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Pipeline Toolbox Liquid

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Table of Contents
API - 1117 Movement of In-Service Pipelines ............................................................................... 1
API 1102 - PC PISCES ................................................................................................................... 5
API 1104 - Appendix A: Weld Imperfection Assessment ............................................................ 23
API 2540 - Volume Correction Factors ........................................................................................ 25
ASTM 2161 cSt/Saybolt Viscosity API/Baume/Specific Gravity Conversion ............................ 27
Accidental Release from Liquid Hydrocarbon Pipeline ............................................................... 29
Adiabatic Bulk Modulus for Hydrocarbons .................................................................................. 31
How to Export Report in Adobe Acrobat? ................................................................................... 33
Buoyancy Analysis and Concrete Coating Thickness .................................................................. 41
Buoyancy Analysis and Concrete Weights Spacing ..................................................................... 43
Cathodic Protection Attenuation Calculation ............................................................................... 45
Centrifugal Pump - Affinity Laws ................................................................................................ 49
Compressibility Factors for Hydrocarbons: 0-90 API .................................................................. 53
Darcy - Weisbach .......................................................................................................................... 57
Dead Load on PE Pipe - Prism, Marston and Combined Load .................................................... 59
Distributed Static Surcharge Load Directly over Buried PE Pipe ................................................ 63
Distributed Static Surcharge Load not over Buried PE Pipe ........................................................ 67
Document Management System ................................................................................................... 71
External Applications Integration ................................................................................................. 87
Flume Design ................................................................................................................................ 95
Design of Uncased Pipeline Crossings ....................................................................................... 109
HDD PE Pipe - ATL Allowable Tensile Load During Pull-In Installation ................................ 117
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PE Pipe - Post-Installation Stress Analysis ................................................................................. 119
PE Pipe - Pull Force and Installation Stress Analysis................................................................. 121
Installation of Pipelines by Horizontal Directional Drilling ....................................................... 141
Internal Design Pressure - Steel Pipe .......................................................................................... 143
Internal Pressure % SMYS ......................................................................................................... 145
Live Load: AASHTO H20 Load on Buried PE Pipe - 12" Thick Pavement .............................. 151
Live Load: AASHTO H20 Load on Buried PE Pipe - Flexible or no Pavement ....................... 155
Live Load: Aircraft Load on Buried PE Pipe ............................................................................. 159
Live Load: Cooper E-80 Railroad Load on Buried PE Pipe ....................................................... 163
Live Load: Distributed Surface Load on Buried PE Pipe - Unpaved Road Only (Timoshenko's
Equation) ..................................................................................................................................... 167
Live Load: Multiple Wheel not over Buried PE Pipe - Concentrated Point Load ..................... 171
Live Load: Multiple Wheel over Buried PE Pipe - Concentrated Point Load ............................ 175
Live Load: Single Wheel over Buried PE Pipe - Concentrated Point Load ............................... 179
Local Atmospheric Pressure ....................................................................................................... 183
Maximum Impact Load and Penetration Depth .......................................................................... 193
Modulus of Soil Reaction (E') - Average Values for Iowa Formula .......................................... 195
Modulus of Soil Reaction (E') - Values of E' for Pipe Embedment ........................................... 197
Nominal Wall Thickness Straight Steel Pipe .............................................................................. 201
How to Export Report in Microsoft Outlook Express? .............................................................. 205
Pack in Pipelines ......................................................................................................................... 207
Pipe Requirements for Horizontally Drilled Installation ............................................................ 213
Pipe Wall Compressive Stress (PE Pipe Crushing) .................................................................... 217
Pipeline Anchor Force Analysis ................................................................................................. 219
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Pressure Wave Speed in Pipe ...................................................................................................... 243
Centrifugal Pump - Specific Speed ............................................................................................. 245
Pump Station Piping - Pipe Diameter and Velocity.................................................................... 247
Reciprocating Pump - Acceleration Head ................................................................................... 251
Reciprocating Pump - Displacement and Actual Capacity ......................................................... 253
Reciprocating Pump - Piston Rod Load...................................................................................... 255
Reinforcement of Welded Branch Connection ........................................................................... 259
Relief Valves - Reactive Force ................................................................................................... 271
Required Pump Horsepower ....................................................................................................... 275
Restrained Liquid Pipeline Stress Analysis - Steel Pipe ............................................................. 279
Sizing for Liquid Relief: Relief Valves Not Requiring Capacity Certification .......................... 291
Sizing for Liquid Relief: Relief Valves Requiring Liquid Capacity Certification ..................... 293
Spangler's Modified Iowa Formula for PE Pipe ......................................................................... 295
Suction Specific Speed ............................................................................................................... 303
Surge Analysis - Water Hammer ................................................................................................ 305
Technical References .................................................................................................................. 319
Temperature Rise Due to Piping ................................................................................................. 321
Track Load Analysis ................................................................................................................... 325
Unrestrained Liquid Pipeline Stress Analysis - Steel Pipe ......................................................... 333
Values of E'n - Native Soil Modules of Soil Reaction ............................................................... 335
ASTM D 341 - Viscosity Temperature Relations for Hydrocarbons ......................................... 337
Wheel Load Analysis .................................................................................................................. 339
How to Export Report to Microsoft Word? ................................................................................ 347
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1
API - 1117 Movement of In-Service Pipelines
TOTAL LONGITUDINAL STRESS
The total longitudinal stress in the pipe can be estimated
With the following equation:

Where:

API 1117 Movement of In-Service Pipelines
LONGITUDINAL TENSILE STRESS DUE TO INTERNAL PRESSURE
The longitudinal tensile stress in the pipe due to internal pressure may be estimated with
the following equation:

Where:

LONGITUDINAL TENSILE STRESS DUE TO TEMPERATURE CHANGE
The longitudinal tensile stress in the pipe due to a change
in the temperature may be estimated with following
equation:

Where:

If the pipe's temperature at installation time is not known,
it should be reasonably estimated.
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LONGITUDINAL FLEXURE STRESS DUE TO EXISTING ELASTIC CURVATURE
When a pipeline is laid to conform elastically to a given trench profile, the pipeline will
experience induced flexural stress in amount proportional to its curvature. In hilly terain,
where slopes are unstable, or where soils are subject to frost heave or liquefaction, the
pipeline is likely to experience stress of unpredictable and varying magnitude. This stress
(S )can range from near-yield-strength levels in tension to near-bulking levels in
compression. This existing stress should be considered prior to a movement operation.
EXISTING LONGITUDINAL STRESS
The existing longitudinal stress in a pipeline will normally be in the range of-10,000 psi to
20,000 psi. In the flat or gently rolling terrain where soils are not subject to frost heave or
liquefaction, the pipeline will experience only the longitudinal tensile stress due to internal
pressure and temperature as discussed above.
The existing longitudinal stress in the pipe may be estimated
With following equation:

Where:
S = longitudinal stress in the pipe due to existing elastic curvature, in psi.
LONGITUDINAL STRESS DUE TO BENDING
The longitudinal stress in the pipe due to bending may be
estimated with following equation:

Where:
w = net uniformly distributed load required to achieve the desired mid-span vertical
deflection of the pipe [not full weight of the pipe and fluid], in pounds per inch.
L = minimum trench length required to reach the mid-span vertical deflection of the pipe
, in inches.
S = elastic section modulus of the pipe, in inches .
LONGITUDINAL STRESS DUE TO ELONGATION
The longitudinal stress in the pipe due to elongation caused by the movement operation
may be estimated with the following equation:

Where:
= mid-span deflection of the pipe, in feet.
L = minimum trench length required to reach the mid-span deflection of the pipe , in
feet.
API - 1117 Movement of In-Service Pipelines
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The effects of this stress may be offset by an elastic compressive stress existing in the
pipeline prior to the moving because of slack.
AVAILABLE LONGITUDINAL BENDING STRESS
The longitudinal stress available for bending may be estimated with the following equation:

Where:
S = longitudinal stress available for bending, psi.
F = design factor.
SMYS = specified minimum yield strength of the pipe, in psi.
TRENCH LENGTH
The minimum trench length required to achieve a particular mid-span deflection of the
pipe without exceeding the longitudinal stress limit can be determined with the following
equation, based on elastic free deflection theory, which treats the pipe as a single-span
beam that is fixed at both ends andthat has a uniformly distributed load:
L=
TRENCH (OR DISPLACEMENT) PROFILE
A profile for the moved portion of the pipeline should be designed to minimize induced
bending stress concentrations. Therefore, to obtain acceptable longitudinal stress
distribution due to bending, the deflection at any point along the trench profile can be
determined with the following equation:

Where:
= vertical deflection of the pipe at distance x, in feet.
x = distance along the length of the trench from the
starting point of the pipe deflection, in feet.
SUPPORTING SPACING
Based on a four-span, uniformly loaded beam, the maximum free span between supports
can be determined with the following equation:
L =
Where:
L = maximum free span between pipe supports, in feet.
d = inside diameter of the pipe, in inches.
Reference: API RP 1117 "Movement of In-Service Pipeline", Second Edition, August 1996
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API 1102 - PC PISCES
A.) PROGRAM SCOPE
API 1102 - PC PISCES (Personal Computer Pipeline Soil Crossing Evaluation System
Liquids) program is based on the design methodology resulting from the research and has
been implemented in the program to aid pipeline designers in analyzing existing uncased
pipelines and designing new uncased pipelines that cross beneath railroads and highways.
The details of the full design methodology can be found in Technical Summary and
Database for Guidelines for Pipelines Crossing Beneath Railroads and Highways (GRI-
91/0285, Final Report) and should have been read and understood. The design
methodology used in program follows directly the approach given in API RP 1102. Concise
summaries of the Cornell/GRI Guidelines are given in Guidelines for Pipelines Crossing
Beneath Highways (Stewart, et al., 1991b) and Guidelines for Pipelines Crossing Beneath
Highways. API RP 1102 should be available to the user for additional documentation and
preferences, and supplement the information provided by the program help and graphical
display of the design curves.
This design methodology relates to steel pipelines installed using trenchless construction
methods, in particular auger boring, with the crossing perpendicular to the railroad or
highway. The design methodology used in the program is such the pipelines having
diameters of D = 2 to 42 in. (51 to 1067 mm) can be analyzed. The wall thickness to
diameter ratios must be within the range of tw/D = 0.01 to 0.08.
Railroad crossings can be analyzed for depths of cover H = 6 to 14 ft (1.8 to 4.3 m).
Highway crossings can be analyzed for depth of cover H = 4 to 10 ft (in accordance with
API 1102) and H = 3 to 10 ft (PC-PISCES). The loading condition for railroads if based for
four axel distributed to the track surface, and would develop from the trailing and leading
axles sets form sequential cars. Highway loadings are based on both single and tandem-axle
truck loading configurations.
B.) LIST OF SYMBOLS/TERMS
Bd - Bored diameter of crossing
Be - Burial factor for circumferential stress from earth load
D - Pipe outside diameter
E - Longitudinal joint factor
E' - Modulus of soil reaction
Ee - Excavation factor for circumferential stress from earth load
Er - Resilient modulus of soil
Es - Youngs modulus of steel
F - Design factor
Fi - Impact factor
FS1- Factor of safety for Seff
FS2 - Factor of safety for girth welds
FS3 - Factor of safety for longitudinal welds
GHh - Geometry factor for cyclic circumferential stress from highway vehicular load
GHr - Geometry factor for cyclic circumferential stress from rail load
GLh - Geometry factor for cyclic longitudinal stress from highway vehicular load
GLr - Geometry factor for cyclic longitudinal stress from rail load

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H - Depth to the top of the pipe
KHe - Stiffness factor for circumferential stress from earth load
KHh - Stiffness factor for cyclic circumferential stress from highway vehicular load
KHr - Stiffness factor for cyclic circumferential stress from rail load
KLh - Stiffness factor for cyclic longitudinal stress from highway vehicular load
KLr - Stiffness factor for cyclic longitudinal stress from rail load
L - Highway axle configuration factor
LG - Distance of girth weld from centerline
MAOP - Maximum allowable operating pressure
NH- Double track factor for cyclic circumferential stress
NL - Double track factor for cyclic longitudinal stress
Nt - Number of tracks at railroad crossing
Ps - Single axle wheel load
Pt - Tandem axle wheel load
P - Internal pipe pressure
R - Highway pavement type factor
RF - Longitudinal stress reduction factor for fatigue
Seff - Total effective stress
SFG - Fatigue resistance of girth weld
SFL - Fatigue resistance of longitudinal weld
SHe - Circumferential stress from earth load
SHi - Circumferential stress from internal pressure
SHiB - Circumferential stress from internal pressure calculated using the Barlow formula
S1 - Maximum circumferential stress
S2 - Maximum longitudinal stress
S3 - Maximum radial stress
SMYS - Specified minimum yield strength
T- Temperature derating factor
T1- Installation temperature
T2 - Operating temperature
tw- Pipe wall thickness
w - Applied design surface pressure
T - Coefficient of thermal expansion
r- Unit weight of soil
SHh - Cyclic circumferential stress from highway vehicular load
SHr - Cyclic circumferential stress from rail load
SLh - Cyclic longitudinal stress from highway vehicular load
SLr - Cyclic longitudinal stress from rail load
s - Poissons ratio of steel
C. PROGRAM AND VARIABLES LIMITATIONS
C.1.) DIAMETER.
The diameter, D, is the outside pipe diameter, and has units of inches. The range of D is
2.0000 to 42.000 in. The default value is D = 12.750 in.
C.2.) MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE OPERATING PRESSURE, MAOP
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The maximum allowable operating pressure, MAOP, is used as the design internal pressure
for calculating circumferential stress due to internal pressurization, and has units of psi.
The range for MAOP is 0000 to 5000 psig.
C.3.) SPECIFIED MINIMUM YIELD STRENGTH, SMYS
The specified minimum yield strength, SMYS, has a range of allowable values covering
steel grades A25 (SMYS = 25000 psi) to X-80 (SMYS = 80000 psi). The SMYS is also used
to establish the girth and longitudinal weld fatigue endurance limits.
C.4.) DESIGN FACTOR, F
Although 49 CFR 192 or 195, establishes a design factor, F, the user can input another F
value. The range for F is from 0.10 to 1.00. The default design factor is F = 0.72.
C.4.) LONGITUDINAL JOINT FACTOR, E
The longitudinal joint factor, E, depends on the type of pipe welds. The input screen limits
E to either 0.60, 0.80, or 1.00, consistent with the values given in 49CFR192, Section
192.113. The default value is E = 1.00.
C.5.) INSTALLATION TEMPERATURE, T1
The installation temperature, T1 is given in F . This value is used with T2 to determine
thermal stress effects. The range of T1 is from -20 to 450 F.
C.6.) OPERATING TEMPERATURE, T2
The operating temperature, T2 is give in F. The T2 value is used to determine the
temperature derating factor, T. T2 also is used with T1 to determine thermal stress effects.
The range for T2 is from -20 to 450 F.
C.7.) WALL THICKNESS, tw
The pipe wall thickness, tw has units of inches. The wall thickness to diameter ratios must
be within the range of tw/D = 0.01 to 0.08.
C.8.) DEPTH OF CARRIER PIPE, H
The depth of the carrier pipe, H, given it ft, is measured from the top of tie to the pipeline
crown for railroads and from the top of pavement to the pipeline crown for highways. The
limits on H are:
6ft <= H <= 14 ft for railroads, and
H = 4 to 10 ft (in accordance with API 1102) and H = 3 to 10 ft (PC-PISCES) for highways.
These are the depth limits for the live load design curves. The depth, H, also is used to
establish the impact factor, Fi used in the design methodology.
C.9.) BORED DIAMETER, Bd
The bored diameter, Bd (Bd in RP 1102), has units of inches. The minimum value is Bd =
D, and the maximum value is Bd = D + 6 in. The default value is Bd = D + 2 in.
C.10.) SOIL TYPE FOR THE EARTH LOAD
The soil type for the earth load calculations is either A or B. See Figure 4 in API RP 1102,
C.11.) MODULUS OF SOIL REACTION. E'
The modulus of soil reaction, E', has units of ksi. The minimum value allowed is E = 0.2 ksi,
and the maximum recommended value for auger bored installations is E = 2.0 ksi. The
maximum input value for E is 8.0 ksi. When an E value greater than 2.0 ksi is used, a
warning will be displayed that the value is beyond the normal range of E' for auger bored
installations. See details in API RP 1102.
C.12.) SOIL RESILENT MODULUS, Er
The soil resilient modulus, Er has units of ksi. The minimum allowable value is Er = 5.00
ksi, and the maximum allowable value is Er = 20.0 ksi. These are the limits for the live load

