutes GC5
E>M o3 the cytoplasm1 %t also contains solid components, proteins, carbohydrates,
lipids and inor#anic substances1 The inor#anic components e&ist as solutions
because they are soluble in *ater1 The maAority o3 or#anic substances ho*ever are
3ound as colloids1 Colloids are particles that remain suspended in the surroundin#
,!!3 Organe''es
4r#anelles are speciali/ed portion o3 the cell *ith a characteristic shape that
assume speci7c role in #ro*th, maintenance, repair and control1
a! Nucleus& 4val in shape and is the lar#est structure in the cell1 Contain the
hereditary 3actor in the cell1 Hence it controls cell activity I structure1 0ost cell
contain sin#le nucleus but some li+e matured "ed 2lood cell do not contain1
Ho*ever 0uscle cell contain several nucleuses1 The nucleus separated 3rom other
cell structure by double membrane called nuclear membrane( Pores over the
nuclear membrane allo* the nucleus to communicate *ith the cytoplasm1 %n the
nucleus a Aelly li+e Juid that 7ll the nucleus is )arylymph neucleoplasm!, *hich
contain the #enetic material called chromosome1 Nucleus also contain dar+,
some*hat spherical, non5membrane bound mass called nucleolus1 %t contains DNA,
"NA and protein, *hich assist in the construction o3 ribosome1
b! Ribosome& tiny #ranules, composed o3 "ibosomal "NA (r"NA!1 They are site o3
protein synthesis
c! Endoplasmic reticulum is a double membrane channel1 %t is continuous *ith
the nuclear membrane1 %t involved in intracellular e&chan#e o3 material *ith the
cytoplasm1 6arious products are transported 3rom one portion o3 the cell to another
via the endoplasmic reticulum1 So it is considered as intracellular
transportation1 %t is also stora#e 3or synthesi/ed molecules1 To#ether *ith
the )ol#i comple& it serves as synthesis I pac+a#in# center1
(ndoplasmic reticulum (("! is divided in to t*o1 These are, #ranular (1"1
Containin# #ranule and involvin# in synthesis o3 protein and a#ranular (1"1 that
synthesi/e lipid I involves in deto&i7cation1
d! *olgi Comple', near to the nucleus1 %t consist 5H membranous sacs1 %t process,
sort, pac+ I deliver protein to various parts o3 the cell1
e! Mitochondria& a small, spherical, rod shaped or 7lamentous structure1 %t
#enerates ener#y1 (ach mitochondria posses t*o membrane, one is smooth (upper!
membrane and the other is arran#ed *ith series o3 3olds called cristae1
The central cavity o3 a mitochondrion enclosed by the inner membrane is the
3! +ysosomes appear as membrane enclosed spheres1 They are 3ormed 3rom
)ol#i comple&es I have sin#le membrane1 They contain po*er3ul di#estive
(hydrolytic en/yme capable o3 brea+in# do*n many +inds o3 molecules1 The
lysosomal en/yme believed to be synthesi/ed in the #ranular endoplasmic
reticulum and )ol#i comple&1
#! The cyto-s)eleton, the cytoplasm has a comple& internal structure consistin# o3
a series o3 e&ceedin#ly small micro7laments, microtubule I intermediate 7laments
to#ether re3erred to as the cyto5s+eleton1
h! Centrosome& a dense area o3 cytoplasm #enerally spherical and
located near the nucleus it contain centrioles1 %t also contains DNA that
controls their replication1 Centrosomes are made o3 microtubules, *hich seam
drin+in# stra*s1 They are %nvolved in the movement o3 chromosome durin# cell
i!Cilia,-agella& thread li+e appenda#es, *hich are made o3 microtubules1 =hen
they are beatin# 3orms rhythmic movement1 They are 3ound in 3emale reproductive
or#an and upper respiratory tube1
,!!7 Ce'' inc'.sion
,ar#e and diverse #roup o3 chemicals, *hich are produced by cells, are cell
inclusions1 %t is mainly or#anic and includes melanin, #lyco#en I ,ipids1
,!, Ce''s o.t o- contro'<cancer
Normal human body cells usually divide at a controlled rate re<uired to replace the
dyin# ones and 3or #ro*th1 Cancer cells are di9erent1 They lac+ the controllin#
mechanism1 Cancer occurs *hen cells #ro*s and divide at abnormal rate I then
spread beyond the ori#inal site1 Some o3 the ris+ 3actors 3or cancer
occurrence are radiation, chemicals, e&treme pressure and hormonal therapy1
Revie: ;.estions
.! The random movement o3 molecules 3rom an area
o3 hi#h concentration to an area o3 lo*er concentration
is called: 5 a1 Di9usion b1(&ocytosis
c1 $acilitated di33usion d1 Active
transport e1 (ndocytosis
8! The most important structural elements o3 the
cyto5 s+eleton are: 5
a1 0icro7laments b1
6acuoles c1 "ibosome
d1 Asters
e1 0icrotubules
-! 0itochondria 3unctions in the synthesis o3
a1 DNA b1 0"NA c1 ATP
d1 r"NA e1 t"NA
! The nucleolus
a1 %s the site o3 ribosomal "NA
synthesis b1 Has a surroundin#
c1 Contains ATP used in chromosome replication
d1 %t is smaller in secretary cell than in non5
secretary1 e1 Speci7es the chemical structure
o3 en/ymes1
C! The Centrosome contains
a1 (ndoplasmic reticulum b1 Cilia
c1 Centrioles d1
$la#ella e1 6acuoles
Learning Objective
At the end o3 this chapter, the students should be able to:
5 Describe types o3 tissues
a! (pithelial tissue
b! Connective tissue
c! Nerve tissue
d! 0uscle tissue
5 (&plain location and 3unction o3 tissues in the body
5 Discuss membranes o3 the body
Cells are hi#hly or#ani/ed units1 2ut in multicultural or#anisms, they do
not 3unction in isolation1 They *or+ to#ether in5#roup o3 similar cells called
tissue( Tissue is a #roup o3 similar cell and their intercellular substance that have a
similar embryolo#ical ori#in and 3unction to#ether to per3orm a speciali/ed activity1
A science that deals *ith the study o3 a tissue is Histolo#y1
The various tissues o3 the body are classi7ed in to 3our principal parts accordin# to
their 3unction I structure1 These are epithelial, connective, muscular, and Nervous
3!! E)it#e'ia' tiss.e
(pithelial tissues covers body sur3ace, lines body cavity I ducts and 3orm
#lands1 They are subdivided in to:
5 Coverin# I linin#
5 )landular epithelium
Covering and lining epithelium: it 3orms the outer coverin# o3 e&ternal body
sur3ace and outer coverin# o3 some internal or#ans1 %t lines body cavity, interior o3
respiratory I #astro intestinal tracts, blood vessels I ducts and ma+e up alon#
*ith the nervous tissue (the parts o3 sense or#ans 3or smell, hearin#, vision and
touch!1 %t is a tissue 3rom *hich #ametes (e## I sperm! develops1
Coverin# and linin# epithelium are classi7ed based on the arran#ement o3 layers
and cell shape1
Accordin# to the arran#ement o3 layers coverin# and linin# epithelium is #rouped
in to:
a! Simple epithelium: it is speciali/ed 3or absorption, and 7ltration *ith minimal
*ear I tear1 %t is a sin#le layered
b! Strati.ed epithelium, it is many layered and 3ound in an area *ith hi#h de#ree
o3 *ear I tear1
c! Pseudo-strati.ed, is a sin#le layered but seam to have many
2ased on the cell shape coverin# and linin# epithelium is
#rouped in to:
a! S/uamous: 5 Jattened I scale li+e
b! Cuboidal: 5 cube shaped
c! Columnar: 5 tall I cylindrical
d! Transitional: 5 combination o3 cell shape 3ound *here there is a #reat
de#ree o3 distention or e&pansion, these may be cuboidal to columnar, cuboidal to
polyhydral and cuboidal to S<uamous
There3ore considerin# the number o3 layers and cell shape *e can classi3y coverin#
and linin# epithelium in to the 3ollo*in# #roups:
Si$)'e e)it#e'i.$
a! Simple L S<uamous epithelium, contain sin#le layer o3 Jat, scale li+e
resemble tiled Joor1 %t is hi#hly adapted to di9usion, osmosis I 7ltration1 Thus, it
lines the air sacs o3 lun#, in +idneys, blood vessels and lymph vessels1
b! Simple L cuboidal epithelium, $lat poly#on that covers the sur3ace o3 ovary,
lines the anterior sur3ace o3 lens o3 the eye, retina I tubules o3 +idney
c! Simple L columnar epithelium, Similar to simple cuboidal1 %t is modi7ed in
several *ays dependin# on location I 3unction1 %t lines the #astro5intestinal tract