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design curves. See Table 3 in API RP 1102 or The default value is Er = 10.0 ksi, as
recommended in API RP 1102.
C.13.) SOIL UNIT WEIGHT, r
The soil unit weight, r, has units of pcf, and can range from 0 to 150 pcf. The default value
is r = 120 pcf.
C.14.) TYPE OF LONGITUDINAL WELD
The type of longitudinal weld is used with the SMYS to establish the longitudinal weld
fatigue endurance limit, SFL. The choices for the type of longitudinal seam weld are SAW
or ERW. See Table 3 in API RP 1102 for the influence of longitudinal weld type and SMYS
on the seam weld fatigue endurance limits. The default type of longitudinal weld is SAW.
C15.) GIRTH WELD DISTANCE, LG (RAILROAD ONLY)
The girth weld distance, LG has units of ft and can range from 00 to 99 ft. The LG distance
is used to determine the longitudinal stress reduction factor, RF , needed for the girth weld
fatigue calculations. See Figure 18 A and 18 B in API RP 1102 for the RF values as
dependent on LG, H, and D. When a double track crossing is being analyzed, the
recommended value for LG is less than 5 ft. For LG less than 5 ft, longitudinal stress
reduction factors are not used.
C.16.) NUMBERS OF TRACKS, Nt (RAILROAD ONLY)
The number of tracks, Nt is used to determine whether a single or double track railroad
crossing will be analyzed. The Nt value determines the single or double track NH and NL
factors for circumferential and longitudinal live load pipelines stresses, respectively. The
default value is Nt = 1.
C.17.) E - TYPE RAIL LOADING (RAILRAOD ONLY)
The E - Type rail loading is used to determine the applied surface stress, w, for railroad
crossings. The range for the E type lading is from E - 00 to E - 99. can also be entered,
which causes the surface load, w, to be 1.0 psi. The default value is E - 80 loading, as
recommended in API RP 1102.
C.18.) DESIGN SINLE WHEEL LOAD, Ps (HIGHWAY ONLY)
The design single wheel load, Ps , has units of kips, and can range from 0.00 to 20.0 kips.
The pavement type, design wheel loads, diameter, and depth are used to establish the
pavement type factor, R, and axle configuration factor, L. The default value is Ps = 12.0
kips, as recommended in API RP 1102.
C.19.) DESIGN TANDEM WHEEL LOAD, Pt (HIGHWAY ONLY)
The design tandem wheel load, Pt (, has units of kips, and can range from 0.00 to 20.0 kips.
The pavement type, design wheel loads, diameter, and depth are used to establish the
pavement type factor, R, and axle configuration factor, L. The default value is Ps = 10.0
kips, as recommended in API RP 1102.
C.20.) PAVEMENT TYPE (HIGHWAY ONLY)
The pavement type for highway crossings can be either flexible , none, or rigid . The
pavement type, design wheel loads, diameter and depth are used to establish the pavement
type factor, R, and axle configuration factor, L. The default pavement type is flexible.
C.21.) YOUNGS MODULUS, Es
Youngs modulus of the steel carrier pipe, Es (Es in RP 1102), has units of ksi. The range is
from 29 000 to 31 000 ksi. The default value is Es = 30 000 ksi.
C.22.) POSSIONS RATIO, s
API 1102 - PC PISCES
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Possions ratio of the steel carrier pipe, s , is used to assess thermal and longitudinal
stresses due to the circumferential earth load and internal pressure stresses. The allowable
range is from 0.25 to 0.30. The default value is s = 0.30.
C.23.) COEFFICIENT OF THERMAL EXPANSION, T
The coefficient of thermal expansion of the steel carrier pipe T , is given for temperature
is F, and is used to assess longitudinal thermal stresses. The range is from 0.0000060 to
0.0000080 per F. The default value is T = 0.0000065 per F.
D. DESIGN CURVES


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API 1102 - PC PISCES
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API 1102 - PC PISCES
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API 1102 - PC PISCES
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API 1102 - PC PISCES
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API 1102 - PC PISCES
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API 1102 - PC PISCES
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API 1104 - Appendix A: Weld Imperfection
Assessment
Please see API Standard 1104 Welding of Pipelines and Related Facilities, Appendix A,
Option 2 for the background of the assessment procedure.
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API 2540 - Volume Correction Factors
This program module is developed in accordance with API standard 2540 Manual of
Petroleum Measurement Standards, Chapter 11.1-Volume Correction Factors, Volume X -
Background, Development, and Program Documentation.
All number rounding and truncation in the program fully comply API 2540 standards
requirements.
Reference:
API STANDARD 2540 (1980)
FIRST EDITION, VOLUME X, AUGUST 1980
REAFFIRMED, OCTOBER 1993
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ASTM 2161 cSt/Saybolt Viscosity
API/Baume/Specific Gravity Conversion
A. ASTM 2161 cSt/Saybolt Viscosity Conversion
SUS = 4.6234cSt +
SUS =
B. API/Specific Gravity Conversion

C. BAUME/Specific Gravity Conversion

References:
ASTM 2161, Part I
"Hydraulics for Pipeliners",Second Edition, C.B. Lester
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Accidental Release from Liquid
Hydrocarbon Pipeline
Note: Spill volumes were calculated based on the leak rate and time to isolate pipeline
section and release rate during free flow. It is important to note that this assessment adopts
a very conservative approach to estimating spill volumes. It was assumed that gravitational
effects were the sole mechanism for release after isolation siphoning effects, drain down
procedures, and pipeline depressurization were not considered.
PHASE 1:
The discharge/release rate of liquid through the sharp edged orifice can be calculated as:

Calculation of Spray Zone

PHASE 2:
Pressure differential during free flow phase:

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References:
- Handbook of Chemical Hazard Analysis Procedures,
- Risk Management Program Guidance for Offsite Consequence
- API Recommended Practice 520, Sizing, Selection, and Installation of Pressure-Relieving
- Devices in Refineries, Part I, American Petroleum Institute,
- API Recommended Practice 521, Guide for Pressure-Relieving and Depressuring
Systems, American Petroleum Institute,
- Crane Limited, Flow of Fluids through Valves, Fittings, and Pipe, Technical Paper No.
410-C, Crane Engineering Division
- Bosch, C.J.H. van den and N.J. Duijm, The Netherlands Organization of Applied
Scientific Research. Methods for the Calculation of Physical Effects, CPR 14E: Part (TNO
Yellow Book),
- Ramskill, P.K., Discharge Rate Calculation Methods or Use in Plant Safety Assessments,
Safety and Reliability
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Adiabatic Bulk Modulus for Hydrocarbons
Wostl/ARCO Equation:

Ks Adiabatic Bulk Modulus
P = pressure, psig
A = API gravity at 60 F
T = temperature R = F + 460
Reference: Hydraulics For Pipeliners, C.B. Lester
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How to Export Report in Adobe Acrobat?
Requirements: In order to export report to Adobe Acrobat, version 5.0 or 6.0 of Adobe
Acrobat must be installed on your computer.
1. On the report toolbar

select and click on the Print button.
2. On the printer selection screen select Adobe PDF (or Adobe Distiller) and click
Print button

3. After you click Print button you will be prompted to save the file. Select the
directory/folder, rename the file and click Save button.

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Bending Stress and Deflection in Pipelines
FIXED ENDS SUPPORTS

y = maximum deflection, feet
S = maximum bending stress, PSI
W= unit weight, pounds per foot
L = length, feet
E = modulus of elasticity, PSI
steel = 30,000,000
plastic(dupont) = 100,000
plastic(plexco) = 125,000
cast iron = 15,000,000
copper = 15,000,000
D = outside diameter, inches
d = inside diameter, inches
SIMPLE SUPPORTS
y = 5 times y for fixed ends
S = 1.5 times S for fixed ends
CANTILEVER SUPPORT
y = 48 times y for fixed ends
S = 6 times S for fixed ends
S and y on the schematics indicate the points of
MAXIMUM stress and deflection.
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Blasting Analysis
SCOPE
This procedure describes the method for calculating the stresses caused by underground blasting
near an existing pipeline(s). The equations used follows guidelines set forth in CFR Title 49, Part
192.
BASIC CONSIDERATIONS
Blasting near an existing operating pipeline frequently occurs for a variety of reasons. Whenever
these underground explosion occur, they create circumferential and longitudinal stresses in
adjacent pipelines.
These stresses must be estimated to determine the possibility of damaging the pipelines.
This procedure describes the method for calculating the combined stresses on a pipeline in the
vicinity of blasting, those stresses being hoop stress due to internal pressure in the pipeline and
circumferential and longitudinal stresses due to blasting. In some instances, blasting may occur
near pipelines that are under the influence of circumferential and longitudinal stresses caused by
excessive backfill overburden (>10 Ft. of cover) or surface traffic. These situations require
special analysis and are not addressed in this standard procedure.
This procedure assumes that the blasting occurs at one location - a point charge. A blasting plan
may consists of a series of point charge blasts with a small delay between each blast. A biaxial
stress state exists when blasting occurs. These stresses are combined stress state.
Knowledge of soil (rock) conditions and construction methods is necessary to make sound
engineering judgements about each blasting situation. The following information is usually
required:
1. Description (trade name) of the explosive.
1. Method of detonation.
1. Delay time and weight of charge per delay.
1. Distance from pipeline.
1. Alignment Drawing No.and Survey Station or Mile Post.
1. Predominant rock type between the detonation point and the pipelines.
1. Diameter, wall thickness and SMYS of all pipelines in the vicinity of the blasting.
1. MAOP and the actual operating pressure of all pipelines in the vicinity of the blasting.
1. Class Location.
Frequently a series of blasts will be detonated with a small delay between each blast. It is
necessary to analyze the delay time with respect to seismic velocity to insure that each shock
wave arrives at the pipeline separately. In general, a minimum delay time of 25 milliseconds
(0.025 seconds) will assure that there is no compounding of shock waves. If seismic velocities
are low (1,000 - 2,500 ft./sec. ) a longer delay time may be required. Conversely, if delay times

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are significantly less than 25 milliseconds, information about the expected seismic velocities
should be obtained.
II. EQUATIONS FOR CHARGE BLASTING ANALYSIS
The hoop stress due to internal pressure is calculated as follows:

The circuferential and longitudinal stresses caused by a point charge underground explosion are
calculated as follow:

The hoop stress and circumferential stress are combined as follows:

The combined stress level (S) is calculated as follow:

The longitudinal bending stress occurs in tension on the outside of the bend and in
compression on the inside of the bend. Tensile stress is represented with a positive value for ;
conversely, compressive stress takes a negative value for . The negative value for is used
when calculating the combined stress level (S). This will result in a larger ( more conservative)
combined stress level.
The allowable combined stress design factor (DFa) should be applied to the SMYS as follows:
S, psi < SMYS x DFa, where
Blasting Analysis
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S = Combined stress level, psi
SMYS = Specified Minimun Yield Strength of pipe, psi
DFa =Allowable Combined Stress Design Factor
The calculated combined stress design factor (DFc) should be determined as follows:


An unsafe blasting condition may be rectified in several ways. They include increasing the
distance away from pipeline, using an explosive with a lower energy release ratio, or reducing
the pressure in the pipeline. It is normally impractical to reduce the pipeline pressure.
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Buoyancy Analysis and Concrete Coating
Thickness
1. Determine bare pipe weight:

1. Determine total volume of pipe in air including corrosion and concrete
coating:

1. Determine Volume of corrosion coating:

1. Determine volume of concrete coating:

1. Determine total weight of pipe in air, including weight of corrosion and
concrete coating:

1. Determine weight of displaced water


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1. Determine the difference :

1. Determine bulk specific gravity:

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Buoyancy Analysis and Concrete Weights
Spacing
Buoyant Force

Weight of Steel Pipe in the Air

Weight of Pipe Coating in the Air

Weight of Product in the Pipe

Downward Force of the Pipe

Net Controlling Force

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Downward Force of the Concrete Weight

Concrete Weight Spacing

Unit Weights:

Fresh water 62.42
Salt water 64.0
Concrete 140
Steel 490
PE Coating 59.30
FBE Coating 89.89
Wood lagging 26.84
Reference: Pipeline Geo-Environmental Design and Geohazard Management,
ASME, 2008, Edited by Moness Rizkalla
Technical Toolboxes, Inc.

45
Cathodic Protection Attenuation Calculation



46

For typical pipeline with multiple drain points (anodes) with uniform spacing of 2L The
potential and current are given:

Reference:
1. Uhlig's Corrosion Handbook (2nd Edition) Edited by: Revie, R. Winston 2000
John Wiley & Sons
2. ISO 15589-2 Petroleum and Natural gas Industries Cathodic Protection Pipeline
Transportation Systems
3. Pipeline Corrosion and Cathodic Protection, Third Edition, Gulf Publishing
Company
Technical Toolboxes, Inc.

47
Cathodic Protection
Cathodic Protection - Includes both single and multiple anode placement and resistance
calculations with electric current and power consumption requirements.
Estimated Life of a Magnesium Anode
Resistance to Earth of an Impressed Anode Ground Bed
Rudenbergs Formula for the Placement of a Close or Distributed Ground Bed
Resistance to Earth of a Single Vertical Anode
Resistance to Earth of Multiple Vertical Anodes
Resistance to Earth of a Single Horizontal Anode
Required Number of Anodes and Total Current Requirement
Power Consumption of a Cathodic Protection Rectifier
Technical Toolboxes, Inc.

49
Centrifugal Pump - Affinity Laws
A. Diameter Change Only

B. Speed Change Only

C. Diameter and Speed Change

Reference:
1. Engineering Data Book, Volume 1, Gas Processors Suppliers Association, Tenth
Edition
2. Pump Handbook, Fourth Edition, McGraw-Hill Professional
Technical Toolboxes, Inc.

51
Colebrook - White Liquid Flow Equation

Friction factor is solved using Newton-Raphson method.


The Colebrook-White equation is recommended for use by those unfamiliar with
pipeline flow equations, since it will produce the greatest consistency of accuracy
over the widest possible range of variables. This equation is recommended for use
when the Reynolds number exceeds 4000.
References:
"Flow of fluids", Technical Papers No.410, CRANE
"Hydraulics for Pipeliners", Volume I: Fundamentals, Second Edition, C.B. Lester
"Hydraulics of Pipeline Systems", Bruce E. Larock, Ronald W. Jeppson, Gary Z. Watters
"Pipeline Design for Hydrocarbons Gases and Liquids", ASCE, Commitee on Pipeline Planning
Nomenclature
Technical Toolboxes, Inc.

53
Compressibility Factors for Hydrocarbons:
0-90 API
The purpose of this program is to correct hydrocarbon volumes metered under pressure to
the corresponding volumes at the equilibrium pressure for the metered temperature based
on API standard. This standard define procedure for determination of compressibility
factors related to meter temperature and API gravity (60 F) of metered liquid.
The program fully comply with standards algorithm and required number rounding and
truncation.
The example from standard, the compressibility factor (F) is used in the normal manner
for volume correction:

Where:
Ve = volume at equilibrium (bubble point ) pressure, Pe.
Vm = volume at the meter pressure, Pm.
As an example, calculate the volume of 1000 barrels (Vm) of a 19.9 API (60F) fuel oil
metered under a pressure of 500 pounds per square inch (Pm) and 100 F. Assume a Pe
value of 0 pounds per square inch. The application first round API to the nearest 0.5 API,
in this case 20.0 API and then perform calculations.
The result produced by application is exact to the number taken form the API
Compressibility tables. From the table: F factor is 0.448 divided by 100,000 is 0.00000448.
Reference:
API "Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards", Chapter 11.2, "Compressibility
Factor for Hydrocarbons: 0-90 API", First Edition, August 1984
Technical Toolboxes, Inc.

55
DOT & MMS Pipeline Regulations
DOT & MMS Pipeline Regulations - Contains both the(1) U.S.D.O.T. Federal Pipeline
Safety Regulations with all inspection report templates and the (2) DOI-Minerals
Management Service Offshore pipeline regulations (Subpart J). In hypertext format to
permit easy key word/phrase searches
Pipeline Safety Laws
DOT Code PART 190, Pipeline Safety, Prescribed Procedure
DOT Code PART 191, Annual Reports, Incident Reports, and Safety Related
Condition Reports
DOT Code PART 192, Transportation of Natural and Other Gas by Pipeline
DOT Code PART 193, Liquefied Natural Gas Facilities
DOT Code PART 194, Onshore Oil Pipelines
DOT Code PART 195, Transportation of Hazardous Liquids by Pipeline
MMS Regulations, SUBPART J, Offshore Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way
DOT Instructions for Annual Report for Gas Distribution System
DOT Instructions for Incident Report for Gas Distribution System
DOT Instructions for Annual Report for Gas Transmission and Gathering System
DOT Instructions for Incident Report for Gas Transmission and Gathering
System
DOT Instructions for Accident Report - Hazardous Liquid Pipeline
Technical Toolboxes, Inc.

57
Darcy - Weisbach

Friction factor is solved using Newton-Raphson method.

References:
"Flow of fluids", Technical Papers No.410, CRANE
"Hydraulics for Pipeliners", Volume I: Fundamentals, Second Edition, C.B. Lester
"Hydraulics of Pipeline Systems", Bruce E. Larock, Ronald W. Jeppson, Gary Z. Watters
Technical Toolboxes, Inc.

59
Dead Load on PE Pipe - Prism, Marston and
Combined Load
A. Prism Load

B . Marston Load (ASCE Manual No.60)


Typical Value for
Soil
Typical Value for
Saturated clay 0.110
Ordinary clay 0.130
Saturated top soil 0.150
Sand and gravel 0.165
Clean granular soil 0.192
C. Combined Prism and Marston Load
For flexible pipe, a more conservative method is to use a soil pressure load in between
prism and Marston load:

60

Reference:
1. Soil Engineering, Third Edition, Spangler, M.G. and Handy, R.L., Intext
Educational Press
2. Structural Mechanics of Buried Pipes, Watkins, R.K, and Loren, R, A,
3. Polyethylene Pipe Handbook: Design of PE Piping Systems, Second Edition,
Plastic Pipe Institute, Inc.
Technical Toolboxes, Inc.

61
Design Pressure - Plastic Pipe
Design pressure for plastic pipe is determined in accordance with either of the following
formulas :

Note :
For design limitations and definitions, see DOT Code 192 in the DOT & MMS
Regulations Module !
Technical Toolboxes, Inc.

63
Distributed Static Surcharge Load Directly
over Buried PE Pipe
1. Dead/Earth Load
A. Prism Load

B . Marston Load (ASCE Manual No.60)



C. Combined Prism and Marston Load

64
For flexible pipe, a more conservative method is to use a soil pressure load in between
prism and Marston load:

2. Distributed Static Surchage Load

This method is using Boussinesq equation for pressure acting on pipe crown.

Influence coefficient is selected from the table below:
Distributed Static Surcharge Load Directly over Buried PE Pipe
65

3. Pipe Deflection is calculated using Spangler's Modified Iowa Formula:

4. Pipe Wall Compressive Stress

66

Reference:
1. Soil Engineering, Third Edition, Spangler, M.G. and Handy, R.L., Intext
Educational Press
2. Structural Mechanics of Buried Pipes, Watkins, R.K, and Loren, R, A,
3. Polyethylene Pipe Handbook: Design of PE Piping Systems, Second Edition,
Plastic Pipe Institute, Inc.
Technical Toolboxes, Inc.

67
Distributed Static Surcharge Load not over
Buried PE Pipe
1. Dead/Earth Load
A. Prism Load

B . Marston Load (ASCE Manual No.60)



C. Combined Prism and Marston Load

68
For flexible pipe, a more conservative method is to use a soil pressure load in between
prism and Marston load:

2. Distributed Static Surchage Load not over PE Pipe

This method is using Boussinesq equation for pressure acting on pipe crown.

Distributed Static Surcharge Load not over Buried PE Pipe
69
Influence coefficient is selected from the table below:

3. Pipe Deflection is calculated using Spangler's Modified Iowa Formula:


70
4. Pipe Wall Compressive Stress

Reference:
1. Soil Engineering, Third Edition, Spangler, M.G. and Handy, R.L., Intext
Educational Press
2. Structural Mechanics of Buried Pipes, Watkins, R.K, and Loren, R, A,
3. Polyethylene Pipe Handbook: Design of PE Piping Systems, Second Edition,
Plastic Pipe Institute, Inc.
Technical Toolboxes, Inc.

71
Document Management System
The purpose of the Document Management System (DMS) is to allow the user to customize
his/her own Toolbox with commonly used documents such as Design Guidelines, Company
Recommended Practice, etc... One sample document has been included in your Document
Management System to get you started. Any document can be added to your Toolbox by
simply clicking on the DMS icon to reveal the following screen:

Step 1
Click the Add Document button.
The following screen will be revealed:

72

Step 2
Click the Find Document button.
This will reveal a standard Windows common dialog box to allow the user to browse files
anywhere on his/her PC or files available from the users network, CDs, etc. See below:

Step 3
Document Management System
73
Once you identify the document you wish to add to the DMS within your Toolbox simply
click on the file to be added:

Step 4
Select from one of three (3) file types

Microsoft Word (*.doc)
Adobe (*.pdf)
HTML (*.html)
and retrieve the document

74

Step 5
At this stage you have the option to change the Document Name. The user can preview the
document to ensure it is the correct document to be saved by clicking on the Preview
button.
If the document is not the correct one simply click the Cancel button and start the
procedure from step 3.
If the document is the correct one and you have selected the name of the document then
simply click on the Save button at which stage the document is saved in the Toolbox DMS:
Document Management System
75

Step 6 (Optional)
If the user wishes to remove a document from his/her DMS within the Toolbox simply click
on the document you wish to delete then click the Delete Document button.
Step 7
To confirm that your document has been added to the Toolbox DMS simply click on the
document you wish to review and click on the Open Document button:


76

Technical Toolboxes, Inc.

77
Electrical Resistance of a Conductor

Technical Toolboxes, Inc.

79
Electrolyte Resistance from the Surface of an Electrode to
any Distance

Technical Toolboxes, Inc.

81
Engineering Drawing Board
The Engineering Drawing module is Visio Technical from Visio Corporation. It contains
over 2000 SmartShapes with 150 Petroleum Engineering Templates. This drawing
module is intuitive and easy to use and offers drag-and-drop functionality with links to
calculations. It is AutoCAD compatible for both import and export.
Technical Toolboxes, Inc.

83
Engineering Units Conversion
Units Conversion - The Units Conversion module provides the pipeline professional with
a functional, easy to use and very comprehensive units conversion package. The
package contains over 400 SI international and English energy-related conversions.
Technical Toolboxes, Inc.

85
Estimated Life of a Magnesium Anode

Technical Toolboxes, Inc.

87
External Applications Integration
This feature provides the user with the capability to integrate external applications with
the Pipeline Toolbox program suite. Applications can be added or deleted as determined by
the individual user. Please see the Document Management System HELP for detailed
procedures.
The only file formats that can be integrated are spreadsheets (*.xls) and application
executables (*.exe).
Technical Toolboxes, Inc.

89
Fluid Database - Nomenclature
Type
1. Elements (e.g. H2,N2,He...)
2. Inorganic Compounds (e.g. CO2,H2S....)
3. Alkanes with up to 9 Carbon atoms ('Paraffins')
4. Alkanes with 10 - 40 Carbon atoms ('Paraffins')
5. Alkenes ('Olefins')
6. Alkynes & Dialkenes (e.g.Acetylene...)
7. Cycloalkanes ('Naphthenes')
8. Aromatic Single-Ring Hydrocarbons (e.g. Benzene)
9. Aromatic Multi-Ring Hydrocarbons (e.g. Naphthalene)
10. Organic Nitrogen & N/O Compounds (e.g. Ethanolamine)
11. Aliphatic Oxygen Compounds (e.g. Alcohols)
12. Aromatic Oxygen Compounds (e.g. Phenols)
13. Organic Sulfur Compounds (e.g. Odorants)
14. Organic Halogen Compounds (e.g. Refrigerants)
15. Radical Species (N.B. only use at high T, gas phase)

MW
Molecular Weight

Tc, Pc, Dc
Critical Temperature, Pressure and Density ( K, MPa, g/cm3)

W-fact

90
Acentric Factor

X-LRS, Y-LRS
British Gas LRS Equation X and Y Acentric Factors

Vap1-4
Wagner vapour pressure equation for the pure component :-
ln(VP/Pc) = ( Vap1*t + Vap2*t^1.5 + Vap3*t^A + Vap4*t^B )/ Tr
where Tr = T / Tc , t = ( 1 - Tr )
A=2.5 & B=5 or A=3 & B=6
(the 3, 6 form is indicated by a negative Vap1 when the first term is -Vap1*t)

Den1-4
ESDU equation for saturated liquid density :-
ln(D/Dc) = ln(Vc/V) = DEN1*q + DEN2*q^2 + DEN3*q^3 + DEN4*q^4
where q = ( 1 - T/Tc )^(1/3)

AN, BB, A0-3
Benedict-Webb-Rubin-Starling Coefficients

CV
Calorific Value (MJ/scm)

Bi, Fi
Z-Factor and Weaver Flame Speed Factor

ParaC
Parachor

LFL, UFL
Lower and Upper Flammability Limit

DipM
Dipole Moment

Pola
Fluid Database - Nomenclature
91
Polarizability

dHform, dGform
Entropy and Enthalpy of Formation (kJ/mol)

W-NBS
Ely-Hanley (National Bureau of Standards (NBS), now NIST) method
for transport properties :- W-Factor.




Technical Toolboxes, Inc.

93
Fluids Properties (PVT)
GasVle
Licensed From BG plc (British Gas) - An industry-leader in petroleum fluid PVT analysis,
GasVle computes the vapor-liquid equilibrium of hydrocarbons and the associated gas and oil
PVT properties of the mixture. GasVle calculates single phase (gas and liquid) properties, dew
and bubble points, critical points, two and three phase fluid equilibria, solid and hydrate
formation conditions. Calculations can be carried out at isenthalpic, isentropic, isochoric and
specified vapor fraction conditions. Properties calculated include compression factor, density,
heat capacities, speed of sound, viscosity, thermal conductivity, interfacial tension, calorific
values and theoretical air requirement, vapor and liquid mole fractions. Ten (10) equation of state
methods are available: AGA8, BWRS, GERG, GRC, IG, LRS, MCSP, PR, RKS and SW.
GasVle has a data-base over 200 'library' components. The user can also input user-defined
fractions. GasVle is integrated within the Toolbox and the Microsoft family of software, both
by use of DDE and OLE. The results of calculations and their inputs can be entered and viewed
by any other program that uses these standards. GasVle is also usable as a DLL function from
within Microsoft Excel, allowing complicated custom calculations to be set up by the user in
spreadsheet format.
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95
Flume Design
ESTIMATING ROUGHNESS COEFFICIENTS
This section describes a method for estimating the roughness coefficient n for
use in hydraulic computations associated with natural streams, floodways, and
excavated channels. The procedures applies to the estimation of n in Manning's
formula .
The coefficient of roughness n quantifies retardation of flow due to roughness of
channel sides, bottom, and irregularities.
Estimation of n requires the application subjective judgement to evaluate five
primary factors:
- Irregularity of the surfaces of the channel sides and bottom;
- Variations in the shape and size of the channel cross sections;
- Obstructions in the channel;
- Vegetation in the channel;
- Meandering of the channel.
Procedure for estimating n
The procedure for estimating n involves selecting a basic value for a straight,
uniform, smooth channel in the existing soil materials, then modifying that value
with each of the five primary factors listed above.
In selecting the modifying values, it is important that each factor be examined
and considered independently.
Step 1. Selection of basic value of n. Select a basic n value for straight, uniform,
smooth channel in the natural materials involved. The conditions of straight
alignment, uniform cross section, and smooth side and bottom surfaces without
vegetation should be kept in mind. Thus, basic n varies only with the material that
forms the sides and bottom of the channel. Select the basic n for natural or
excavated channels from Table 8.04a. If the bottom and sides of a channel
consist of different materials, select an intermediate value.
Table 8.04a. Basic Value of Roughness Coefficient for Channel Materials
Soil Material Basic n
Channels in earth 0.02
Channels in fine gravel 0.024
Channels cut into rock 0.025
Channels in coarse gravel 0.028
Step 2.Selection of modifying value for surface irregularity. This factor is based
on the degree of roughness or irregularity of the surfaces of the channel sides
and bottom. Consider the actual surface irregularity, first in relations to the
degree of surface smoothness obtainable with the natural materials involved, and
second in relation to the depth of flow expected. If the surface irregularity is
comparable to the best surface possible for the channel materials, assign a
modifying value zero. Irregularity induces turbulence that calls for increased
modifying values. Table 8.04b may be used as a guide to selection of these
modifying values.