#all bladder, e&cretory ducts o3 many #lands1 %t 3unctions in secretions, absorption,
protection I lubrication1
Strati-ie& e)it#e'i.$
%t is more durable, protects underlyin# tissues 3orm e&ternal environment and 3rom
*ear I tear1
a! Strati7ed S<uamous epithelium: %n this type o3 epithelium, the outer cells are Jat1
Strati7ed s<uamous epithelium is subdivided in to t*o based on presence o3
+eratin1 These are Non5Neratni/ed and Neratini/ed strati7ed s<uamous
epithelium1 Non5Neratni/ed strati7ed s<uamous epithelium is 3ound in *et sur3ace
that are subAected to considerable *ear and tear1 (&ample: 5 0outh, ton#ue
and va#ina1 %n Neratini/ed, strati7ed s<uamous epithelium the sur3ace cell o3 this
type 3orms a tou#h layer o3 material containin# +eratin1 (&ample: s+in1 0eratin, is a
*aterproo3 protein, resists 3riction and bacterial invasion1
b! Strati7ed cuboidal epithelium, rare type o3 epithelium1 %t is 3ound in seat #lands
duct, conAunctiva o3 eye, and cavernous urethra o3 the male uro#enital system,
pharyn& I epi#lottis1 %ts main 3unction is secretion1
c! Strati7ed columnar epithelium, uncommon to the body1 Strati7ed columnar
epithelium is 3ound in mil+ duct o3 mammary #land I anus layers1 %t 3unctions in
protection and secretion1
Transitiona' e)it#e'i.$
The distinction is that cells o3 the outer layer in transitional epithelium tend to be
lar#e and rounded rather than Jat1 The 3eature allo*s the tissue to be stretched
*ith out brea+a#e1 %t is 3ound in Urinary bladder, part o3 Ureters I urethra1
Pse.&o strati4e& e)it#e'i.$
,ines the lar#er e&cretory ducts o3 many #lands, epididymis, parts o3 male urethra
and auditory tubes1 %ts main 3unction is protection I secretion
3!!, G'an&.'ar E)it#e'i.$
Their main 3unction is secretion1 A #land may consist o3 one cell or a #roup o3 hi#hly
speciali/ed epithelial cell1 )lands can be classi7ed into e&ocrine and endocrine
accordin# to *here they release their secretion1
E'ocrine: Those #lands that empties their secretion in to ducts'tubes that empty at
the sur3ace o3 coverin#1 Their main products are mucous, oil, *a&, perspiration and
di#estive en/yme1 S*eat I salivary #lands are e&ocrine #lands1
Endocrine: They ultimately secret their products into the blood system1 The
secretions o3 endocrine #lands are al*ays hormones1 Hormones are chemicals that
re#ulate various physiolo#ical activities1 Pituitary, thyroid I adrenal #lands are
C'assi4cation o- e5ocrine g'an&s
They are classi7ed by their structure and shape o3 the secretary portion1 Accordin#
to structural classi7cation they are #rouped into:
a! 1nicellular gland: Sin#le celled1 The best e&amples are #oblet cell in
"espiratory, )astrointestinal I )enitourinary system1
b! Multicultural gland: $ound in several di9erent 3orms
2y loo+in# in to the secretary portion e&ocrine #lands are
#rouped into
a! Tubular gland: %3 the secretary portion o3 a #land is tubular1
b! Acinar gland: %3 the secretary portion is Jas+ li+e1
C! Tubulo-acinar: i3 it contains both tubular I Jas+ shaped secretary
$urther more i3 the duct does not branch it is re3erred as a simple #land and i3 it
branchOs it is compound #land1 2y combinin# the shape o3 the secretary portion
*ith the de#ree o3 branchin# o3 the duct o3 e&ocrine #lands are classi7ed in to
5 Unicellular
5 0ulti5cellular
Simple tubular
2ranched tubular
Coiled tubular
2ranched Acinar
5 Compound
3!!, Connective tiss.e
Connective tissues o3 the body are classi7ed into embryonic connective tissue and
adult connective tissue1
E$br%onic connective tiss.e
(mbrayonic connective tissue contains mesenchyme I mucous connective tissue1
0esenchyme is the tissue 3rom *hich all other connective tissue eventually
arises1 %t is located beneath the s+in and alon# the developin# bone o3 the
embryo1 0ucous (=hartonPs Delly! connective tissue is 3ound primarily in the 3etus
and located in the umbilical cord o3 the 3etus *here it supports the cord1
A&.'t connective tiss.e
%t is di9erentiated 3rom mesenchyme and does not chan#e a3ter birth1 Adult
connective tissue composes connective tissue proper, cartila#e, osseous (bone!
I vascular (blood! tissue
a!Connective tissue proper& connective tissue proper has a more or less Juid
intercellular martial and 7broblast1 The various 3orms o3 connective tissue proper
Q ,oose (areolar! connectives tissue, *hich are *idely distributed and
consists colla#enic, elastic I reticular 7bers and several cells embedded in
semi Juid intercellular substances1 %t supports tissues, or#an blood vessels I
nerves1 %t also 3orms subcutaneous layer'super7cial 3ascia'hypodermis1
Q Adipose tissue: %t is the subcutaneous layer belo* the s+in, speciali/ed 3or
3at stora#e1 $ound *here there is loose connective tissue1 %t is common around the
+idney, at the base and on the sur3ace o3 the heart, in the marro* o3 lon# bone, as
a paddin# around Aoints and behind the eye ball1 %t is poor conductor o3 heat, so it
decrease heat loss 3rom the body
Q Dense (Colla#enous! connective tissue: $ibers are closely pac+ed than in
loose connective tissue1 (&ists in areas *here tensions are e&erted in various
directions1 %n areas *here 7bers are inter*oven *ith out re#ular orientation the
3orces e&erted are in many directions1 This occurs in most 3ascia li+e deeper re#ion
o3 dermis, periosteum o3 bone and membrane capsules1 %n other areas dense
connective tissue adapted tension in one direction and 7bers have parallel
arran#ement1 (&amples are tendons and li#aments1 Dense connective tissues
provide support I protection and connect muscle to bone1
Q (lastic connective tissue: Posses 3reely branchin# elastic 7bers1 They stretch
and snap bac+ in to ori#inal shape1 They are components o3 *all o3 arteries,
trachea, bronchial tubes I lun#s1 %t also 3orms vocal cord1 (lastic connective tissue
allo*s stretchin#, and provides support I suspension1
Q "eticular connective tissue: ,attice o3 7ne, inter*oven threads that
branch 3reely, 3ormin# connectin# and supportin# 3rame*or+1 %t helps to 3orm
a delicate supportin# storma 3or many or#ans includin# liver, spleen and lymph
nodes1 %t also helps to bind to#ether the 3ibers (cells! o3 smooth muscle tissue1
b+ Carti'age
Unli+e other connective tissue, cartila#es have no blood vessels and nerves1 %t
consists o3 a dense net*or+ o3 colla#enous 7bers and elastic 7bers 7rmly embedded
in chondriotin sul3ate1 The stren#th is because o3 colla#enous 7bers1 The cells o3 a
matured cartila#e are called chondrocyte1 The sur3ace o3 a cartila#e is
surrounded by irre#ularly arran#ed dense connective tissue called
perichondrium1 Cartila#es are classi7ed in to hyaline, 7bro I elastic cartila#e1
2yaline cartilage is called #ristle, most abundant, blue *hite in color I able to bear
*ei#ht1 $ound at Aoints over lon# bones as articlar cartila#e and 3orms costal
cartila#e (at ventral end o3 ribs!1 %t also 3orms nose, laryn&, trachea, bronchi and
bronchial tubes1 %t 3orms embryonic s+eleton, rein3orce respiration, aids in 3ree
movement o3 Aoints and assists rib ca#e to move durin# breathin#1
%ibro cartilage: they are 3ound at the symphysis pubis, in the inter5vertebral discs
and +nee1 %t provides support and protection1
Elastic cartilage: in elastic cartila#e the chondrocyte are located in thread li+e
net*or+ o3 elastic 7bers1 (lastic cartila#e provides stren#th and elasticity and
maintains the shape o3 certain or#ans li+e epi#lottis, laryn&, e&ternal part o3 the ear
and (ustachian tube1
c+ Osseo.s tiss.e *6one+
The matured bone cell osteocytes, embedded in the intercellular substance
consistin# mineral salts (calcium phosphate and calcium carbonate! *ith
colla#enous 7bers1 The osseous tissue to#ether *ith cartila#e and Aoints it
comprises the s+eletal system1
&+ >asc.'ar tiss.e *6'oo& tiss.e!
%t is a li<uid connective tissue1 %t contains intercellular substance plasma1 Plasma is
a stra* colored li<uid, consists *ater and dissolved material1 The 3ormed elements
o3 the blood are erythrocytes, leu+ocytes and thrombocytes1 The 7brous
characteristics o3 a blood revealed *hen clotted1
3!!3'e tiss.e
0uscle tissue consists o3 hi#hly speciali/ed cells, *hich provides motion,
maintenance o3 posture and heat production1 Classi3ication o3 muscles is made by
structure and 3unction1 0uscle tissues are #rouped in to s+eletal, cardiac and
smooth muscle tissue1
5S+eletal muscle tissue are attached to bones, it is voluntary, cylindrical,
multinucleated I striated
5Cardiac muscle tissue: %t 3orms the *all o3 the heartR it is involuntary, uni5
nucleated and striated
5Smooth muscle tissue: located in the *all o3 hallo* internal structure li+e
2lood vessels, stomach, intestine, and urinary bladder1 %t is involuntary and non5
3!!7 Nervo.s tiss.e
Nervous tissue contains t*o principal cell types1 These are the neurons and the
neuro#lia1 Neurons are nerve cells, sensitive to various stimuli1 %t converts
stimuli to nerve impulse1 Neurons are the structural and 3unctional unit o3 the
nervous system1 %t contains - basic portions1 These are cell body, a&ons and
dendrites1 Neuro#lias are cells that protect, nourish and support neurons1 Clinically
they are important because they are potential to replicate and produce
cancerous #ro*ths1
3!, Me$branes
0embranes are thin pliable layers o3 epithelial and'or connective tissue1 They line
body cavities, cover sur3aces, connect, or separate re#ions, structures and or#ans
o3 the body1 The three +inds o3 membranes are mucous, serous and synovial1
Q0ucous membranes (mucosa! lines body cavity that opens directly to the
e&terior1 %t is an epithelial layer1 0ucous membranes line the entire #astro intestine,
respiratory e&cretory and reproductive tracts and constitute a linin#
layer o3 epithelium1 The connective tissue layer o3 mucous membrane is
lamina propra1 To prevent dry out and to trap particles mucous membranes secret
QSerous membrane ' serosa: contains loose connective tissue covered by a
layer o3 mesothelium1 %t lines body cavity that does not open directly to the e&terior1
Covers the or#ans that lie *ith in the cavity1 Serosa is composed o3 parietal layer
(pertainin# to be outer! and visceral layer (pertainin# to be near to the or#an!1
Pleura and pericardium are serous membrane that line thoracic and heart cavity
respectively1 The epithelial layer o3 a serious membrane secret a lubricatin# Juid
called serious Juid1 The Juid allo*s or#ans to #lide one another easily1
QSynovial membrane: Unli+e to other membranes this membrane does not
contain epithelium1 There3ore, it is not epithelial membrane1 %t lines the cavities o3
the 3reely movable Aoints1 ,i+e serious membrane it lines structures that do not
open to the e&terior1 Synovial membranes secret synovial Juid that lubricate
articular cartila#e at the ends o3 bones as they move at Aoints1
Revie: ;.estions
.1 Unicellular #lands composed o3 columnar cells
that secrete mucous are +no*n as:5
a! Cilia
b! 0icrovilli
c! )oblet cell
d! (ndocrine #lands
e! 2asal cell
81 A #roup o3 similar cell that has a similar
embryolo#ical ori#in and operates to#ether to
per3orm a speciali/ed activity is called:5
a! 4r#an b!
Tissue c!
d! 4r#an system
e! 4r#anism
-1 0ucous membranes
a! ,ines cavities o3 the body that are not open
to the outside
b! Secret thin *atery serous
c! Cover the outside o3 such or#ans as the
+idney and stomach
d! Are 3ound linin# the respiratory I urinary
e! Are described by none o3 the
1 =hich o3 the 3ollo*in# is involuntary and striatedK
a! S+eletal muscle tissue
b! Cardiac muscle tissue
c! Smooth muscle tissue
d! 6isceral muscle tissue
e! Neural tissue
C1 =hich tissue is characteri/ed by the presence
o3 cell bodies, dendrites and a&onsK
a! 0uscle b!
6ascular c!
Nervous d!
e! 4sseous
C#a)ter objectives1
At the end o3 this chapter, the students should be able to
5 Describe s+in o3 the human body
5 Discuss #lands o3 the s+in
5 (&plain the structure and 3unction o3 hair
5 Discuss about nails
The %nte#umentary system consist the s+in and its derivatives1 These
include hair, nails, and several types o3 #lands1
The system 3unctions in protection, in the re#ulation o3 body temperature, in the
e&cretion o3 *aste materials, in the synthesis o3 vitamin D
*ith the help o3
sunrays, and in the reception o3 various stimuli perceived as pain, pressure and
7! S?in
S+in is the lar#est or#an in the body occupyin# almost 8m
o3 sur3ace area thic+ens
o3 8mm1 S+in has - main parts1 These are the epidermis, dermis and hypodermis1
E)i&er$is is the outer layer o3 the s+in that is made o3 strati7ed s<uamous
epithelium1 %t has no blood supply1 (pidermis contains 5C strata1 These are stratum
cornium, lucidium, #ranulosum, spinosum and basale, Stratum cornium is the outer,
dead, Jat, Neratini/ed and thic+er layer1
Stratum lucidium is ne&t to stratum cornium1 %t consists o3 Jat, translucent layers
o3 cells1 This stratum 3ound in thic+ s+in only1
Stratum #ranulosum lies Aust belo* stratum lucidium1 The cells in this layer are
in the process o3 +eratini/ation1
Stratum spinosum: ne&t do*n to stratum #ranulosum1 The cells in this stratum have
a poly5hydral shape and they are in the process o3 protein synthesis1
Stratum basale rests on the basement membrane, and it is the last layer o3
epidermis ne&t to stratum spinosum1 Stratum basale to#ether *ith stratum
spinosum constitute stratum #erminativum1
Der$is < tr.e s?in/ a stron#, Je&ible, connective tissue mesh *or+ o3 colla#en,
reticular and elastic 3ibers1 0ost part o3 the s+in is composed o3 dermis1
Dermis contains papillary and reticular layers1 Papillary layer is ne&t to stratum
basale o3 the epidermis1 %t contains loose connective tissue *ith in the bundles o3
colla#enous 3ibers1 %t also contains loose capillaries that nourish the epidermis1 %n
some areas papillary layer have special nerve endin#s that serve as touch
receptors (meissnerPs corpuscles!1 %ndentations o3 papillary layer in the palms
and soles reJected over the epidermis to create ridges1
Reticular layer: ne&t to papillary layer1 %t is made o3 dense connective tissue *ith
course o3 colla#enous 7ber bundles that crisscross to 3orm a storma o3 elastic
net*or+1 %n the reticular layer many blood and lymphatic vessels, nerves, 3at cell,
sebaceous (oil! #lands and hair roots are embedded1
"eceptors o3 deep pressure (pacinian corpuscles! are distributed throu#h out the
H%)o&er$s: it is 3ound beneath the dermis1 %t is a subcutaneous layer (under the
s+in!1 Hypodermis is composed o3 loose, 7brous connective tissue, *hich is richly
supplied *ith lymphatic and blood vessels and nerves1 Hypodermis is much thic+er
than dermis1 =ith in it coils o3 ducts o3 sudori3erous (s*eat! #lands, and the base o3
hair 3ollicles1
0ig.re1 7! T#e s?in (source: Carola, "1, Harley,D1P1,
Nobac+ "1C1, (.EE8!, Human anatomy and physiolo#y,
0c )ra* hill inc, Ne* For+, 8
ed, pp .8!
7!! 0.nctions o- S?in
.1 Protection: a#ainst harm3ul microor#anisms, 3orei#n material and it
prevents e&cessive loss o3 body Juid1
81 Temperature regulation: *ith the s*eat, heat leaves the body
-1 E'cretion: Small amount o3 *aste products 3rom the body such
as urea
1 Synthesis: 2y the action o3 U61 6itamin D is synthesi/ed in the s+in1 6itamin D
is necessary 3or absorption calcium 3rom intestine1
C1 Sensory reception: it contains sensory receptors o3 heat, cold, touch, pressure,
and pain1
7!!, Co'or o- t#e s?in
S+inPs color is determined by - 3actors
.1 The presence o3 melanin a dar+ pi#ment produced by speciali/ed cell called
81 The accumulation o3 yello* pi#ment carotene(
-1 The color o3 blood reJected throu#h the epidermis
5The main 3unction o3 melanin is to screen out e&cessive ultraviolet
5All races have some melanin in their s+ins althou#h the dar+er races have
sli#htly more melanocyte1 The person *ho is #enetically unable to produce any
melanin is an albino(
7!, G'an&s o- t#e S?in
)lands o3 the s+in are the sudori3erous and
sebaceous #lands1
7!,!! S.&ori-ero.s <s:eat< g'an&s
Types: (ccrine and Apocrine #lands
Eccrine glands are small, simple coiled tubular #lands distributed over nearly the
entire body, and they are absent over nail beds, mar#ins o3 lips o3 vulva, tips o3
penis1 (ccrine #lands are numerous over the palms and soles1 Their secretary
portion is embedded in the hypodermis1 The s*eat they secret is colorless, a<ueous
Juid containin# neutral 3ats, albumin, urea, lactic acid and sodium chloride1 %ts
e&cretion helps body temperature to be re#ulated1
Apocrine glands are odi3erous, 3ound at the armpits, in the dar+ re#ion around
nipples, the outer lips o3 the vulva, and the anal and #enital re#ions1 They are lar#er
and deeply situate than eccrine s*eet #lands1 An apocrine s*eet #land becomes
active at puberty1 They respond to stress includin# se&ual activity1 The 3emale
breasts are apocrine #lands that have become adapted to secret and release mil+
instead o3 s*eat1 The ceruminous #lands in the outer ear canal are also apocrine
s+in #lands1
7!,!, Sebaceo.s *Oi'+ g'an&s
Sebaceous #lands are simple branched alveolar #lands 3ound in the dermis1 Their
main 3unctions are lubrication and protection1 They are connected to hair 3ollicles
and secret oily secretion called sebum1 %t is a semi Juid substance composed o3
entirely lipids1 %t 3unctions as a permeability barrier, an emollient (s+in
so3tenin#! and a protective a #ent a#ainst bacteria and 3un#i1 This type o3 #land
3ound all over the body e&cept in the palms and soles1 Acne vul#aris is a condition
*hen there is over secretion o3 sebum, *hich may enlar#e the #land and plu#
three layers from the inside out medulla, cortex and cuticle.
the pore1
7!3 Hair
Hair is composed o3 Neratini/ed threads o3 cells, *hich develops 3rom the
epidermis1 2ecause it arises 3rom the s+in, it is considered an appenda#e o3 the
s+in1 %t covers the entire body e&cept the palms, soles, lips, tip o3 penis, inner lips
o3 vulva and nipples1
7!3! 0.nction
5 #nsulation a#ainst cold in scalp
5 Against glare in eye bro*s
5 Screen a#ainst 3orei#n particles (eye lashes!
5 %n the nostrils trap dust particles in the inhaled air
5 Protect openin#s 3rom 3orei#n particles1
7!3!, o- Hair
Hair has t*o parts, the sha3t the part above s+in and the root embedded in the
s+in1 Hair consist epithelial cell arran#ed in three layers 3rom the inside out
medulla, corte& and cuticle1
0ig.re1 7!, t#e Hair (source: Carola, "1, Harley,D1P1,
"1C1, (.EE8!, Human anatomy and physiolo#y, 0c )ra* hill inc, Ne*
ed, pp.-8!