96
Table8.04b. Modifying Value for Roughness Coefficient Due to Surface
Irregularity of Channels
Degree of Surface Comparable Modifying
Irregularity Value
Smooth The best obtainable for the material 0.000
Minor Well-dredged channels; slightly eroded
or scoured side slope of canals or
drainage channels 0.005
Moderate Fair to poorly dredged channels;
moderately sloughed or eroded side
slopes of canals or drainage channels 0.010
Severe Badly sloughed banks of natural channels:
badly eroded or sloughed sides of canals
or drainage channels; unshaped, jagged
and irregular surfaces of channels excavated
in rock 0.020
Source for Tables b-f: Estimating Hydraulic Roughness Coefficients
Step 3. Selection of modifying value for variations in the shape and size of cross
sections. In considering this factor, judge the approximate magnitude of increase
and decrease in successive cross sections as compared to the average. Gradual
and uniform changes do not cause significant turbulence. Turbulence increases
with the frequency and abruptness of alternation from large to small channel
sections.
Shape changes causing the greatest turbulence are those for which flow shifts
from side to side in the channel. Select modifying values based on Table 8.04c.
Table 8.04c. Modifying Value for Roughness Coefficient Due to Variations of
Channel Cross Section
Character of Variation Modifying
Value
Changes in size or shape occurring
gradually 0.000
Large and small sections alternating
occasionally, or shape changes causing
occasional shift of main flow from side
to side 0.005
Large and small sections alternating
frequently, or shape changes causing
frequent shift of main flow from side
to side 0.010-0.015
Step 4. Selection of modifying value for obstructions. This factor is based on the
presence and characteristics of obstructions such as debris deposits, stumps,
exposed roots, boulders, and fallen and lodged logs. Take care that conditions
considered in other steps not be double-counted in this step.
In judging the relative effect of obstructions, consider the degree to which the
obstructions reduce the average cross-sectional area at various depths and the
characteristic of the obstructions. Shaped-edged or angular objects induce more
Flume Design
97
turbulence than curved, smooth-surfaced objects. Also consider the transverse
and longitudinal position and spacing of obstruction in the reach. Select
modifying value based on Table 8.04d.
Table 8.04d. Modifying Value for Roughness Coefficient Due to Obstruction in the
Channel
Relative Effect Modifying
of Obstruction Value
Negligible 0.000
Minor 0.010 to 0.015
Appreciable 0.020 to 0.030
Severe 0.040 to 0.060
Step 5. Selection of modifying value for vegetation. The retarding effect of
vegetation is due primarily to turbulence induced as the water flows around and
between limbs, stems and foliage and secondarily to reduction in cross section.
As depth and velocity increase, the force of flowing water tends to bend the
vegetation. Therefore, the ability of vegetation to cause turbulence is related to its
resistance to bending. Note that the amount and characteristics of foliage vary
seasonally. In judging the retarding effect of vegetation, consider the following:
height of vegetation in relation to depth of flow, its resistance to bending, the
degree to which the cross section is occupied or blocked, and the transverse and
longitudinal distribution of densities and height of vegetation in the reach. Use
Table 8.04e as a guide.
Table 8.04e. Modifying Value for Roughness Coefficient Due to Vegetation in the
Channel
Vegetation and Flow Conditions Range in Modifying Value
Comparable to:
Low Effect 0.005 to 0.010
Dense growths of flexible turf grass or
weeds, such as Bermudagrass and Kentacky
bluegrass. Average depth of flow 2 to 3 times
the height of the vegetation.
Medium Effect 0.010 to 0.025
Turf grasses where the average depth of flow
is 1 to 2 times the heigth of vegetation
Stemmy grasses, weeds or tree seedlings
with moderate cover where the average
depth of flow is 2 to 3 times the height
of vegetation
Brushy growths, moderately dense, similar
to willow 1 to 2 years old, dormant season,
along side slopes of channel with no significant
egetation along the channel bottom, where the
hydraulic radius is greater then 2 ft
High Effect 0.025 to 0.050

98
Grasses where the average depth of flow is
about equal to the height of vegetation
Dormant seasons, willow or cottonwood
tree 8-10 year old, intergrown with some
weed and brush; hydraulic radius 2 to 4 ft
1. yr old, intergrown with some weeds in
full foliage along side slopes; no significant
egetation along channel bottom; hydraulic
radius 2 to 4 ft
Grasses where average depth of flow is less
than one-half the height of vegetation
Very High Effect 0.050 to 0.100
Growing season, bushy willows about 1-yr
old, intergrown with weeds in full foliage
along side slopes; dense grown of cattails
or similar rooted vegetation along channel
bottom; hydraulic radius greater than 4 ft
Growing season, tree intergrown with weeds
and brush, all in full foliage; hydraulic radius
greater than 4ft
Step 6 Computation of n for the reach. The first estimate of roughness for the
reach
n , is obtained by neglecting meandering and adding the basic n value obtained
in step 1 and modifying value from steps 2 through 5.

Step 7. Meander. The modifying value for meandering is not independent of the
other modifying values. It is estimated from the n obtained in step 6, and the
ratio of the meandering length to the straight length. The modifying value for
meandering may be selected from Table 8.04f.
Table 8.04f.Modifying Value for Roughness Coefficient Due to Meander of the
Channel
Meander Ratio Degree of Modifying
Meandering Value
0.0 to 1.2 Minor 0.000
1. 2 to 1.5 Appropriable 0.15 n
1. 5 and greater Severe 0.30 n
Flume Design
99

Step 8. Computation of n for a channel reach with meandering. Add the modifying
value obtained in step 7, to n , obtained in step 6.
The procedure for estimating roughness for an existing channel is illustrated in
Sample Problem 8.04a.
Sample Problem 8.04a. Estimation of roughness coefficient for an existing
channel.
Description of reach:
Soil - Natural channel with lower part of banks and bottom yellowish gray
clay, upper part light silty clay.
Side slopes - Fairly regular; bottom uneven and irregular.
Cross section - Very little variation in the shape; moderate, gradual
ariation in size. Average cross section approximately trapezoidal with
side slopes about 1,5:1 and bottom width about 10 ft. At bankfull stage,
the average depth is about 8.5 ft and the average top width is about 35 ft.
Vegetation - Side slopes covered with heavy growth of poplar tree,
2. to 3 inches in diameter, large willows, and climbing vines; thick,
bottom growth of waterweed; summer condition with the vegetation
in full foliage.
Alignment - Significant meandering; total length of meandering
channel, 1120 ft; straight line distance, 800 ft.
Solution:
Step Description
Number n Value
1. Soil materials indicate minimum basic n 0.02
Modification for:
2. Moderately irregular surface 0.01
3. Change in size and shape judged insignificant 0.00
4. No obstructions indicted 0.00
5. Dense vegetation 0.08
6. Straight channel subtotal, n = 0.11
7. Meandering appreciable,
meandering ratio: 1120/800 = 1.4
Select 0.15 from Table 8.04f

100
8. Modified value =(0.15)(0.11) = 0.0165 or 0.02
Total roughness coefficient n = 0.13
Out-of-Bank Condition Channel and Flood Plain Flow
Work with natural floodways and streams often requires consideration of a wide
range of discharges. At high stages, both channel and overbank or flood plain
flow may occur. Usually, the retardance of the flood plain differs significantly
from that of the channel, and the hydraulic computations can be improved by
subdividing the cross selection and assigning different n values for flow in the
channel and the flood plain. If conditions warrant, the flood plain may be
subdivided further. Do not average channel n with flood plane n. The n value for
in-bank flow in the channel may be averaged.
To compute a roughness coefficient for flood plain flow, consider all factors
except meandering. Flood plain n values normally are greater than channel
values, primarily due to shallower depths of flow. The two factors requiring most
careful consideration in the flood plain are obstructions and vegetation. Many
flood plains have fairly dense networks of obstructions to be evaluated.
Vegetation should be judged on the basis of growing-season conditions.
The overland flow portion of flow time may be determined from Figure 8.03a.The
flow time (in minutes) in the channel can be estimated by calculating the average
velocity in feet per minute and dividing the length (in feet) by the average
velocity.
Table 8.03a Value of Runoff Coefficient (C) for Rational Formula
Land Use C Land Use C
Business: Lawns:
Downtown areas 0.70-0.95 Sandy soil, flat, 2% 0.05-0.10
Neighborhood areas 0.50-0.70 Sandy soil, ave., 2-7% 0.10-0.15
Sandy soil, steep, 7% 0.15-0.20
Residential: Heavy soil, flat, 2% 0.13-0.17
Single-family areas 0.30-0.50 Heavy soil, ave., 2-7% 0.18-0.22
Multi units, detached 0.40-0.60 Heavy soil, steep, 7% 0.25-0.35
Multi units, attached 0.60-0.75
Suburban 0.25-0.40 Agricultural land:
Bare packed soil
Industrial: Smooth 0.30-0.60
Light areas 0.50-0.80 Rough 0.20-0.50
Heavy areas 0.60-0.90 Cultivated rows
Heavy soil no crop 0.30-0.60
Parks, cemeteries 0.10-0.25 Heavy soil with crop 0.20-0.50
Sandy soil no crop 0.20-0.40
Play grounds 0.20-0.35 Sandy soil with crop 0.10-0.25
Pasture
Railroad yards areas 0.20-0.40 Heavy soil 0.15-0.45
Sandy soil 0.05-0.25
Unimproved areas 0.10-0.30 Woodlands 0.05-0.25
Streets:
Flume Design
101
Asphalt 0.70-0.95
Concrete 0.80-0.95
Brick 0.70-0.85
Drives and walks 0.75-0.85
Roofs 0.75-0.85
NOTE: The designer must use judgment to select the appropriate C value within
the range for the appropriate land use. Generally, large areas with permeable
soils, flat slopes, and dense vegetation should have lowest C values. Smaller
areas with slowly permeable soils, steep slopes, and sparse vegetation should be
assigned highest V value.
Sources: American Society of Civil Engineers
Step 4. Determine the rainfall intensity, frequency, and duration (Figure 8.03b
through 8.03g - source: North Carolina State Highway Commission; Jan.1973).
Select the chart for the locality closest to your location. Enter the "duration" axis
of the chart with the calculated time of concentration,. . More vertically until
you intersect the curve of the appropriate design storm, then move horizontally to
read the rainfall intensity factor, i, in inches per hour.
Step 5. Determine peak discharge, Q , by multiplying the previously
determined factors using the rational formula (Sample Problem 8.03a)
Sample Problem 8.03a Determination of peak runoff rate using the rational
method.
Q = CiA
Given:
Drainage area: 20 acres
Graded areas: 12 acres
Woodland: 8 acres
Maximum slope length: 400 ft
Average slope: 3% area bare
Location: Raleigh, NC
Find:
Peak runoff rate from 10-yr frequency storm
Solution:
(1) Drainage area: 20 acres (given)
(1) Determine runoff coefficient, C.
Calculate Weighted Average
Area C from Table 8.03a
Graded 12 x 0.45 = 5.4
Woodland 8 x 0.15 = 1.2
20 6.6
C = 6.6/20 = 0.33
1. Find the time of concentration, from Figure 8.03a using maximum
length of travel = 400ft and height of most remote point above outlet
= 400 ft x 3% = 12 ft; assuming overland flow on bare earth.

102
= 3.2 minutes.
NOTE: Any time of flow in channel should be added to the overland flow to
determine .
(1) Determine the rainfall intensity factor, i.
i = 8.0 inches/hr (from Figure 8.03e) using 10-yr storm,
5 min. duration.
(1) Q = C(i)(A)
Q = 0.33 (8.0)(20) = 52.8 cfs; Use 53 cfs

Table 8.05a
Maximum Allowable Design Velocity
For Vegetated Channels
Typical Soil Grass Lining Permissible Velocity
Channel Slope Characteristic for Established Grass
Application Lining (ft/sec)
0-5% Easily Erodible Bermudagrass 5.0
Non_plastic Tail fescue 4.5
(Sand & Silts) Bahiagrass 4.5
Kentucky bluegrass 4.5
Grass-legume mixture 3.5
Erosion Resistant Bermudagrass 6.0
Plastic Tall fescue 5.5
(Clay mixes) Bahiagrass 5.5
Kentucky bluegrass 5.5
Grass-legume mixture 4.5
5-10% Easily Erodible Bermudagrass 4.5
Non_plastic Tail fescue 4.0
(Sand & Silts) Bahiagrass 4.0
Kentucky bluegrass 4.0
Grass-legume mixture 3.0
Erosion Resistant Bermudagrass 5.5
Plastic Tall fescue 5.0
(Clay Mixes) Bahiagrass 5.0
Kentucky bluegrass 5.0
Grass-legume mixture 3.5
>10% Easily Erodible Bermudagrass 3.5
Non_plastic Tail fescue 2.5
(Sand & Silts) Bahiagrass 2.5
Kentucky bluegrass 2.5
Erosion Resistant Bermudagrass 4.5
Plastic Tall fescue 3.5
(Clay Mixes) Bahiagrass 3.5
Kentucky bluegrass 3.5
Flume Design
103
Source: USDA-SCS Modified
NOTE:

Selecting Channel Cross-Section Geometry
To calculate the required size of an open channel, assume the design flow is
uniform and does not vary with time. Since actual flow conditions change
throughout the length of a channel, subdivide the channel into design reaches
and design each reach to carry the appropriate capacity.
The three most commonly used channel cross-section are "V"-shaped, parabolic,
and trapezoidal. Figure 8.05b gives mathematical formulas for the area, hydraulic
radius and top width of each of these shapes.
Table 8.05b Manning's n for Structure Channel Linings
Channel Lining Recommended
n values
Asphaltic concrete, machine placed 0.012
Asphalt, exposed prefabricated 0.015
Concrete 0.015
Metal, corrugated 0.024
Plastic 0.013
Shotcrete 0.017
Gabion 0.030
Earth 0.020
Erosion Control Blankets 0.030
Source: American Society of Civil Engineers (modified)
Design Procedure-Permissible Velocity
The following is a step-by-step procedure for designing a runoff conveyance
channel using Manning's equation and the continuity equation:
Step1. Determine the required flow capacity, Q, by estimating peak runoff rate for
the design storm (Appendix 8.03).
Step2. Determine the slope and select channel geometry and lining.
Step3. Determine the permissible velocity for the lining selected, or the desired
velocity, if paved. (see Table 8.05a,pg. 8.05.4)
Step 4. Make an initial estimate of channel size - divide the required Q by the
permissible velocity to reach a "first try" estimate of channel flow area. Then
select a geometry, depth and top width to fit site conditions.
Step 5. Calculate the hydraulic radius, R, from channel geometry (Figure
8.05b,pg.8.05.5).
Step 6. Determine roughness coefficient n.
Structural Lining - see Table 8.05, pg. 8.05.6
Grass Lining:
. Determine retardance class for vegetation from Table 8.05c, pg.8.05.8
To meet stability requirement, use retardance for newly mowed condition