The lo*er portion o3 the root, located in the hypodermis enlar#es to 3orm the
bulbs1 The bulb is composed o3 the matri& o3 epithelial cells1 The bulb pushes in
*ard alon# its bottom to 3orm a papilla o3 blood rich connective tissue1 Part o3 the
hair 3ollicle is attached *ith the bundle o3 smooth muscle about hal3*ay do*n
the 3ollicle1 These are arrecter pili muscles1 =hen it contracts in pulls the 3ollicles
and its hair to an erect position producin# #oose bump1 Hair #ro*s and *hen
it 7nishes its #ro*th sheds1 The #ro*th rate o3 hair depends on its position1 The
3astest #ro*th rate occurs over the scalp o3 *omen a#ed .? to 8 years1 Scalp hair
#ro*s >1 m1m per day (an avera#e scalp contain .8C1>>> hairs!1 Hair sheds *hen
it #ro*th is complete1 Dust be3ore a hair is to be shed, the matri& cell #radually
become inactive and eventually dies1
7!7 Nai'
Nails, li+e hair are modi7cations o3 the epidermis1 They are made o3 hard +eratin1
Nails are composed o3 Jat, corni7ed plates on the dorsal sur3ace o3 the distal
se#ment o3 the 7n#ers and toe1 The pro&imal part o3 nail is lunula& *hich is *hite
in its color because o3 the capillaries underneath are covered by thic+ epithelium1
Nail has body and root1 The body is the e&posed part and the root is hidden under
the s+in1 The nail ends *ith a 3ree ed#e that overhan#s the tip o3 the 7n#ers1
(pithelial layer coverin# underneath o3 the 3ore5han# nail is hyponychyem1 The nail
rests on an epithelial layer o3 s+in called nail bed1 The thic+er layer o3 s+in beneath
the nail root is the matri'& 4here ne* cells are #enerated1 Nail #ro*s >1C m1m a
*ee+1 Thin layers o3 epidermis called eponychium ori#inally cover the #ro*in# nail(
4ur nail protects our 7n#ers and toes1 %t also allo*s pic+in# up and #raspin#
obAects as *ell *e use them to scratch1
0ig.re1 7!3 0inger nai' (Source: Carola, "1, Harley,D1P1,
Nobac+ "1C1, (.EE8!, Human anatomy and physiolo#y, 0c )ra* hill
inc, Ne* For+, 8
ed, pp .-!
Revie: ;.estions
.1 =hich o3 the 3ollo*in# s+in layers
under#oes cellular re#enerationK
a! Stratum basale
b! Stratum spinosum
c! Stratum #ranulosum
d! a and b only
e! a, b and c
81 =hich o3 the 3ollo*in# is 'are 3ound in the
reticular layer o3 the s+inK
a! 2lood and lymph vessels
b! Nerves
c! Sensory nerve endin#s
d! Sebaceous #lands
e! All o3 the above
-1 S+in #ets its color
3rom a! Carotene
b! Underlyin# blood vessels
c! 0elanin
d! a and b only
e! a, b and c
1 Sudori3erous #lands secret their secretion in response to:
a! Physiolo#ical process
b! Heat
c! Stress
d! Se&ual e&perience
e! %n all o3 the above condition
C1 Hair covers all o3 the 3ollo*in# parts o3 the
body e&cept: 5
a! Sole b!
$ace c!
Nec+ d!
e! 4uter vulva
Learning Objective
At the end o3 this chapter, the students should be able to:
5Discuss bone tissue1
5(&plain the #eneral 3eature and sur3ace mar+in#s o3 bones1
5Discuss s+eleton and its 3unction:
5A&ial s+eleton
5Appendicular s+eleton1
5(&plain Aoints, types o3 Aoints and their movements
The *ord s+eleton comes 3rom the )ree+ *ord s+eleton meanin# :dried up;1 %t is
stron# yet li#ht adapted 3or its 3unction o3 body protection and motion1 The
s+eletal system includes bones, Aoints, cartila#es and li#aments1 The Aoint #ive the
body Je&ibility and allo* movements to occur1 2ut 3rom structural point o3 vie*, the
human s+eletal system consists o3 t*o main types o3 supportive connective tissue,
bone and cartilage1
0.nctions o- t#e s?e'eta' s%ste$:
.1 Support1 it 3orms the internal 3rame*or+ that supports and anchors all so3t
81 Protection1 bones protect so3t body or#ans1
-1 Movement: s+eletal muscles attached to the s+eletal system use the
bone to levers to move the body and its part1
1 Storage: 3at is stored in the internal cavities o3 bones1 2one it sel35serves as
a storehouse o3 minerals1 The most important bein# calcium and phosphors1
C1 Blood cell formation: it occurs *ith in the marro* cavities o3 certain
9! 6one
2one (osseous! is speciali/ed connective tissue that has the stren#th o3 cast iron
and li#htness o3 pine*ood1 ,ivin# bone is not dry, brittle or dead1 %t is a moist
chan#in#, productive tissue that is continually resorbed, re3ormed and remodeled1
9!! T%)es o- bone
+ong bone& are called lon# as its len#th is #reater than its *idth1 The most obvious
lon# bones are in the arm and le#1 They act as levers that pulled by contraction o3
Short bones are about e<ual in len#th, *idth and thic+ness, *hich are shaped *ith
re#ular orientation1 They occur in the *rist and an+le1
%lat bones are thin or curved more o3ten they are Jat1 This includes ribs, scapulae,
sternum and bone o3 cranium1
#rregular bones, they do not 7t neatly into any other cate#ory1 (&amples are the
vertebral, 3acial, and hipbone1
Sesamoid bones are small bones embedded *ith in certain tendons, the 7brous cord
that connects muscle to bones1 Typical sesamoid bones are patella and pisi3orm
carpal bone, *hich are in the tendon o3 <uadriceps 3emuris and Je&or carp ulnaris
muscle respectively1
Accessory bones are most commonly 3ound in the 3eet1 They usually occur in the
developin# bone and do not 3use completely1 They loo+ li+e e&tra bones or bro+en
on S5ray1 Sutural 4ormian! bones are e&amples o3 accessory bones1
0ig.re1 9! T%)es o- bones (Source: (laine n1
0A"%(2, (8>>>!, (ssentials o3 human anatomy and
physiolo#y, Addison *elsey lon#man inc1, San
$rancisco, ?
9!!,! Gross anato$% o- a t%)ica' 'ong bone
Fou can ta+e Tibia (in the le#! one o3 the
lon#est bones in the body1 %n adults it have:
5iaphis& the tubular sha3t, hallo* cylindrical
*ith *alls o3 compact bone tissue1 The
center o3 the cylinder is the medullary cavity,
*hich is 7lled *ith marro*1
Epiphysis is rou#hly spherical end o3 the
bone1 %t is *ider than the sha3t1 $lat and
irre#ular bones o3 the trun+ and limbs
have many epiphysis and the lon# bones
o3 the 7n#er and toe have only one
0ig.re1 9!, T%)ica' 'ong bone
*So.rce1 Caro'aA R!A
Har'e%AB!P!A Nobac? R!C!A
(.EE8!, Human anatomy and
physiolo#y, 0c )ra* hill inc,
Ne* For+, 8
ed, pp
Metaphysis is the part separatin# diaphysis 3rom epiphysis1 %t is made up o3
epiphyseal plate and adAacent bony trabeculae o3 cancellous bone tissue1
Epiphyseal plate is a thic+ plate o3 hyaline cartila#e, *hich provides the 3rame*or+
o3 synthesis o3 the cancellous bone tissue *ithin metaphysis1
Q The medullary cavity runnin# throu#h the len#th o3 the diaphysis contains
6ello4 marro4(
Q The porous lattice*or+ o3 the spon#y epiphyses is 7lled *ith red bone
marro4( The red marro* also +no*n as myeloid tissue
Endosteum is the linin# the medullary cavity o3 compact bone tissue and coverin#
the trabeculae o3 spon#y bone tissue1
Periosteum: it is coverin# the outer sur3ace o3 the bone1 %t is absent at Aoints and
replaced by articular cartila#e1
9!!3 6one *Osseo.s+ Tiss.e
2one tissue is composed o3 cells embedded in a matri& o3 #round substances and
7bers1 %t is more ri#id than other tissues because it contains inor#anic salts
mainly calcium phosphate I calcium carbonate1 A net*or+ o3 colla#enous 7bers in
the matri& #ives bone tissue its stren#th and Je&ibility1 0ost bones have an
outer sheet o3 compact bone tissue enclosin# an interior spon#y bone tissue1
Compact bone tissue 3orms the outer sheet o3 a bone1 %t is very hard and dense1
%t appears to na+ed eye to be solid but not1 Compact bone tissue contains cylinders
o3 calci7ed bone +no*n as osteons 2aversion system!( 4steons are made up o3
concentric layers called lamellae& *hich are arran#ed seemin#ly in *ider and *ider
drin+in# stra*s1 %n the center o3 the osteons are central canals haversion canal! ,
*hich are lon#itudinal canals that contains blood vessels, nerves and lymphatic
vessels1 Central canals, usually have branches called per3orating canals
,val)mann7s canal that run at ri#ht an#le to central canal e&tendin# the system o3
nerves and vessels out *ard to periosteum and to endosteum1 +acunae (,ittle
spaces! that houses osteocytes (bone cells! are contained in lamella1 "adiatin# 3rom
each lacuna are tiny canaliculi containin# the slender e&tensions o3 the osteocytes
*here nutrients and *astes can pass to and 3rom central canal1
Spongy cancellous! 8one tissue %s in the 3orm o3 an open interlaced pattern that
*ithstands ma&imum stress and supports in shi3tin# stress1 Trabeculae are tiny
spi+es o3 bone tissue surrounded by bone matri& that has calci7ed1
0ig.re1 9!3 Co$)act bone (Source:
(laine n1 0A"%(2, (8>>>!, (ssentials o3 human
anatomy and physiolo#y, Addison *elsey
lon#man inc1, San $rancisco, ?