104
( generally C and D). To determine channel capacity, use at least one retardance
class higher.
. Determine n from Figure 8.05c, pg.8.05.7
.
Step 7. Calculate the actual channel velocity and required, V, using Manning's
equation (Figure 8.05a, pg. 8.05.3), and calculate channel capacity, Q, using the
continuity equation.
Step 8. Check results against permissible velocity and required design capacity
to determine if design is acceptable.
Step 9. If design is not acceptable, alter channel dimension as appropriate. For
trapezoidal channels, this adjustment is usually made by changing the bottom
width.
Sample Problem 8.05a Design of a grass-lined channel
Channel summary
Trapezoidal shape, Z = 3, B = 3 ft, d = 1,5 ft, grade = 2%
Note: In Sample Problem 8.05a the "n-value" is first choosen based on a
permissible velocity and not a design velocity criteria. Therefore the use of table
8.05c may not be accurate as individual retardance class charts when a design
velocity is the determining factor.
Tractive Force Procedure
The design of riprap-lined channel and temporary channel linings is based on
analysis of tractive force.
NOTE: The procedure is for uniform flow in channels and is not to be used for
design of deenergizing devices and may not be valid for larger channels.
To calculated the required size of an open channel, assume the design flow is
uniform and does not vary with time. Since actual flow conditions change
through the length of a channel, subdivide the channel into design reaches as
appropriate.
PERMISSIBLE SHEAR STRESS
The permissible shear stress, , is the force required to initiate movement of the
lining material. Permissible shear stress for the liner is not related to the
erodibility of the underlying soil. However, if the lining is eroded or broken, the
bed material will be exposed to the erosive force of the flow.
COMPUTING NORMAL DEPTH
The first step in selecting an appropriate lining is to compute the design flow
depth (the normal depth) and determine the shear stress.
Normal depth can be calculated by Manning's equation as shown for trapezoidal
channel in Figure 8.05d. Values of the Manning's roughness coefficient for
different ranges of depth are provided in Table 8.05e for temporary lining and
Table 8.05f for riprap. The coefficient of roughness generally decrease with
increase flow depth.
Table 8.05e Manning's Roughness Coefficient for Temporary Lining Materials
n value for Depth Ranges
0-0.5 ft 0.5-2.0 ft >2.0 ft
Lining Type
Woven Paper Net 0.016 0.015 0.015
Flume Design
105
Jute Net 0.028 0.022 0.019
Fiberglass Roving 0.028 0.021 0.019
Straw with Net 0.065 0.033 0.025
Curled Wood Mat 0.066 0.035 0.028
Synthetic Mat 0.036 0.025 0.021
Adapted from: FHWA-HEC 15, pg.37-April 1988
Table 8.05f Manning's Roughness Coefficient
n-value
n value for Depth Ranges
Lining Category Lining Type 0-0.5 ft 0.5-2.0 ft 2.0 ft
(0-15 cm) (15-60cm) (>60cm)
Rigid Concrete 0.015 0.013 0.013
Grouted Riprap 0.040 0.030 0.028
Stone Masonry 0.042 0.032 0.030
Soil Cement 0.025 0.022 0.020
Asphalt 0.018 0.016 0.016
Unlined Bare Soil 0.023 0.020 0.020
Rock Cut 0.045 0.035 0.025
Gravel Riprap 1-inch (2.5 cm) 0.044 0.033 0.030
2-inch (5-cm) 0.066 0.041 0.034
Rock Riprap 6-inch (15-cm) 0.104 0.069 0.035
12-inch (30-cm) -- 0.078 0.040
Note:Values listed are representative values for the respective depth ranges.
Manner's roughness coefficient, n, vary with the flow depth.
DETERMINING SHEAR STESS
Shear stress, T, at normal depth is computed for lining by the following equation:
T = yds
= Permissible shear stress
where:
T = shear stress in
y = unit weight of water, 62.4
d = flow depth in ft
s = channel gradient in ft/ft.
If the permissible shear stress, , given in Table 8.05g is greater than the
computed shear stress, the riprap or temporary lining is considered acceptable. If
a lining is unacceptable, select a lining with a higher permissible shear stress and
repeat the calculations for normal depth and shear stress. In some cases it may
be necessary to alter channel dimensions to reduce the shear stress.
Computing tractive force around a channel bend requires special considerations
because the change in flow direction imposes higher shear stress on the channel
bottom and banks.

106
The maximum shear stress in a bend, , is given by the following equation:

where:

The value of is related to the radius of curvature of the channel at its center
line, , and the bottom width of the channel, B, Figure 8.05e. The length of
channel requiring protection downstream from a bend, , is a function of the
roughness of the lining material and the hydraulic radius as shown in Figure
8.05f.
Table 8.05g Permissible Shear Stresses for Riprap and Temporary Liners
Permissible Unit Shear Stress, T
Lining Category Lining Type
Temporary Woven Paper Net 0.15
Jute Net 0.45
Fiberglass Roving:
Single 0.60
Double 0.85
Straw with Net 1.45
Curled Wood Mat 1.55
Synthetic Mat 2.00
Erosion Control Blankets 2.25

Gravel Riprap 1 0.33
2. 0.67
Rock Riprap 6 2.00
9 3.00
12 4.00
15 5.00
15 6.00
21 7.80
24 8.00
Adapted From FHWA, HEC-15, April 1983, pgs. 17 & 37.
Design Procedure-Temporary Liners
The following is a step-by-step procedure for designing a temporary liner for a
channel. Because temporary liners have a short period of service, the design Q
may be reduced. For liners that are needed for six months or less, the 2-yr
frequency storm is recommended.
Flume Design
107
Step 1. Select a liner material suitable for site conditions and application.
Determine roughness coefficient from manufacturer's specifications or Table
8.05e, pg.8.05.10.
Step 2. Calculate the normal flow depth using Manning's equation.Check to see
that depth is consistent with that assumed for selection of Manning's in Figure
8.05d, pg.8.05.11.For smaller runoffs Figure 8.05d is not as clearly defined.
Recommended solutions can be determined by using the Manning equation.
Step 3. Calculate shear stress at normal depth.
Step 4. Compare computed shear stress with the permissible shear stress for the
liner.
Step 5. If computed shear is greater than permissible shear, adjust channel
dimension to reduce shear or select a more resistant lining and repeat step 1
through 4.
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Design of Uncased Pipeline Crossings
This method is proven and acceptable and can be used in the cases when the crossing
conditions for design are out of the scope and the limitations of API RP 1102 and PC-
PISCES.

Reference: GPTC Guide for Transmission and Distribution Systems, Appendix G-192-15,
A.G.A.
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Gas Pipeline Pressure Testing - Maximum Pressure Drop

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113
Gas Pipeline Pressure Testing - Required Time

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Gas Properties
Gas Properties - This module uses the American Gas Association AGA-8 equation for
calculating the physical properties of the natural gas mixture input by the user.
The user will enter amount (the decimal value -%) of the listed components present in
the gas mixture, along with the temperature and pressure to calculate the resultant
properties.
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HDD PE Pipe - ATL Allowable Tensile Load
During Pull-In Installation

Reference: ASTM F 1962 - 05 and ASTM F 1804 - 08
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PE Pipe - Post-Installation Stress Analysis
External Earth Load

Earth Load Deflection

Buoyant Deflection

120

Reissner Effect

Reference: ASTM F 1962 - 05
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121
PE Pipe - Pull Force and Installation Stress
Analysis
Minimum Bend Radius

Local Radius of Curvature

Average Radius of Curvature and Horizontal Transition Distance

Unconstrained Collapse

122

Axial Bending Stress

Pulling Force

HDD PE Pipe - Pull Force and Installation Stress Analysis
123


Effective Weight of Empty Pipe


124
Upward Buoyant Force

Hydrokinetic Pressure

Axial Tensile Stress
HDD PE Pipe - Pull Force and Installation Stress Analysis
125

Reduced PE Collapse Strength

Reference: ASTM F 1962 05
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127
Liquid Pipeline Hydraulics - Hazen-Williams Equation


The Hazen-Williams equation was developed specifically for water, but is used for other
liquids. Its chief drawback is that the Hazen-Williams coefficient is largely an experience
factor which also depends on the viscosity of the product flowing.
This equation may be used for values of Reynolds numbers in the range of:

References:
"Pipeline Design for Hydrocarbons Gases and Liquids", ASCE, Commitee on Pipeline Planning
"Flow of fluids", Technical Papers No.410, CRANE
"Hydraulics for Pipeliners", Volume I: Fundamentals, Second Edition, C.B. Lester
"Hydraulics of Pipeline Systems", Bruce E. Larock, Ronald W. Jeppson, Gary Z. Watters
Nomenclature
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Liquid Pipeline Hydraulics - Heltzel Equation


The Heltzel equation is an older equation which is still being used for Reynolds values
in the range from 4,000 to 57,600.
References:
"Pipeline Design for Hydrocarbons Gases and Liquids", ASCE, Commitee on Pipeline Planning
"Hydraulics for Pipeliners", Volume I: Fundamentals, Second Edition, C.B. Lester
"Hydraulics of Pipeline Systems", Bruce E. Larock, Ronald W. Jeppson, Gary Z. Watters
Nomenclature
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Hoop and Longitudinal Stress
Hoop stress is determined by Barlow's formula

Longitudinal stress

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Hot Tap Sizing
Scope:
When a compressible fluid, such as natural gas or air, is passed through an orifice, the rate of
flow is determined by the area of the orifice opening; the absolute upstream pressure is P1; and
the absolute downstream pressure is P2: unless the ratio P2/P1 equals or is less than the critical
ratio. When P2/P1 equals or is less than the critical ratio downstream pressure no longer effects
rate of flow through the orifice, and flow velocity at the vene contracta is equal to the speed of
sound in that fluid under that set of condition. This is commonly referred to as critical or sonic
flow. Orifice equations are therefore classified as "sonic" or "subsonic" equations.
1. 0 Critical Ratio-The equations for the critical ratio of a compressible gas is based on
P1 and the ratio, k of the specific heats of the gas for constant pressure, , and
constant volume .(See Table I for values of k.)

For natural gas this ratio is 0.55.
2. 0 Subsonic Orifice Flow Equation-Subsonic flow conditions exist where
.

M = 28.964 G
3. 0 Sonic Orifice Flow Equation-Sonic flow conditions exist where

These flow graphs are to be used as an aide in selecting the size and number of taps necessary to
flow a given amount of gas as various pressure drops across a hot tap opening. Under normal
circumstances, a pressure drop of approximately 1 psi across the top is ideal. Pipeline pressure or

134
size limitations may not allow a drop of 1 psi across the hot tap. The flow charts will provide the
amount of flow possible given the actual pressure drop up to and including 8 psi.
There are certain parameters which must be met in order to obtain accurate results from these
graphs. For a hot tap opening, the orifice is in a curved surface (the side of the pipeline being
tapped) and flow through the orifice enters the pipeline flow perpendicularly. The orifice
coefficient decreases the calculated flow value to adjust for this geometry. To calculate flow
through an orifice with geometry that differs from a hot tap, the orifice coefficient should be
adjusted to reflect the differing geometry. If the pipeline pressure varies substantially from 800
psig, the orifice flow equation (utilizing the actual pipeline pressure) should be used to determine
the flow volume. In special circumstances, when much larger pressure drops across the orifice
are encountered (P2< .55 P1), sonic flow formulations must be used to determine the flow
volume. For more detailed explanation of the orifice flow equation, foe both sonic and subsonic
flow, reference the Onshore Pipeline design Catalog of TI-59 software and the Design Procedure
Manual.

Where: A = Orifice area, square inches
Qm = Flow, standard cubic ft. per minute
M = Molecular weight of flowing gas
T = Inlet temperature,
K = Orifice coefficient, use
Z = Compressibility factor for inlet conditions,
(see AGA Report NO. 3 for Fpv.)
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Pipeline Operation & Design How-To
Purpose: The purpose of this "How To" help system is to provide you with guidelines on
how to use the Pipeline Engineers Toolbox to obtain fast and accurate results. The
procedures contained within this "How To" help system have been generated from
industry accepted standards.
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137
Pipeline Hydrostatic Testing
Volume of Water Required to Fill Test Section

Volume of Water Required at Test Pressure






Pressure Change

138

Reference: Pipeline Rules of Thumb Handbook, Third Edition, Gulf Publishing Company
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Gas Pipeline Hydraulics - IGT Distribution Equation

Nomenclature
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141
Installation of Pipelines by Horizontal
Directional Drilling
The calculation procedure in this module is based on Pipeline Research Council
International, Inc. (PRCI) report number PR-227-9424 Installation of Pipelines by
Horizontal Directional Drilling, an Engineering Design Guide
Research report in electronic form is included for easy reference. In order to access report,
please select and click on PRCI Design Guide button on the program screen.
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Internal Design Pressure - Steel Pipe
( From DOT Code, Part 195 )
(a) Internal design pressure for the pipe in a pipeline is determined in accordance with the
following formula:

P - Internal design pressure in pounds per square inch gauge.
S - Yield strength in pounds per square inch determined in accordance with paragraph (b)
of this section.
t - Nominal wall thickness of the pipe in inches. If this is unknown, it is determined in
accordance with paragraph (c) of this section.
D - Nominal outside diameter of the pipe in inches.
E Weld/Seam joint factor determined in accordance with paragraph (e) of this section.
F - A design factor of 0.72, except that a design factor of 0.60 is used for pipe, including
risers, on a platform located offshore or on a platform in inland navigable waters, and 0.54
is used for pipe that has been subjected to cold expansion to meet the specified minimum
yield strength and is subsequently heated, other than by welding or stress relieving as a
part of welding, to a temperature higher than 900 F(482 C) for any period of time or over
600 F(316 C) for more than 1 hour.
(b) The yield strength to be used in determining the internal design pressure under
paragraph (a) of this section is the specified minimum yield strength. If the specified
minimum yield strength is not known, the yield strength to be used in the design formula is
one of the following:
(1)
(i) The yield strength determined by performing all of the tensile tests of API Specification
5L on randomly selected specimens with the following number of tests:
Pipe size Number of tests
Less than 168.3 mm (6 5/8 in) nominal outside diameter. One test for each 200 lengths.
168.3 through 323.8 mm (6 5/8 through 12 3/4 in) nominal outside diameter. One test for
each 100 lengths.
Larger than 323.8 mm (12 3/4 in) nominal outside diameter. One test for each 50 lengths.
(ii) If the average yield-tensile ratio exceeds 0.85, the yield strength shall be taken as 165,
474 kPa (24,000 psi). If the average yield-tensile ratio is 0.85 or less, the yield strength of
the pipe is taken as the lower of the following:
(A) Eighty percent of the average yield strength determined by the tensile tests.
(B) The lowest yield strength determined by the tensile tests.
(2) If the pipe is not tensile tested as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the yield
strength shall be taken as 165,474 kPa (24,000 psi).
(c) If the nominal wall thickness to be used in determining internal design pressure under
paragraph (a) of this section is not known, it is determined by measuring the thickness of
each piece of pipe at quarter points on one end. However, if the pipe is of uniform grade,
size, and thickness, only 10 individual lengths or 5 percent of all lengths, whichever is
greater, need be measured. The thickness of the lengths that are not measured must be
verified by applying a gage set to the minimum thickness found by the measurement. The