6one Ce''s
2one contain 7ve types o3 cells
a! "steogenic osteoprogenitor! cells: these are small spindle shaped
cell1 They 3ound mostly in the deepest layer o3 periosteum and
endosteum1 They have hi#h mitotic potential and can be trans3ormed into bone
3ormin# cells (osteoblasts!1
b! "steoblasts are 3ound in the #ro*in# portion o3 bone includin#
periosteum1 They are able to synthesi/e and secrete un5minerali/ed #round
substance, act as pump cell to move calcium and phosphate in and out o3 bone
c! "steocytes are the main cell o3 3ully developed bones1 They have a cell body
that occupies a lacuna1 4steocytes are derived 3rom osteoblasts1 They to#ether *ith
osteoclasts play an important role o3 homeostasis by helpin# to release calcium1
d! "steoclasts are multinuclear #iant cell, *hich are 3ound *here bone is
resorbed durin# its normal #ro*th1 4steoclasts are derived 3rom *hite blood cells
called monocytes1
e! 8one - lining cells are 3ound on the sur3ace o3 most bones in the adult
s+eleton1 They are believed to be derived 3rom osteoblast that ceases their
physiolo#ical activity1
9!!9 Deve'o)$enta' Anato$% an& Gro:t# o- 6ones
2ones develop throu#h a process +no*n as "ssi.cation( 2one in embryo
develops in t*o *ays: #ntra-membranous ossi.cation& %3 bone develops directly 3rom
mesenchymal tissue1 (&amples are vault o3 the s+ull, Jat bones and part o3 the
clavicle1 %n this type o3 ossi7cation development continues rapidly 3rom the
center1 Endochondrial "ssi3ication& =hen bone tissue develops by replacin#
hyaline cartila#e1 The cartila#e it sel3 do not converted into bone but the cartila#e
is replaced by bone throu#h the process1 (ndochondrial ossi7cation produces lon#
bones and all other bones not 3ormed by intra5membranous ossi3ication1
0.nction o- bone
Q Supportive and protection o3 internal or#ans1
Q The store house and main supply o3 reserve calcium and phosphate1
Q The manu3acture o3 red and *hite blood cell1
Tab'e 9! Co$)arison bet:een bone an& carti'age (Source: Carola, "1,
Harley,D1P1, Nobac+ "1C1, (.EE8!, Human anatomy and physiolo#y, 0c )ra* hill
inc, Ne* For+, 8nd ed, pp .C-! 6one Carti'age
2one cells
Cartila#e cell
7ber )round
,ocations o3
%n lacunae %n lacunae
Periosteum Perichondrium
Derivation 0esenchyme 0esenchyme
Contain 2'6 Has no 2'v
Stren#th Stron#er than
Not stron# as
Nutrients 2y capillaries to
cell by
$rom tissue
Juid by
9!, T#e S?e'eton
Genera' -.t.res an& s.r-ace $ar?ings
,oo+in# to the bone reveals the sur3ace is not smooth but scarred *ith bumps,
holes and rid#es1 These are sur3ace mar+in#s *here muscles, tendons and
li#aments attached, blood I lymph vessels and nerves pass1
De)ression an& o)enings
%issure narro*, cle3t li+e openin# bet*een adAacent parts o3 bone1 (&ample: Supra
o3 orbital 7ssure1
%oramen& a bi##er, round openin#1 (&ample: $oramen ma#num1
Meatus: a relatively narro* tubular canal1 (&ample: (&ternal auditory meatus
*roves and sulcus: are deep 3urro* on the sur3ace o3 a bone or other structure1
(&ample: %nter5vertebral and radial #roves o3 humers1
%ossa: shallo* depressed area1 (&ample: 0andibular 3ossa(
Processes t#at -or$ joints
Condyle ' +nuc+le li+e process' concave or conve&1 (&ample 0edial condyle o3
3emur 2ead& e'panded, rounded sur3ace at pro&imal end o3 a bone o3ten Aoined to
sha3t by a narro*ed nec+( (&ample: Head o3 3emur
%acet: small, Jat sur3ace( (&ample: Articular 3acet o3 ribs1
Process to :#ic# ten&onsA 'iga$ents an& ot#er Connective
tiss.e attac#
Tubercle: it is a +nob li+e process1 (&ample: )reater tubercle o3 humerus1
Tuberosity: it is lar#e, round rou#hened process1 (&ample: ischeal tuberosity1
Trochanter: it is a lar#e, blunt proAection 3ound only on 3emur
Crest is a prominent rid#e1 (&ample: %liac crest1
+ine: it is a less prominent rid#e than a crest1
Spinous process spine! is a sharp, slender process1 (&ample %scheal spin
Epicondyle is a prominence above condyle1 (&ample medial
(picondyle o3 $emur
9!,!, Division o- t#e s?e'eta' s%ste$
The Adult human s+eletons have 8>? named bones that are #rouped in to t*o
principal parts1 These are the a&ial and appendicular s+eleton1 The A'ial
s)eleton consist bones that lie around the a&is1 And the appendicular s)eleton
consist bones o3 the body out o3 the a&ial #roup1 These are appenda#es1 Upper I
lo*er e&tremities and bones o3 #irdles are #rouped under appendicular s+eleton1
0ig.re1 9!7 A5ia' an& A))en&ic.'ar
s?e'eton (Source: Carola, "1, Harley,D1P1,
Nobac+ "1C1, (.EE8!, Human anatomy and
physiolo#y, 0c )ra* hill inc, Ne* For+, 8
ed, pp .??!
Tab'e 9!, Divisions o3 The Adult S+eleton (8>? 2ones!
Skull (29 bones!
l (8!
d (.!
l (.!
0a&illary (8!
(molar! (8!
,acrimal (8!
Nasal (8!
%n3erior nasal
conchii (8!
#pper e$tremities (%&
Pectoral (shoulder! #irdle

a (8!
Humerus (8!

Carpals (.?!
*and and +ngers
s (.>!
Total a&ial bones
Total Appendicular bones
U The number o3 s+ull bones is sometimes listed as 88, *hen the 4ssicles o3 the
ears (? bones! and the sin#le hyoid bone is counted separately1 Technically, the
hyoid bone is not part o3 the s+ull1
VThe thoracic vertebrae are sometimes included in this cate#ory1
W Technically, the term arm re3ers to the upper e&tremity bet*een the shoulder and
elbo*R the 3orearm is bet*een the elbo* and *rist1 The upper part o3 the lo*er
e&tremity, bet*een the pelvis and +nee, is the thi#hR the le# is bet*een the +nees
an an+le1
9!,!3 T#e A5ia' s?e'eton
9!,!3! T#e s?.''
%t Contain 88 bones1 The s+ull rests on the superior o3 vertebral column1 %t is
composed o3 cranial and 3acial bones1
Tab'e 9!3 Descri)tion an& -.nction o- Crania' 6ones (Source: Carola, "1,
Harley,D1P1, Nobac+ "1C1, (.EE8!, Human anatomy and physiolo#y, 0c )ra* hill inc,
Ne* For+, 8
ed, pp .G>!