144
nominal wall thickness to be used is the next wall thickness found in commercial
specifications that is below the average of all the measurements taken. However, the
nominal wall thickness may not be more than 1.14 times the smallest measurement taken
on pipe that is less than 508 mm (20 in) nominal outside diameter, nor more than 1.11 times
the smallest measurement taken on pipe that is 508 mm (20 in) or more in nominal outside
diameter.
(d) The minimum wall thickness of the pipe may not be less than 87.5 percent of the value
used for nominal wall thickness in determining the internal design pressure under
paragraph (a) of this section. In addition, the anticipated external loads and external
pressures that are concurrent with internal pressure must be considered in accordance
with 195.108 and 195.110 and, after determining the internal design pressure, the nominal
wall thickness must be increased as necessary to compensate for these concurrent loads and
pressures.
(e) The seam joint factor used in paragraph (a) of this section is determined in accordance
with the following table:
The seam joint factor for pipe which is not covered by this paragraph must be approved by
the Administrator.
References:
DOT Code, Part 195
ASME B31.4 - 1998 Edition "Pipeline Transportation Systems for Liquid Hydrocarbons
and other Liquids", Art. 404.3.1(c)
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145
Internal Pressure % SMYS

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147
DETERMINATION OF MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE
LONGITUDINAL EXTENT OF CORROSION - ANSI
B.31.G - 1991
The depth of a corrosion pit may be expressed as a percent of nominal wall thickness of pipe by:
% pit depth = 100 (1)
where
d = measured maximum depth of the corroded area(inches).
t = nominal wall thickness of pipe(inches). Additional wall thickness required for concurrent
external loads shall not be included in the calculation.
A contiguous corroded area having a maximum depth of more then 10 % but less than 80 % of
the nominal wall thickness of the pipe should not extend along the longitudinal axis of the pipe
for a distance greater than that calculated from:
(2)
where
L = maximum allowable longitudinal extent of the corroded area(inches).
D = nominal outside diameter of the pipe(inches).
B = a value which may be determined from :
(3)
except that B may not exceed the value 4. If the corrosion depth is between 10% and 80%, use B
= 4.0 in Equation (2).
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149
Liquid Pipeline Hydraulics
Liquid Pipeline Hydraulics - Includes 5 flow equations to determine flow rate, upstream
and downstream pressure, internal pipe diameter, pressure drop and velocity.
Colebrook - White
Hazen - Williams
Heltzel
T.R. Aude
Shell / MIT
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151
Live Load: AASHTO H20 Load on Buried
PE Pipe - 12" Thick Pavement
1. Dead/Earth Load
A. Prism Load

B . Marston Load (ASCE Manual No.60)



C. Combined Prism and Marston Load

152
For flexible pipe, a more conservative method is to use a soil pressure load in between
prism and Marston load:

2. Live Load: AASHTO Load on Buried PE Pipe - 12" Thick Pavement

3. Pipe Deflection is calculated using Spangler's Modified Iowa Formula:
Live Load: AASHTO H20 Load on Buried PE Pipe - 12" Thick Pavement
153

4. Pipe Wall Compressive Stress

Reference:

154
1. Soil Engineering, Third Edition, Spangler, M.G. and Handy, R.L., Intext
Educational Press
2. Structural Mechanics of Buried Pipes, Watkins, R.K, and Loren, R, A,
3. Polyethylene Pipe Handbook: Design of PE Piping Systems, Second Edition,
Plastic Pipe Institute, Inc.
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155
Live Load: AASHTO H20 Load on Buried
PE Pipe - Flexible or no Pavement
1. Dead/Earth Load
A. Prism Load

B . Marston Load (ASCE Manual No.60)



C. Combined Prism and Marston Load

156
For flexible pipe, a more conservative method is to use a soil pressure load in between
prism and Marston load:

2. Live Load: AASHTO Load on Buried PE Pipe - Flexible or no Pavement

3. Pipe Deflection is calculated using Spangler's Modified Iowa Formula:
Live Load: AASHTO H20 Load on Buried PE Pipe - Flexible or no Pavement
157

4. Pipe Wall Compressive Stress

Reference:

158
1. Soil Engineering, Third Edition, Spangler, M.G. and Handy, R.L., Intext
Educational Press
2. Structural Mechanics of Buried Pipes, Watkins, R.K, and Loren, R, A,
3. Polyethylene Pipe Handbook: Design of PE Piping Systems, Second Edition,
Plastic Pipe Institute, Inc.
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159
Live Load: Aircraft Load on Buried PE Pipe
1. Dead/Earth Load
A. Prism Load

B . Marston Load (ASCE Manual No.60)



C. Combined Prism and Marston Load
For flexible pipe, a more conservative method is to use a soil pressure load in between
prism and Marston load:

160

2. Live Load: Aircraft Load on Buried PE Pipe

3. Pipe Deflection is calculated using Spangler's Modified Iowa Formula:
Live Load: Aircraft Load on Buried PE Pipe
161

4. Pipe Wall Compressive Stress

Reference:

162
1. Soil Engineering, Third Edition, Spangler, M.G. and Handy, R.L., Intext
Educational Press
2. Structural Mechanics of Buried Pipes, Watkins, R.K, and Loren, R, A,
3. Polyethylene Pipe Handbook: Design of PE Piping Systems, Second Edition,
Plastic Pipe Institute, Inc.
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163
Live Load: Cooper E-80 Railroad Load on
Buried PE Pipe
1. Dead/Earth Load
A. Prism Load

B . Marston Load (ASCE Manual No.60)



C. Combined Prism and Marston Load

164
For flexible pipe, a more conservative method is to use a soil pressure load in between
prism and Marston load:

2. Live Load: Cooper E-80 Railroad Load on Buried PE Pipe

3. Pipe Deflection is calculated using Spangler's Modified Iowa Formula:
Live Load: Cooper E-80 Railroad Load on Buried PE Pipe
165

4. Pipe Wall Compressive Stress

Reference:

166
1. Soil Engineering, Third Edition, Spangler, M.G. and Handy, R.L., Intext
Educational Press
2. Structural Mechanics of Buried Pipes, Watkins, R.K, and Loren, R, A,
3. Polyethylene Pipe Handbook: Design of PE Piping Systems, Second Edition,
Plastic Pipe Institute, Inc.
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167
Live Load: Distributed Surface Load on
Buried PE Pipe - Unpaved Road Only
(Timoshenko's Equation)
1. Dead/Earth Load
A. Prism Load

B . Marston Load (ASCE Manual No.60)



168

C. Combined Prism and Marston Load
For flexible pipe, a more conservative method is to use a soil pressure load in between
prism and Marston load:

2. Live Load: Distributed Surface Load on Buried PE Pipe - Unpaved Road Only
(Timoshenko's Equation)
The Timoshenko equation gives soil pressure at a point directly under a distributed surface
load, neglecting any pavement. This conservative equation may be used for the vehicle that
does not much AASHTO standard live loads such as off-road vehicles.

Impact factors for unpaved road are 2.0 and higher.
3. Pipe Deflection is calculated using Spangler's Modified Iowa Formula:
Live Load: Distributed Surface Load on Buried PE Pipe - Unpaved Road Only (Timoshenko's
Equation)
169

4. Pipe Wall Compressive Stress

Reference:

170
1. Soil Engineering, Third Edition, Spangler, M.G. and Handy, R.L., Intext
Educational Press
2. Structural Mechanics of Buried Pipes, Watkins, R.K, and Loren, R, A,
3. Polyethylene Pipe Handbook: Design of PE Piping Systems, Second Edition,
Plastic Pipe Institute, Inc.
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171
Live Load: Multiple Wheel not over Buried
PE Pipe - Concentrated Point Load
1. Dead/Earth Load
A. Prism Load

B . Marston Load (ASCE Manual No.60)



C. Combined Prism and Marston Load

172
For flexible pipe, a more conservative method is to use a soil pressure load in between
prism and Marston load:

2. Live Load: Multiple Wheel not over Buried PE Pipe - Concentrated Point Load
This method is based on of Boussinesq equation for stress distribution in soil. It assumes
that load is concentrated in the point.


3. Pipe Deflection is calculated using Spangler's Modified Iowa Formula:
Live Load: Multiple Wheel not over Buried PE Pipe - Concentrated Point Load
173

4. Pipe Wall Compressive Stress

Reference:

174
1. Soil Engineering, Third Edition, Spangler, M.G. and Handy, R.L., Intext
Educational Press
2. Structural Mechanics of Buried Pipes, Watkins, R.K, and Loren, R, A,
3. Polyethylene Pipe Handbook: Design of PE Piping Systems, Second Edition,
Plastic Pipe Institute, Inc.
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175
Live Load: Multiple Wheel over Buried PE
Pipe - Concentrated Point Load
1. Dead/Earth Load
A. Prism Load

B . Marston Load (ASCE Manual No.60)



C. Combined Prism and Marston Load

176
For flexible pipe, a more conservative method is to use a soil pressure load in between
prism and Marston load:

2. Live Load: Multiple Wheel over Buried PE Pipe - Concentrated Point Load
This method is based on of Boussinesq equation for stress distribution in soil. It assumes
that load is concentrated in the point.


3. Pipe Deflection is calculated using Spangler's Modified Iowa Formula:
Live Load: Multiple Wheel over Buried PE Pipe - Concentrated Point Load
177

4. Pipe Wall Compressive Stress

Reference:

178
1. Soil Engineering, Third Edition, Spangler, M.G. and Handy, R.L., Intext
Educational Press
2. Structural Mechanics of Buried Pipes, Watkins, R.K, and Loren, R, A,
3. Polyethylene Pipe Handbook: Design of PE Piping Systems, Second Edition,
Plastic Pipe Institute, Inc.
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179
Live Load: Single Wheel over Buried PE Pipe
- Concentrated Point Load
1. Dead/Earth Load
A. Prism Load

B . Marston Load (ASCE Manual No.60)



C. Combined Prism and Marston Load

180
For flexible pipe, a more conservative method is to use a soil pressure load in between
prism and Marston load:

2. Live Load: Single Wheel over Buried PE Pipe - Concentrated Point Load

This method is based on Newmarks and Ho lls integration of Boussinesq equation for
stress distribution in soil. It assumes that load is concentrated in the point.

Load coefficient Choll is selected from the table below:
Live Load: Single Wheel over Buried PE Pipe - Concentrated Point Load
181

3. Pipe Deflection is calculated using Spangler's Modified Iowa Formula:


182
4. Pipe Wall Compressive Stress

Reference:
1. Soil Engineering, Third Edition, Spangler, M.G. and Handy, R.L., Intext
Educational Press
2. Structural Mechanics of Buried Pipes, Watkins, R.K, and Loren, R, A,
3. Polyethylene Pipe Handbook: Design of PE Piping Systems, Second Edition,
Plastic Pipe Institute, Inc.
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Local Atmospheric Pressure
The local atmospheric pressure may be calculated using Smithsonian Metrological Tables:

Reference: American Gas Association, Report No.3, A.G.A. Catalog No. XQ9210
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Longitudinal Stress

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EVALUATION OF MAOP IN CORRODED AREAS - ANSI
B.31.G -1991
Computation of A
If the measured maximum depth of the corroded area is greater than 10 % of the nominal wall
thickness, and the measured longitudinal extent of the corroded area is greater than the value
determined by Equation (2), calculate:

where
Lm = measured longitudinal extent of the corroded area(inches).
D = nominal outside diameter of the pipe(inches).
t = nominal wall thickness of the pipe, in. Additional wall thickness required
for concurrent external loads shall not be included in calculation.
COMPUTATION OF P
(a) For values of Less Than or Equal to 4.0.

where
= the safe maximum pressure for the corroded area
d = measured maximum depth of corroded area, in.
may not exceed P
P = the greater of either the established MAOP or

Where
S = specified minimum yield strength (SMYS), psi
F = appropriate design factor from ASME B31.4, ASMEB31.8, or ASME B31.11
T = temperature derating factor from the appropriate B31 Code(if not listed, T = 1)
D = nominal outside diameter of the pipe(inches).
T = nominal wall thickness of the pipe(inches). Additional wall thickness required
for concurrent external loads shall not be included in the calculations.
(b) For Value of A Greater Than 4.0

MAOP and
If the established MAOP is equal to or less than , the corroded region may be used for service at
that MAOP. If the established MAOP is greater than , then a lower MAOP should be established
not to exceed , or the corroded region should be repaired or replaced.
Reference:
ASME B31G "Manual for Determining the Remaining Strength of Corroded Pipeline"

188
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189
Math & Graphics Module
New comprehensive math/graphics calculator module designed to provide users of all
levels with an easy, intuitive way to perform various simple and complex mathematical
tasks as well as 2D/3D graphing, solving equations, etc. Users can input their own
equations and variables and save them for recall.
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191
Maximum Allowable Pipe Span Length
Step 1: Variables Definition
D - Pipe Outside Diameter [in]
W - Weight [lb/ft], includes water weight if hydrostatic testing is specified
MOAP - Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure [psi],
MOP - Maximum Operating Pressure [psi],
t - Pipe Wall Thickness [in]
SMYS - Specified Minimum Yield Strength or Grade of Steel [psi] ,
E - Modulus of Elasticity ( 29000 ksi )


H - Hoop Stress, [psi]
B - Bending Stress [psi]
M - Bending Moment [ft-lb]
L - Span Length [ft]
d - Deflection [in]
Step 2: Calculate Hoop Stress

Where P = MOP
Step 3: Calculate Maximum Allowable Bending Stress
Solve Von Mises Equation through Quadratic Equation, and than solve for
Bending Stress B


Step 4: Calculate Maximum Allowable Bending Moment

Step 5: Calculate Maximum Span Length L, due to bending

Step 6: Calculate Maximum Span Length L, due to deflection


Important Notes :
Maximum Operating Pressure (MOP) Must Be Less Then Maximum Operating Pressure
(MAOP)

192
Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure is calculated in accordance to DOT Code Part 192
using design factors

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Maximum Impact Load and Penetration
Depth
A. Maximum Impact Load



194
B. Penetration Depth

Reference: Guidelines for the Design of Buried Steel Pipe American Lifeline Alliance
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Modulus of Soil Reaction (E') - Average
Values for Iowa Formula

Reference: Modulus of Soil Reaction Values for Buried Flexible Pipe, Journal of the
Geotechnical Engineering Division, ASCE, Vol. 103, No GT 1, Howard, A.K.
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197
Modulus of Soil Reaction (E') - Values of E'
for Pipe Embedment

Reference:
Evaluation of Modulus of Soil Reaction E and its Variation with Depth, Report No.
UCB/GT/82-02,
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199
Resistance to Earth of Multiple Vertical Anodes in Parallel

R - Anode resistance to earth [ohm]
- Soil resistivity [ohm-cm]
L - Anode length [ft.]
d - Anode diameter [ft.]
N - Number of anodes in parallel
s - Anode spacing in feet
h - Earth surface - Anode [ft.]