Descri)tion an& -.nction
(thmoid (.! 2ase o3 cranium, anterior to body o3
sphenoid1 0ade up o3 hori/ontal, cribri3orm
plate, median perpendicular plate, paired
lateral massesR contains ethmoidal
sinuses, crista #alli, superior and middle
conchae1 $orms roo3 o3 nasal cavity and
septum, part o3 cranium JoorR site o3
attachment 3or membranes coverin# brain1
$rontal (.! Anterior and superior parts o3 cranium,
3orehead, bro* areas1
Shaped li+e lar#e scoopR 3rontal s<uama
3orms 3oreheadR orbital plate 3orms roo3 o3
orbitR supraorbital rid#e 3orms bro* rid#eR
contains 3rontal sinuses, supraorbital
3oramen1 Protects 3ront o3 brainR contains
passa#e*ay 3or nerves, blood vessels1
4ccipital (.! Posterior part o3 cranium, includin#
base1 Sli#htly curved plate, =ith turned5 up
ed#esR made up o3 s<uamous, base, and t*o
lateral partsR contains 3oramen ma#num,
occipital condyles, hypo5#lossal canals,
atlanto5occipital Aoint, e&ternal occipital crest
and protuberance1 Protects posterior part o3
brainR 3orms 3oramina 3or spinal cord and
nervesR site o3 attachment 3or muscles,
Parietal (8! Superior sides and roo3 o3 cranium,
bet*een 3rontal and occipital bones1
2road, sli#htly conve& platesR smooth
e&teriors and internal depressions1 Protect
top, sides o3 brain, passa#e*ay 3or blood
Sphenoid (.! 2ase o3 cranium, anterior to occipital
and temporal bones1
=ed#e5shapedR made up o3 body, #reater
and lesser lateral *in#s, ptery#oid
processesR contains sphenoidal sinuses,
sella turcica, optic 3oramen, superior orbital
7ssure, 3oramen ovale, 3oramen rotundum,
3oramen spinosum $orms anterior part o3
base o3 craniumR houses pituitary #landR
contains 3oramina 3or cranial nerves,
menin#eal artery to brain1
Temporal (8! Sides and base o3 cranium at temples1
0ade up o3 s<uamous, petrous, tympanic,
mastoid areasR contain /y#omatic process,
mandibular 3ossa, ear 4ssicles, mastoid
sinuses1 $orm temples, part o3 chee+bonesR
articulate *ith lo*er Aa*R protect ear
ossiclesR site o3 attachments 3or nec+
0ig.re1 9!9 Latera' vie: o- crania' s?.'' (source:
Carola, "1, Harley,D1P1, Nobac+ "1C1, (.EE8!, Human
anatomy and physiolo#y, 0c )ra* hill inc, Ne* For+,
ed, pp .G>!
0eanin# to stitch, are immovable Aoint 3ound bet*een s+ull bones1 There are
3our main sutures in the s+ull1
a! Coronal suture: bet*een the 3rontal I the t*o5parital bone1
b! Sagital suture: bet*een the t*o parietal bones1
c! +ambdoidal suture: bet*een parietal I occiputal bone1
d! S/uamosal suture: bet*een parietal bone and temporal bone1
The s+eleton o3 a ne*ly 3ormed embryo consist cartila#e or 7brous membrane
structures, *hich #radually replaced by bone the process is called ossi3ication1
At birth membrane 7lled spaces on the s+ull are called 3ontanel1 They are 3ound
bet*een cranial bones1
Q They enable s+ull o3 the 3etus to compress as it pass throu#h the birth
Q Permit rapid #ro*th o3 brain durin# in3ancy
Q Serves as a landmar+ (anterior 3ontanel! 3or *ithdra*al o3 blood 3rom the
superior sa#ital sinus
Q Aid in determination o3 3etal position prior to birth1 %n the s+ull o3 the 3etus
there are ? prominent 3ontanels:
a! The Anterior 3rontal! 3ontanel& bet*een an#le o3 t*o parietal bones I
se#ment o3 the 3rontal bone1 %t is diamond shaped and is the lar#est 3ontanel1 %t
closes .H to 8 months a3ter birth1
b! The posterior occiputal! 3ontanel& bet*een parietal I occiputal bone1 %t is also
diamond shaped but smaller than the anterior 3ontanel1 %t closes 8 months a3ter
c! The Antrolatral sphenoidal! 3ontanel& they are pair, one in each side1 $ound at
the Aunction o3 3rontal, parietal, temporal I sphenoidal bone1 They are small I
irre#ular in shape and closes at -rd month a3ter birth1
d! The postrolateral mastoid! 3ontanel& Paired one in each side1 $ound at the
Aunction o3 parietal, occiputal and temporal bones1 They are irre#ular in shape and
be#in to close at . or 8 months a3ter birth and completed by .8 months1
0ig.re1 9!D S.t.res an& 0ontane's (Source: Carola, "1, Harley,D1P1,
"1C1, (.EE8!, Human anatomy and physiolo#y, 0c )ra* hill inc,
Ne* For+,
ed, pp .G8!
Tab'e 9!71 Descri)tion an& -.nction o- 0acia' bones (source: Carola, "1,
Harley,D1P1, Nobac+ "1C1, (.EE8!, Human anatomy and physiolo#y, 0c )ra* hill inc,
Ne* For+, 8
ed, pp .G.!
6one Descri)tions
an& -.nction
%n3erior nasal ,ateral *alls o3 nasal cavities,
belo* superior and middle
Conchii (8! conchae o3 (thmoid bone1
Thin, cancellous, shaped li+e curved
,acrimal (8! 0edial *all o3 orbit, behind
3rontal process o3 ma&illa1 Small, thin,
rectan#ularR contains depression 3or
lacrimal sacs, nasolacrimal tear duct1
0andible (.! ,o*er Aa*, e&tendin# 3rom chin
to mandibular 3ossa o3 temporal bone1
,ar#est, stron#est 3acial boneR
horseshoe5shaped hori/ontal bony
*ith t*o perpendicular ramiR contains
tooth soc+ets, coronoid, condylar,
alveolar processes, mental 3oramina1
3orms lo*er Aa*, part
o3 temporomandibular AointR site o3
attachment 3or muscles1
0a&illae (8! Upper Aa* and anterior part o3
hard palate1 0ade up o3 /y#omatic,
3rontal, palatine, alveolar processesR
contain in3raorbital 3oramina, ma&illary
sinuses, tooth soc+ets1 $orm upper
Aa*, 3ront o3 hard palate, part o3 eye soc+ets1
Nasal (8! Upper brid#e o3 nose bet*een 3rontal processes
o3 ma&illae1 Small, oblon#R attached to a nasal cartila#e1 $orm
supports 3or brid#e o3 upper nose1
Palatine (8! Posterior part o3 hard palate, Joor
o3 nasal cavity and orbitR posterior to
ma&illae1 ,5shaped, *ith hori/ontal and
vertical platesR contain #reater and
lesser palatine 3oramina1 Hori/ontal
plate 3orms posterior part o3 hard
palateR vertical plate 3orms part o3 *all
o3 nasal cavity, Joor o3 orbit1
6omer (.! Posterior and in3erior part o3 nasal
septum1 Thin, shaped li+e plo*share1
$orms posterior and in3erior nasal
septum dividin# nasal cavities1
Ty#omatic (8! Chee+bones belo* and lateral to
orbit1 Curved lateral part o3 (molar!
chee+bonesR made up o3 temporal
process, /y#omatic archR contain
/y#omatico53acial and /y#omatico5
temporal 3oramina1 3orm chee+bones,
outer part o3 eye soc+ets1
Hyoid(.! 2elo* root o3 ton#ue, above
laryn&1 U5shaped, suspended 3rom
styloid process o3 temporal boneR site o3
attachment 3or some muscles used
in spea+in#,
4ssicles o3
%nside cavity o3 petrous portion o3
temporal bone1 Tiny bones %ncus(8!
shaped li+e anvil, hammer, stirrup,
articulatin# *ith one another malleus
(8! and attached to tympanic
membrane1 Convey sound vibrations
stapes (8! 3rom eardrum to oval
*indo* (see Chapter
0ig.re1 9!E Latera' se)arate& vie: o- -acia'
s?.''A ear ossic'es an& #%oi& bone (source:
Carola, "1, Harley,D1P1, Nobac+ "1C1, (.EE8!,
Human anatomy and physiolo#y, 0c )ra* hill inc,
Ne* For+, 8
ed, pp .G.!
A pyramid shaped space that contains the eyeball I associate structures1
%t is 3ormed by bones o3 the s+ull1 4rbit has 3our *alls and ape&:
Q The roo3 o3 the orbit consists o3 parts o3 the 3rontal I sphenoid bone1
Q The lateral *all is 3ormed by portions o3 /y#omatic and sphenoid bone1
Q The Joor o3 the orbit is 3ormed by parts o3 the ma&illa, /y#omatic and
palatine bone1
Q The medial *all is 3ormed by portion o3 the ma&illa, lacrimal, ethimoid
I sphenoid bone1
%n the orbit there are openin#s that pass structures1 Some o3 the principal
openin#s and And the structures passin# throu#h are: "ptic 3oramen canal!
passes optic nerve Superior orbital .ssure passes supra orbit nerve and artery1
#n3erior orbital .ssure passes ma&illary branch o3 tri#eminal and /y#omatic nerve
and in3ra orbital vessel1 Supra orbital 3oramen notch! passes occulomotor,
trochlear, ophthalmic branch o3 tri#eminal and abducent nerves1 Canal 3or naso
lacrimal duct passes naso lacrimal duct1
0ig.re1 9!F S?.'' anterior vie:sA an& t#e orbita'
cavit% (source: Carola, "1, Harley,D1P1, Nobac+ "1C1,
(.EE8!, Human anatomy and physiolo#y, 0c )ra* hill
inc, Ne* For+, 8
ed, pp .G-!
T#e vertebra' co'.$n
The vertebral column to#ether *ith the sternum I ribs constitutes the s+eleton o3
the trun+ o3 the body1 %t composes 8'Cth o3 the hei#ht o3 the body and has
avera#e len#th in male o3 G. c1m1 and in 3emale ?. c1m1 The adult vertebral
column contains 8? vertebras1 Prior to 3usion o3 sacral I coccy#eal vertebrae the
total number is --1 %t is a stron# and Je&ible to either direction I rotated on it sel31
(ncloses I protect spinal cord, supports the head and serves as a point o3
attachment 3or the ribs I muscles o3 the bac+1
Inter vertebra' &iscs
2et*een adAacent vertebrae 3rom .
to sacrum there are inter vertebral discs1 They
are 7bro5cartila#inous1 (ach disc is composed o3 the outer 7brous rin# consistin#
7bro5cartila#e called annulus .brosis and the inner so3t, pulpy hi#hly elastic
structure called the nucleus pulpous( The disc permits various movement o3 the
vertebral column, absorb shoc+ and 3orm a stron# Aoint1
0ig.re1 9!G Intervertibra' &iscA co$)resse& an& r.) &isc
(source: Carola, "1, Harley,D1P1, Nobac+ "1C1, (.EE8!, Human
anatomy and physiolo#y, 0c )ra* hill inc, Ne* For+, 8
ed, pp
Nor$a' c.rves
The vertebral column *hen vie*ed 3rom side is not a strai#ht line rather have
bandin#s1 These are normal curves o3 the vertebral column1 There are normal
curves 3ormed by vertebras, t*o are concave and the other t*o are conve&1 The
presences o3 the curve have several 3unctionsR these are absorption o3 shoc+,
maintenance o3 balance, protection o3 column 3rom 3racture and increasin# the
stren#th o3 the column1
%n the a#e o3 the 3etus there is only a sin#le anterior concave curve, but
appro&imately the third post natal month, *hen the child be#in to hold head erect,
the cervical curve develops1 ,ater *hen the child sits up, stands and *al+s the
lumbar curve develops1 The cervical I lumbar curves are an anteriorly conve&
and because they are modi3ication o3 the 3etal position they are called secondary
curves( The thoracic and sacral curves are anteriorly concave, since they retain
the anterior concavity o3 the 3etal curve they are re3erred primary curves1
0ig.re1 9!H! T#e vertebra' co'.$n an&
vertebra' c.rves (source: Carola, "1, Harley,D1P1,
Nobac+ "1C1, (.EE8!, Human anatomy and
physiolo#y, 0c )ra* hill inc, Ne* For+, 8
ed, pp
T%)ica' vertebra
Althou#h there are variations in si/e and shape, the vertebras o3 the di9erent
re#ion have basically similar structure1 %t consist the body, vertebral arch and
seven processes1
The body Centrum!, thic+, disc shaped, anterior part1 %t has superior and in3erior
rou#hened area 3or attachment *ith intervertebral discs1
The vertebral neural! arch e&tends posterior 3rom the body o3 the vertebrae1 =ith
the body it surrounds the spinal cord1 %t is 3ormed by t*o short, thic+ process called
pedicles( %t proAects posteriorly to meet at laminae1 The laminae are Jat parts that
Aoin to 3orm the posterior portion o3 the vertebral arch1 The space that lies bet*een
the vertebral arch and body contains the spinal cord called vertebral 3oramina1 The
vertebral 3oramina o3 all vertebras to#ether 3orm the vertebral (spinal! canal1 The
pedicles are notched superiorly I in3eriorly to 3orm an openin# bet*een vertebrae
on each side o3 the column called #ntervertibral 3oramen( %ntervertibral 3oramen is
an openin# bet*een the vertebras that serves as passa#e o3 nerves that come out
o3 spinal cord to supply the various body parts1
There are seven processes that arise 3rom the vertebral arch at the point *here the
lamina and pedicle Aoins1
Q The transverse processes on both side e&tends laterally1
Q The Spinous processes e&tends posteriorly I in3eriorly 3rom the Aunction o3
the laminae1
Q 2oth the transverse I spinous processes are muscle attachments1 The
remainin# 3our processes 3orm Aoints *ith other vertebra1 T*o o3 them articulate
*ith the immediate superior vertebra1 And the other t*o articulate *ith the
immediate in3erior vertebra1
0ig.re1 9! T%)ica' vertebra (source: Carola, "1,
Harley,D1P1, Nobac+ "1C1, (.EE8!, Human anatomy and
physiolo#y, 0c )ra* hill inc, Ne* For+, 8
ed, pp
Tab'e 9!9 Descri)tion an& -.nction o- bones o- t#e
vertebra' co'.$n (8? bones+A *so.rce1 Carola, "1, Harley,D1P1,
Nobac+ "1C1, (.EE8!, Human anatomy and physiolo#y, 0c )ra* hill
inc, Ne* For+, 8
ed, pp .HG!
Descri)tion an& -.nction
Cervical vertebrae (G! $irst (atlas!, second
(a&is!, and seventh vertebrae
are C.5CG modi7edR third throu#h
si&th are typicalR all contain
transverse 3ormina1 Atlas supports
head, permits XyesX motion o3 head
at Aoint bet*een s+ull and atlasR
a&is Permits XnoX motion at Aoint
bet*een a&is and atlas1
Thoracic vertebrae (.8! 2odies and transverse
processes have 3acets that
articulate T.5T.8 *ith ribsR
laminae are short, thic+, and broad1
Articulate *ith ribsR allo* some
movement o3 spine in thoracic area1
,umbar vertebrae(C! ,ar#est, stron#est
vertebraeR adapted 3or
attachment o3 bac+ ,.5,C
muscles1 Support bac+ mus clesR
allo* 3or*ard and bac+*ard
bendin# o3 spine1
Sacrum =ed#e5shaped, made up o3 7ve
3used bodies united by 3our (C
3used bones! intervertebral dis+s1
Support vertebral columnR #ive
stren#th and stability to pelvis1
Coccy& Trian#ular tailbone, united *ith
sacrum by intervertebral (- to C
3used bones! dis+1 6esti#e o3 an
embryonic tail1
Q %n a child there are -- separate vertebrae, the E in the sacrum and coccy& not
yet bein# 3used1
T#e T#ora5
"e3ers to the chest1 Thora& is a bony ca#e 3ormed by sternum (breast bone!, costal
cartila#e, ribs and bodie o3 the thoracic vertebra1
0ig.re1 9!, S?e'eton o- t#e t#ora5 (source:
Carola, "1, Harley,D1P1, Nobac+ "1C1, (.EE8!, Human
anatomy and physiolo#y, 0c )ra* hill inc, Ne*
For+, 8
ed, pp .E-!
Stern.$ *breast bone+
Sternum is Jat, narro* bone measurin# about .C c1m1 (? inch! located in the
median line o3 anterior thoracic *all1 %t consists - basic portions: the manubrium
(superior portion!, the body (middle I lar#est portion! and the &iphoid process
(in3erior I smallest portion!1 The Aunction o3 the manubrium and the body
3orms the sternal angle( The manubrium on its superior portion has a depression
called Au#ular (supra sternal! notch1
4n each side o3 the Au#ular notch are clavicular notch that articulates
*ith medial end o3 clavicle1
The manubrium also articulates *ith the .
and 8
rib1 The body o3 the
sternum articulates directly or indirectly *ith 8
rib1 The &iphoid process consists hyaline cartila#e durin#
in3ancy and child hood and do not ossi3y completely up to the a#e o3
0ig.re1 9!3 T#e ribs an& stern.$ ( source:
Carola, "1, Harley,D1P1, Nobac+ "1C1, (.EE8!, Human
anatomy and physiolo#y, 0c )ra* hill inc, Ne*
For+, 8
ed, pp .E!
Human bein# contains .8 Pair o3 ribs that ma+e up the side o3 thoracic cavity1 "ibs
increase in len#th 3rom .
throu#h G
and they decrease in len#th
throu#h .8
1 (ach ribs posteriorly articulates *ith the body o3 its correspondin#
thoracic vertebra1
Anteriorly the .
seven ribs have direct attachment to sternum by costal
cartila#e hence they are called true vertebro 9 sternal! ribs( The remainin# C ribs
are called 3alse ribs( The H
L .>
ribs, *hich are #roups o3 the 3alse ribs are
called vertebro chondrial ribs because their cartila#e attach one another and then
attaches to the cartila#e o3 the G
rib1 The I .8th ribs are desi#nated as
Joatin# ribs because their anterior part even doesnOt attach indirectly to sternum1
Althou#h there is variation *hen *e e&amine a typical rib (-
to E
! contains a
head, nec+ and body parts1
The 2ead is a proAection at posterior end o3 the rib1 %t consist one or t*o 3acet that
articulate *ith 3acet o3 the vertebra1
The nec) is constricted portion Aust lateral to the head1 4ne or t*o +nob li+e
structures on the posterior end *here the nec+ Aoins the body is the tubercles&
*hich articulate *ith the transverse process o3 the vertebra and to attach *ith
muscles o3 the trun+1
The body sha3t! is main part o3 the rib1 1 The costal angle is the site *here the rib
chan#es its direction1 The inner side o3 the costal an#le is costal #rove1 =here
thoracic nerves and blood vessels are protected1
9!,!7 T#e A))en&ic.'ar s?e'eton
T#e .))er e5tre$ities *'i$bs+
The upper e&tremities consists o3 ? bones1 Connected and supported by the a&ial
s+eleton *ith only shoulder Aoint and many muscle 3rom a comple& o3 suspension
bands 3rom the vertebral column, ribs and sternum to the shoulder #irdle1
0ig.re1 9!7 T#e .))er e5tre$it% (source: Carola, "1, Harley,D1P1,
"1C1, (.EE8!, Human anatomy and physiolo#y, 0c )ra* hill inc, Ne*
ed, pp 8>!