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201
Nominal Wall Thickness Straight Steel Pipe
Nominal Wall Thickness Straight Pipe

Reference:
ASME B31.4 - 1998 Edition "Pipeline Transportation Systems for Liquid Hydrocarbons
and other Liquids", , Art. 404.1
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Ohm's Law for Corrosion Current

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How to Export Report in Microsoft Outlook
Express?
Requirements: In order to export report to your email client such as Microsoft Outlook
Express, the email software must be installed on your computer.
1. On the report toolbar

select and click on the Copy button.
2. Minimize application, open MS Outlook Express (or any other email client) select
Edit and then click Paste


206
Note: The report should be exported page by page, to scroll through pages use following
buttons on the report toolbar.
The imported report may need some additional editing.
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Pack in Pipelines

Reference:
DOT Inspector's Handbook
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209
Physical Properties of Fluids
This module contains a comprehensive list of petroleum fluids and their physical
properties. From the table of elements select the appropriate fluid and the related
properties will appear in the windows.
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Pipe Database
The Pipe Database contains multiple complete on-line databases containing all current
steel and plastic pipe specifications for high and low pressure pipes, incorporating API &
AGA standard pipe and non-standard pipe. All pipe data is available in English or metric
measurements. Included is a custom database for users to enter custom or user-
defined pipe specifications for storage and use. The available pipe data for users is
listed below:
API 5L - For Nominal Sizes 1/8" through 80"
API 5LX - For Nominal Sizes 2 3/8" through 64"
AGA SDR/Wall Thickness - For Nominal Sizes 1/2" through 12"
DRISCOPIPE Series 1000 - For Nominal Sizes 3/4" through 54"
Custom Pipe Database - Empty database designed for user to enter custom pipe
specifications and data. All entered data will be saved or updated.
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213
Pipe Requirements for Horizontally Drilled
Installation
1. Determine Hoop Stress:

1. Determine Overburden Stress:

1. Determine Total Circumferential Stress:

1. Determine Bending Stress:

1. Determine Total Combined Stress and select max value:

214

1. Determine calculated design factor:

1. Determine maximum pull force:

1. Determine minimum bend radius - entry & exit at installation:

1. Maximum SMYS for hydrostatic pressure:

1. Determine maximum cantilever length

1. Determine maximum allowable hydrostatic test pressure:

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Pipe Stress Analysis
CAESAR II
Pipe stress analysis and design for a wide range of piping systems including static and dynamic
solutions and code compliance options. Caesar II produces results that completely describe the
system behavior based on guidelines and design limits from ASME B31, ASME section III &
VIII, WRC, API, NEMA, EJMA and others ensuring that your final solution is within code
specifications. Input and modeling capabilities include; structural steel modeling, buried pipe
modeling, automatic expansion joint modeling, multiple valve and flange databases, etc.
Caesar II begins a static analysis by recommending load cases necessary to meet code
compliance for the specified loads and piping code. In most cases, CAESARs default load cases
are desired, but you have the complete freedom to alter, add or delete load cases. This ability to
perform algebraic combinations of displacements, forces and stresses frees you to build your
own load cases to suit specific problems. Models composed of piping and structural elements can
be analyzed together, and the effect of the non-linear pipe/structure interaction can be observed
graphically and numerically.
A dynamic analysis in CAESAR II begins with the specification of the dynamic input data, such
as lumped masses, observed vibration, snubbers, and spectrum definitions. Spectra can be
defined by the user, or you can use the built-in shock spectra. The ability to handle "Force"
spectra makes the solution to impact loading, such as water hammer, slug flow, steam hammer
and relief valve firing problems, possible.
The output modules of CAESAR II provide you with still more interactive flexibility. Load case
and report selection, heading control and report annotation combine to give you a complete tool
for reviewing analysis results. You see what you want, and only what you want, when you want
it. The output graphics show displaced shapes, forces, moments, stresses and animated motions,
giving a comprehensive picture of the piping system behavior. The advanced interactive features
of Caesar II enable a piping system to be completely analyzed, modified and checked before a
single report is printed, saving time and money.
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217
Pipe Wall Compressive Stress (PE Pipe
Crushing)

Reference:
1. Polyethylene Pipe Handbook: Design of PE Piping Systems, Second Edition,
Plastic Pipe Institute, Inc.
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219
Pipeline Anchor Force Analysis

Tensile stress due to Poisson effect:

Compressive stress due to temperature change:

Net longitudinal stress at the beginning point ( A ) of the transition:

Net longitudinal stress at the end point ( B ) of transition:

Net strain at point B, will be:


Soil resistance force based on Wilburs formula for average soil:

Length of transition zone:

220

Total pipe movement at point B will be:

Anchor force:

Reference:
"Pipe Line Industry", Wilbur, W.E., February 1963
"Theory of Elasticity", Timoshenko, s.
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221
Pipeline Corrosion
Pipeline Corrosion - This module incorporates ASME B31G into calculations for MAOP
and external corrosion limits plus various current and resistance calculations.
ASME B31G - Maximum Allowable Longitudinal Extent of Corrosion
ASME B31G - Evaluation of MAOP in Corroded Areas
Rate of Electrical Current Flow Through the Corrosion Cell
Relationship Between Resistance and Resistivity
Electrolyte Resistance from Surface of an Electrode to any Distance
Ohms Law for Corrosion Current
Electrical Resistance of a Conductor
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223
Pipeline Toolbox
Pipeline Facilities
Gas Properties
Physical Properties of Fluids
Meter & Regulator Station Designer
Gas Pipeline Hydraulics
Liquid Pipeline Hydraulics
Pipeline Stress Analysis
Pipeline Testing & Maintenance
Pipeline Corrosion
Cathodic Protection
Pipe Database
Engineering Units Conversion
Engineering Drawing Board
DOT & MMS Pipeline Regulations
Math & Graphics Module
Power Tools
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225
Pipeline Facilities
Hot Tap Sizing
Regulator Station Sizing
Relief Valve Sizing
Reinforcement of Welding Branch Connection
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227
Purging Calculations
Method "A"
1. Find flow rate through the blow-off valve by using the formula for critical velocity,
Q = K
where Q = flow rate, MSCFH
K = flow coefficient, MSCF/(h x psi absolute)
P2 = pressure just upstream of blow-off valve, psi
2. From rearranged Weymouth formula to find an estimate pressure value of necessary to
maintain this flow rate:

3. Recommended purge time is 2T. The minimum purge time in minute is

or

where D = inside diameter of pipe, in
L = length of purge section, mi
C
C = (0.0361)D (1-h Weymouth coefficient in MSCF/h x mi)
Pm = average pressure, psi absolute
P1 = pressure at upstream end of section, psi absolute
P 2= pressure at downstream end of section, psi absolute (just
upstream of blow-off valve)
K = 1-h blow-off coefficient for standard blow-off sizes,
MSCF/ ( h x psi absolute)
One-Hour-Blow-off Coefficient for Standard Blow-off Sizes:
Blow-off size, in. K, MSCF /(h x psi absolute)
1 0.75
2 3.0
3 6.0

228
4 13.5
6 24.0
8 47.0
10 72.0

where c = conversion constant = 60/14.73 = 4.07
V = actual volume of pipe section purged, thousand ft , where
pipe section is assumed to be filed with air prior to purge
K = blow-off coefficient, MSCF /(h x psi absolute)
P1 = pressure at upstream end of section, psi absolute
P1 = pressure at downstream end of section, psi absolute, just
upstream of blow-off valve
The volume of gas lost, MSCF, is

where V = actual volume of pipe action purged, thousand ft ,where
pipe section is assumed to be filled with air prior to purge;
equal to (0.028798)D , D in inches, L in miles
P1 = pressure at upstream end of section, psi absolute
P2 = pressure at downstream end of section, psi absolute
( just upstream of blow-off valve)
C , with C = (0.0361)D , D in inches, L in miles
K = 1-hour blow-off coefficient for standard blow-off sizes,
MSCF/(h x psi absolute)
Method "B"

where V = actual volume of pipe purged, thousand ft , where
pipe section is assumed to be filled with air prior to purge;
equal to(0.028798)D L, D in inches, L in miles
P = pressure of downstream end of section, psi absolute
( just upstream of blow-off valve)
t = actual time of purge, minutes
K = 1-h blow-off coefficient for standard blow-off sizes,
MSCF/ (h x lb/in absolute)
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229
Pipeline Testing & Maintenance
Testing & Maintenance - This module includes calculations for pipeline hydrostatic
testing and pack in the pipeline. Also included are a complete series of calculations for
blowdown and purging.
Pipeline Hydrostatic Testing
Gas Pipeline Pressure Testing - Required Time
Gas Pipeline Pressure Testing - Maximum Pressure Drop
Gas Pipeline Blowdown - Time
Gas Pipeline Blowdown - Volume Lost - Large Hole
Gas Pipeline Blowdown - Volume Lost - Small Hole
Gas Pipeline Purging - Required Time
Gas Pipeline Purging - Volume Lost
Pack In Pipeline
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231
Piping Design & Drafting (CAD)
CADWorx/PIPE
An AutoCAD based design and drafting piping package. Includes a two-way link to CAESAR II.
Generates automatic ISOs, Orthos, 2D, 3D and more. CADWorx/PIPE works with AutoCAD
R12c3 (DOS, Windows 3.1, Windows 3.11 for Work Groups & Windows 95) and also with
AutCAD R13c4 (DOS, Windows 95 & Windows NT). For a two-way link with CAESAR II,
CADWorx/PIPE requires either Windows 95, Windows NT or DOS.
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233
Gas Pipeline Hydraulics - Pittsburgh Equation

The Pittsburgh equation is used in low pressure pipelines within the following range:

Nomenclature
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235
Power Consumption of a Cathodic Protection Rectifier

Note : The formula is approximate, and based on 48% efficiency of rectifier.
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237
POWER TOOLS
The "Power Tools" button has two (2) purposes:
1. To be used by you and your company to "customize" the product and allow you
to "launch" your internal software applications through your local area network
(LAN) or intranet. Technical Toolboxes, Inc. (TTI) can assist you in this effort, if
required, as well as to provide its services to you to enhance and upgrade older
internal "legacy" software to meet todays software standards, i.e. Windows (3.X,
95, NT, etc.), OLE Automation, ActiveX, ODBC, etc. Click here for further
information
2. The second purpose of the Power Tools icon is to offer optional advanced
software applications from third party vendors to assist you and your company
with solutions to special situation problems. Below you will find a list of the
current "Power Tools" available from TTI. Click here for further information
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239
Power Tools Menu
Please click on the appropriate hot spot for further detailed information on each of the available
"Power Tools":
Distribution Automation
API 1102 Compliance
Regulations & Standards
Pipeline Modeling
Piping Design & Drafting (CAD)
Fluid Properties (PVT)
Storage Tanks
Pipe Stress Analysis
Pressure Vessels
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241
Pressure Vessels
PVElite
Complete pressure vessel analysis and design including towers, per ASME Section VIII,
Division 1 & 2 codes and BS-5500 Head & Shell equations. PVElite includes the same
functionality as CodeCalc. PVElite Version 3.0 is a Windows 95 and Windows NT based
program.
PVElites powerful analysis engine is designed to provide computational capabilities ranging
from the most basic vessel component design to very complex complete vessel analysis. This
analysis engine provides the user with the tools to perform complete analysis of both horizontal
and vertical vessels in almost any configuration and under a variety of operating conditions. The
power of PVElite can quickly and reliably analyze conditions of internal and external pressure,
deadweight calculations (including erected weight, operating weight, and hydrostatic test
weight), live load calculations including wind and seismic, and other calculations required to
satisfy a host of governing specifications such as ASME VIII Divisions 1 and 2. PVElite features
multiple libraries which contain properties for over 3600 materials, including allowable stress
versus temperature, yield stress versus temperature, external pressure charts, UNS number, and
product form. These material properties are listed just as they appear in the ASME Code with the
added benefit of being sorted alphabetically. PVElite hosts a vast number of features and
capabilities including an extensive on-line help capability.
CodeCalc
An engineering library of PC tools to assist in the design and analysis of the components
associated with pressure vessels, heat exchangers and piping systems. CodeCalc is a DOS based
program.
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243
Pressure Wave Speed in Pipe
Pressure wave in pipes for hydrocarbons

a = wave speed
K = adiabatic bulk modulus of fluid
= density of fluids
E = modulus of elasticity of pipe steel
D = pipe diameter
t = pipe wall thickness
m = coefficient for kind of pipe support
WOSTL equation for calculation of adiabatic bulk modulus for hydrocarbons


P = pressure, psig
A = API gravity at 60 F
T = temperature R = F + 460
Reference: "Hydraulics for Pipeliners", C. B. Lester
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245
Centrifugal Pump - Specific Speed

Reference:
1. Engineering Data Book, Volume 1, Gas Processors Suppliers Association, Tenth
Edition
2. Pump Handbook, Fourth Edition, McGraw-Hill Professional
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247
Pump Station Piping - Pipe Diameter and
Velocity

Reference: API RP 14E
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249
Rate of Electrical Current Flow Through the Corrosion Cell

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251
Reciprocating Pump - Acceleration Head


Reference:
1. Engineering Data Book, Volume 1, Gas Processors Suppliers Association, Tenth
Edition
2. Pump Handbook, Fourth Edition, McGraw-Hill Professional
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253
Reciprocating Pump - Displacement and
Actual Capacity

Actual Capacity

Reference:
1. Engineering Data Book, Volume 1, Gas Processors Suppliers Association, Tenth
Edition
2. Pump Handbook, Fourth Edition, McGraw-Hill Professional
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255
Reciprocating Pump - Piston Rod Load

Reference: The Reciprocating Pump; Theory, Design, and Use; Krieger Publishing
Company
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257
Regulations & Standards
DOT Gas Pipeline Regulation Amendments:
Licensed from ViaData Corporation, the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) gas pipeline
Amendments to 49 CFR 190-198.
DOT Gas Pipeline Regulation Interpretations:
Licensed from ViaData Corporation, the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) gas pipeline
Interpretations to 49 CFR 190-198 with AGA GPTC Guide.
DOT Liquid Pipeline Regulation Amendments:
Licensed from ViaData Corporation, the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) Hazardous
Liquid Pipeline Amendments parts 49 CFR 190, 194, 195, 198 including printable report forms.
DOT Liquid Pipeline Regulation Interpretations:
Licensed from ViaData Corporation, the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) Hazardous
Liquid Pipeline Interpretations parts 49 CFR 190, 194, 195, 198 including printable report forms.
DOT Drug & Alcohol Resting Regulations:
Licensed from ViaData Corporation, the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT)
Drug/Alcohol Testing - 49CFR 40, 199.
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259
Reinforcement of Welded Branch Connection


ASME 31.4 Art. 404.3.1(c) - DESIGN CRITERIA FOR WELDED BRANCH
CONNECTION

260

Reference: ASME B31.4 - 1998 Edition "Pipeline Transportation Systems for Liquid
Hydrocarbons and other Liquids", Art. 404.3.1(c)
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261
Relationship Between Resistance and Resistivity

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263
Relief Valve Sizing for Gas or Vapor Relief
CRITICAL FLOW BEHAVIOR
If a compressible gas is expanded across a nozzle, an orifice, or the end of a pipe, its velocity and
specific volume increase with decreasing downstream pressure. For a given set of upstream
conditions (using the example of a nozzle), the mass rate of flow through the nozzle will increase
until a limiting velocity is reached in the throat .It can be shown that the limiting velocity is the
velocity of sound in the flowing media at that location. The flow rate that corresponds to the
limiting velocity is known as the critical flow rate.
The absolute pressure ratio of the pressure in the throat at sonic velocity to the inlet
pressure is called critical pressure ratio. is known as the critical flow pressure.
Under critical flow conditions, the actual pressure in the throat cannot fall below the critical flow
pressure even if a much lower pressure exists downstream. At critical flow, the expansion from
throat pressure to downstream pressure takes place irreversibly with energy dissipated in
turbulence into the surrounding fluid.
The critical flow pressure ratio in absolute units may be estimated using the ideal gas
relationship in Equation 1:
(1)
Where:

The sizing equations for pressure relief valves in vapor or gas service fall into two general
categories depending on whether the flow is critical or subcritical. If the pressure downstream of
the throat is less than or equal to the critical flow pressure, , then critical flow will occur, and
the procedures in SIZING FOR CRITICAL FLOW should be applied. (See Table 8 for typical
critical flow pressure ratio value.) If the downstream pressure exceeds the critical pressure, ,
then subcritical flow will occur, and procedure in SIZING FOR SUBCRITICAL FLOW
SHOULD BE APPLIED.
SIZING FOR CRITICAL FLOW
General
Pressure relief valves in gas or vapor service that operate under critical flow conditions (see
4.3.1) may be sized using Equations 2-4. Each of the equations may be used to calculate the
effective discharge area, A, required to achieve a required flow rate through a pressure relief
valve. A valve that has an effective discharge area equal to or greater than the calculated value of
A is then chosen for the application.