0ig.re1 9!9 S#o.'&er gir&'e (source: Carola, "1, Harley,D1P1,
"1C1, (.EE8!, Human anatomy and physiolo#y, 0c )ra* hill inc, Ne*
ed, pp 8>C!
Tab'e 9!D1 Descri)tion an& -.nction o- bones o-
t#e .))er e5tre$it% (source: Carola, "1, Harley,D1P1,
Nobac+ "1C1, (.EE8!, Human anatomy and physiolo#y,
0c )ra* hill inc, Ne* For+, 8
ed, pp 8>!
Descri)tion an& -.nction
S#o.'&er *Pectora'+
C,A6%C,( (8! CollarboneR double5curved, lon# bone
*ith rounded medial end and Jattened
lateral endR held in place by li#aments1
Holds shoulder Aoint and arm a*ay 3rom
thora& so upper limb can s*in# 3reely1
Scapula (8! Shoulder bladeR Jat, trian#ular
bone *ith hori/ontal spine separatin#
3ossae1 Site o3 attachment 3or muscles o3
and chest1
Humerus (8! ,on#est, lar#est bone o3 upper
limbR 3orms ball o3 ball5 and soc+et Aoint
*ith #lenoid 3ossa o3 scapula1 Site o3
attachment 3or muscles o3 shoulder and
arm, permittin# arm to Je& and e&tend at
"adius (8! ,ar#er o3 t*o bones in
3orearmR lar#e pro&imal end consists o3
olecranon process (prominence o3
elbo*!1 $orms hin#e Aoint at elbo*1
Carpals (.?! Small short bonesR in each
*rist, H carpals in 8 transverse ro*s
o3 1 =ith attached li#aments, allo*
sli#ht #lidin# movement1
Han&s an& 0ingers
0etacarpals (.>! $ive miniature lon# bones in
each hand in 3anli+e arran#ementR
articulate *ith 7n#ers at metacarpo5
phalan#eal Aoint (the Nnuc+le!1 Aid
opposition movement o3 thumbR enable
cuppin# o3 hand1
Phalan#es (8H! 0iniature lon# bones, 8
in each thumb, - in each 7n#erR
articulate *ith each other at
interphalan#eal Aoint1 Allo*
7n#ers to participate in stable
0ig.re1 9!D H.$er.sA ra&i.s an& .'na
(source: (laine n1 0A"%(2, (8>>>!, (ssentials o3
human anatomy and physiolo#y, Addison *elsey
lon#man inc1, San $rancisco, ?
0ig.re1 9!E 6ones o- t#e #an& (source:
0emmler, "uth ,undeen, 2arbara Dansen Cohen and
Dena ,in =ood (.EE?!, The Human 2ody in Health and
Disease, H
(d, pp .>>!
T#e 'o:er e5tre$it%
%t consist ?8 bones1 The lo*er e&tremity is connected to the a&ial s+eleton *ith the
hip #irdle1
0ig.re1 9!F T#e 'o:er e5tre$it% (source: Carola, "1, Harley,D1P1,
"1C1, (.EE8!, Human anatomy and physiolo#y, 0c )ra* hill inc, Ne*
ed, pp 8.>!
Tab'e 9!E &escri)tion an& -.nction o- bones o-
t#e 'o:er e5tre$it% (source: Carola, "1, Harley,D1P1,
Nobac+ "1C1, (.EE8!, Human anatomy and physiolo#y,
0c )ra* hill inc, Ne* For+, 8
ed, pp 8.>!
6one Descri)tion
an& -.nction
Hipbone %rre#ular bone 3ormed by 3usion o3 ilium,
ischium, pubisR *ith (Co&al! (8! sacrum and
coccy& 3orms pelvisR 3orms soc+et o3 ball5
and5 soc+et Aoint *ith 3emur1 Site o3
attachment 3or trun+ and lo*er limb
musclesR transmits body *ei#ht to 3emur1
$emur (8! Thi#hboneR typical lon# boneR
lon#est, stron#est, heaviest boneR 3orms
ball o3 ball5and5soc+et Aoint *ith pelvic
bonesR provides articular sur3ace 3or +nee1
Supports body1
Patella (8! NneecapR sesamoid bone *ithin <uadriceps 3emuris
%ncreases levera#e 3or <uadriceps muscle by +eepin#
A*ay 3rom a&is o3 rotation1
$ibula (8! Smaller lon# bone o3 lo*er le#R
articulates pro&imally *ith tibia and distally
*ith talus1 2ears little body *ei#ht, but #ives
stren#th to an+le Aoint1
Tibia (8! ,ar#er lon# bone o3 lo*er le#R articulates *ith
3emur 7bula,
talus1 Supports body *ei#ht, transmittin# it 3rom 3emur to
Tarsals (.! An+le, heel bonesR short bonesR G in
each an+le includin# talus, calcaneus,
cuboid, navicular, - cunei3ormsR *ith
metatarsals, 3orm arches o3 3oot1 2ear body
*ei#htR raise body and transmit thrust
durin# runnin# and *al+in#1
0oot an& Toes
0etatarsals (.>! 0iniature lon# bonesR C in each 3ootR
3orm soleR *ith tarsal, 3orm arches o3 3eet1
%mprove stability *hile standin#R absorb
shoc+sR bear *ei#htR aid in locomotion1
Phalan#e (8H! ToesR miniature lon# bonesR 8 in each
bi# toe, - in each other toeR arran#ed as
in hand1 Provide stability durin#
0ig.re1 9!G T#e #i) bone*co5a' bone+A Ma'e an&
-e$a'e )e'vis (source: 0emmler, "uth ,undeen,
2arbara Dansen Cohen and Dena ,in =ood (.EE?!,
The Human 2ody in Health and Disease, H
ed, pp
0ig.re1 9!,H T#e -e$.rA t#e tibia an& -ib.'a
#ere %o. can see :#ere t#e )ate''a is 'ocate&1
(Source: (laine n1 0A"%(2, (8>>>!, (ssentials o3
human anatomy and physiolo#y, Addison *elsey
lon#man inc1, San $rancisco, ?
0ig.re1 9!, 6ones an& arc#es o- t#e -oot
(source: 0emmler, "uth ,undeen, 2arbara Dansen
Cohen and Dena ,in =ood (.EE?!, The Human 2ody in
Health and Disease, H
ed, pp .>-!
Arc#es o- t#e -oot
The sole o3 your 3oot is arched 3or the same reason that your spine is curved1 2eside
its 3unction o3 absorbin# shoc+ it prevents nerves and blood vessels in the sole o3
the 3oot 3rom bein# crushed1
There are three arches in the 3oot, t*o lon#itudinal (medial I lateral! and one
9!E Artic.'ations
2ones bein# structural 3rame*or+, muscles #ive it po*er1 2ut movable Aoints
provide the mechanism that allo*s the body to move1
Articulations :oints! are places *here t*o adAacent bones or cartila#es meet1
Doints are classi7ed by t*o methods
Q 2y 3unction5de#ree o3 movement
Q 2y structure L presence o3 cavity1
Accordin# to 3unctional classi3ication Aoints may be immovable (synartherosis!,
sli#htly movable (amphiartherosis! and 3reely movable (diarthrosis!1 Accordin# to
structure Aoints can be classi7ed in to, 7brous, cartila#inous I synovial1
Tab'e 9!F1 C'assi4cations o- joints (source: Carola, "1,
Harley,D1P1, Nobac+ "1C1, (.EE8!, Human anatomy and
physiolo#y, 0c )ra* hill inc, Ne* For+, 8
ed, pp 88?!
! ! ! Contin.e&
Tab'e 9!G1 T%)es o- $ove$ents b% s%novia'
joints (source: Carola, "1, Harley,D1P1, Nobac+
"1C1, (.EE8!, Human anatomy and physiolo#y, 0c
)ra* hill inc, Ne* For+, 8
pp 8-8!
! ! ! Contin.e&
Revie: ;.estions
.1 The main 3unction o3 the s+eletal system is:
a! Protection
b! Stora#e o3 minerals
c! Support
d! Producin# motion
e! All o3 the above
81 The t*o type o3 rid#ed connective tissue 3ound
in the human s+eleton are: 5
a! Spon#y I compact
bone b! 2one I cartila#e
c! Periosteum I
endosteum d! 0etaphysis
I Diaphysis e! Cancellous
I bone plate
-1 The maAor bone at the posterior aspect o3 the
base o3 the s+ull is: 5
a! Sphenoid b!
4cciputal c!
Temporal d!
e! Ty#omatic
1 =hich o3 the 3ollo*in# is not part
o3 the appendicular s+eletonK
a! Scapula b!
Clavicle c!
"adius d!
e! Tibia
C1 The hip (co&al! Aoint is
a! 0ultia&ial
b! A ball and soc+et Aoint
c! A synovial Aoint
d! a and b only
e! a, b and c