264

Where:
A = required effective discharge area of the valve, in square inches.
W = required flow through the valve, in pounds per hour.
C = coefficient determined from an expression of the ratio of the specific heats of the
gas or vapor at standard conditions. This can be obtained from Figure 26 or Table 9.


Note: See for applications that involve superimposed back pressure of a magnitude that will
cause critical flow.
T = relieving temperature of the inlet gas or vapor, in degrees Rankine
(degrees Fahrenheit + 460).
Z = compressibility factor for the deviation of the actual gas from a perfect gas,
a ratio evaluated at inlet conditions.
M = molecular weight of the gas or vapor. Various handbooks carry tables
of molecular weights of materials, but the composition of the flowing
gas or vapor is seldom the same as that listed in tables. This value should be
obtained from the process data. Table 8 lists values for same common fluids.
V = required flow through the valve, in standard cubic feet per minute at 14. 7
pounds per square inch absolute and .
G = specific gravity of gas referred to air = 1.00 for air at 14.7 pounds per square
inch absolute and .
The value of the coefficient C can be evaluated from the expression of the ratio of the specific
heats of the gas or vapor as shown in Figure 26.
The ratio of specific heats of any ideal gas and possibly the ratio of specific heats of a diatomic
actual gas can be found in any acceptable reference work.
Table 9 complements Figure 26 where When k cannot be determined, it is
suggested that C = 315.
Relief Valve Sizing
265
While ideal gas low behavior is generally acceptable for the majority of refinery applications,
Appendix E should be referred to for unusual situations in which deviation from ideal behavior is
significant.
Example:
In this example, the following relief requirements are given:
. Required hydrocarbon vapor flow, W, caused by an operational upset,
of 53,500 pounds per hour.
1. Molecular weight of hydrocarbon vapor [a mixture of butane ( )and
pentane ( )], M, of 65.
1. Relief temperature, T, of .
. Relief valve set at 75 pounds per square inch gauge, the design pressure
of the equipment.
. Basic pressure of 0 pounds per square inch gauge.
In this example, the following data are derived:
. Permitted accumulation of 10 percent.
1. Relieving pressure, P , of 75 x 1.1 + 14.7 = 97.2 pounds
per square inch absolute.
. Calculated compressibility, Z of 0.84 (If a calculated compressibility is not
available, Z = 1.0 should be used.)
. Critical back pressure (From table 8) of 97.2 x 0.59 = 57.3 pounds per
square inch absolute (42.6 pounds per square inch gauge).
Note: Since the back pressure (0 pounds per square inch gauge) is less than the critical back
pressure (42.6 pounds per square inch gauge), the relief valve setting is based on the critical flow
equation.

1. .
2. Capacity correction due to back pressure, , of 1.0.
The size of a single pressure relief valve is derived from Equation as follows:

See API Standard 526, which also provides a purchase specification sheet for flanged steel relief
valves.
Select "P" letter orifice size (6.38 square inches)
SIZING FOR SUBCRITICAL FLOW: GAS OR

266
VAPOR OTHER THAN STEAM
General
When the ratio of back pressure to inlet pressure exceeds the critical pressure ratio , the
flow through the pressure relief valve is subcritical . Equation 5 - 7 may be used to calculate the
required effective discharge area for a conventional relief valve that has its spring setting
adjusted to compensate for superimposed back pressure and for sizing a pilot-operated relief
valve.
Note: Balanced-bellows relief valves that operate in the subcritical region should be sized using
Equations 2-4. The back pressure correction factor for this application should be obtain from the
valve manufacturer.

Where:
A = required effective discharge area of the valve, in square inches.
W = required flow through the valve, in pounds per hour.

=
k = ratio of the specific heats.
r = ratio of back pressure to upstream relieving pressure, .

Z = compressibility factor for the deviation of the actual gas from a perfect gas,
a ratio evaluated at inlet conditions.
T = relieving temperature of the inlet gas or vapor, in degrees Rankine (degrees
Fahrenheit + 460).
M = molecular weight of the gas or vapor. Various handbooks carry tables of
molecular weights of materials, but the composition of the flowing gas or vapor is
seldom the same as that listed in tables. This value should be obtained from the
process data. Table 8 lists value for same common fluids.


V = required flow through the valve, in standard cubic feet per minute at 14.7 pounds
per square inch absolute and .
G = specific gravity of gas referred to air = 1.00 for air at 14.7 pounds per square inch
Relief Valve Sizing
267
absolute and .
Example
In this example, the following relief requirements are given:
. Required hydrocarbon vapor flow, W, caused by an operational upset,
of 53,500 pounds per hour.
1. Molecular weight of hydrocarbon vapor [a mixture of butane ( )and
pentane ( )], M, of 65.
1. Relief temperature, T, of
. Relief valve set at 75 pounds per square inch gauge, the design pressure
of the equipment.
. Constant back pressure of 55 pounds per square inch gauge. The spring
setting of the valve should be adjusted according to the amount of constant back pressure
obtained.
In this example, the following data are derived:
. Permitted accumulation of 10 percent.
1. Relieving pressure, P , of 75 x 1.1 + 14.7 = 97.2 pounds
per square inch absolute.
. Calculated compressibility, Z = 0.84 (If a calculated compressibility is not
available, Z = 1.0 should be used.)
. Critical back pressure (From table 8) of 97.2 x 0.59 = 57.3 pounds per
square inch absolute (42.6 pounds per square inch gauge).
Note: Since the back pressure (55 pounds per square inch gauge) is greater than the critical back
pressure (42.6 pounds per square inch gauge), the relief valve setting is based on the subcritical
flow equation (see Equation 5).
. Permitted build-up back pressure of 0.10 x 75 = 7.5 pounds
per square inch.
. Total back pressure of 55 + 7.5 = 62.5 pounds per square
inch gauge.
1.

2. Coefficient of subcritical pressure flow, , of 0.86 (from Figure 29).
The size of a single pressure relief valve is derived from Equation as follows:

268

See API Standard 526, which also provides a purchase specification sheet for flanged steel relief
valves.
Select "P" letter orifice size (6.38 square inches)
.
ALTERNATIVE SIZING PROCEDURE FOR
SUBCRITICAL FLOW
General
Critical flow Equations 2-4 may be used to calculate the required discaharge area of a pressure
relief valve used in subcritical service. The area obtained using this sizing procedure is identical
to the area obtained using the subcritical flow equations. (The capacity correction factor due to
back pressure is derived by setting the subcritical flow equation equal to the critical flow
equation and algebraically solving for .) This alternate sizing procedure allows the designer
to use the familiar critical flow equation to calculate the same area obtained with the subcritical
flow equation. A graphical presentation of the capacity correction factor, , is given in Figure
30. It should be noted that this correction factor is used only for the sizing of conventional
(nonbalanced) relief valves that have their spring setting adjusted to compensate for the
superimposed back pressure. The correction factor should not be used to size balanced-type
valves.
Example
In this example, the following relief requirements are given:
. Required hydrocarbon vapor flow, W, caused by an operational upset,
of 53,500 pounds per hour.
1. Molecular weight of hydrocarbon vapor [a mixture of butane ( )and
pentane ( )], M, of 65.
1. Relief temperature, T, of .
. Relief valve set at 75 pounds per square inch gauge, the design pressure
of the equipment.
. Constant back pressure of 55 pounds per square inch gauge. The spring
setting of the valve should be adjusted according to the amount of constant
back pressure obtained.
In this example, the following data are derived:
. Permitted accumulation of 10 percent.
1. Relieving pressure, , of 75 x 1.1 + 14.7 = 97.2 pounds
per square inch absolute.
Relief Valve Sizing
269
. Calculated compressibility, Z of 0.84 (If a calculated compressibility is not
available, Z = 1.0 should be used.)
. Critical back pressure (From table 8) of 97.2 x 0.59 = 57.3 pounds per
square inch absolute (42.6 pounds per square inch gauge).
Note: Since the back pressure (55 pounds per square inch gauge) is greater than the critical back
pressure (42.6 pounds per square inch gauge), the sizing of the relief valve is based on the
subcritical flow equation. The back pressure correction factor, , should be determined using
critical flow formulas.
. Build-up back pressure of 0.10 x 75 = 7.5 pounds
per square inch.
. Total back pressure of 55 + 7.5 + 14.7 = 77.2 pounds per
square inch absolute.
1. .

2. Back pressure correction factor, , of 0.88 (from Figure 30)
. Coefficient determined from an expression of the ratio of specific the
heat of the gas or vapor at standard conditions, C, of 326 ( form Table 9)
The size of the relief valve is derived from Equation 2 as follows:

Note: This area requirement is the same at that obtained using the subcritical flow equation.

Technical Toolboxes, Inc.

271
Relief Valves - Reactive Force


Reference: Marks Standard Handbook for Mechanical Engineers, McGraw-Hill
Technical Toolboxes, Inc.

273
Required Number of Anodes and Total Current
Requirement


Technical Toolboxes, Inc.

275
Required Pump Horsepower
Hydraulic/Water Horsepower


Brake Horsepower

Reference:
1. Engineering Data Book, Volume 1, Gas Processors Suppliers Association, Tenth
Edition
2. Pump Handbook, Fourth Edition, McGraw-Hill Professional
Technical Toolboxes, Inc.

277
Resistance to Earth of an Impressed Anode Ground Bed

Technical Toolboxes, Inc.

279
Restrained Liquid Pipeline Stress Analysis -
Steel Pipe
Hoop Stress

Longitudinal Stress due to Thermal Expansion

Net Longitudinal Stress Restrained Pipe

Reference: ASME B31.4 - 2009
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281
Rudenberg Formula

Vx - Potential at x in volt caused by grounds anode current
I - Ground anode current in amperes
- Earth resistivity in ohm-centimeters
y - Length of anode in earth in feet
x - distance from ground anode in feet
If x greater then 10y then,

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283
Bending Stress in Pipelines Caused by Fluid Flow Around
Pipeline

S = bending stress, PSI
w = unit weight of fluid, pounds per cubic feet
@ 59 degree and 14.7 PSI:
air = 0.07651
water = 62.4
D =outside diameter of pipe, inches
d = inside diameter of pipe, inches
V = velocity of fluid, feet per second
L= length of pipe, feet
BENDING STRESS IN PILING
CAUSED BY FLUID FLOW
AROUND PILING

D = outside diameter of piling, inches
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285
Liquid Pipeline Hydraulics Shell / MIT Equation
The Shell / MIT equation is used for calculating pressure drop and flow rates for
pipelines. The equation uses a modified Reynolds number.
When calculating FLOW RATE or INTERNAL PIPE DIAMETER, you have to enter an
estimated modified Reynolds number (r) in the appropriate range indicated below. After
the first calculation using the estimated modified Reynolds number, you must replace
the estimated modified Reynolds number you initially entered with the resulting
Calculated modified Reynolds number, and RECALCULATE until the modified Reynolds
number is within acceptable tolerance of the Calculated modified Reynolds number.

References:
"Pipeline Rules of Thumb Handbook", Third Edition, E.W. McAllister
"Pipeline Design for Hydrocarbons Gases and Liquids", ASCE, Commitee on Pipeline Planning
Nomenclature
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287
Single Horizontal Anode Resistance to Earth and Typical
Installation

R - Anode resistance to earth [ohm]
- Soil resistivity [ohm-cm]
L - Anode length [ft.]
d - Anode diameter [ft.]
s - Anode spacing in feet
h - Earth surface - Anode [ft.]

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289
Single Vertical Anode Resistance to Earth and Typical
Installation

R - Anode resistance to earth [ohm]
- Soil resistivity [ohm-cm]
L - Anode length [ft.]
d - Anode diameter [ft.]
s - Anode spacing in feet
h - Earth surface - Anode [ft.]

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291
Sizing for Liquid Relief: Relief Valves Not
Requiring Capacity Certification
Before the AMSE Code made provisions for capacity certification, valves were generally
sized for liquid services using equation below. This method assumes a coefficient of
discharge, Kd = 0.62, and 25 percent overpressure. An additional capacity correction
factor, Kp, was obtained from Figure 33 for relieving pressures other than 25 percent
overpressure. The sizing method may be used where capacity certification is not required.

Where:
A = required effective discharge are, in square inches.
Q= flow rate, in U.S. gallons per minute.
Kd = effective coefficient of discharge that should be obtained from valve manufacturer.
For a preliminary sizing estimation, a discharge coefficient of 0.62 can be used.
Kw = correction factor due to back pressure. If back pressure is atmospheric, Kw = 1.
Balanced - bellows valves in back - pressure services will require the correction factor.
Conventional valves require no special correction.
Kv = correction factor due to viscosity
Kp = correction factor due to overpressure. At 25 percent overpressure, Kp = 1.0. For
overpressures other than 25 percent, Kp is determined from interactive graph, see example
below
G = specific gravity of the liquid at the flowing temperature referred to water = 1.0 at 70F.
p = set pressure, in pounds per square inch gauge.
pb = total back pressure, in pounds per square inch gauge.
Reference:
API RP 520 Part I - Sizing and Selection, Sixth Edition, March 1993,
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293
Sizing for Liquid Relief: Relief Valves
Requiring Liquid Capacity Certification
Section VIII, Division I, of the ASME Code requires that capacity certification be obtained
for pressure relief valves designed for liquid services. The procedure for obtaining capacity
certification includes determining the coefficient of discharge for the design of liquid relief
valves at 10 percent overpressure. Valves that require a capacity in accordance with the
ASME code may be sized using equation:

Where:
A = required effective discharge area, in square inches.
B = flow rate, in U.S. gallons per minute.
Kd = effective coefficient of discharge that should be obtained from the valve
manufactured. For a preliminary sizing estimation, a discharge coefficient of 0.65 can be
used.
Kw = correction factor due to back pressure. If the back pressure is atmospheric Kw = 1.
Balanced-bellows valves in back pressure services will require the correction factor
determined from the interactive graph. Conventional valves require no special corrections.
Kv = correction factor due to viscosity as determined from interactive
G = specific gravity of the liquid at the flowing temperature referred to water = 1.0 at 70
F.
P1 = upstream relieving pressure, in pounds per square inch gauge. This is the pressure
plus allowable overpressure
P2 = total back pressure, in pounds per square inch gauge.
When a relief valve is sized for viscous liquid services, it should first be sized as it was for
nonviscous - type application so that a preliminary required discharge area, A, can be
obtained. From manufacturer's standard orifice sizes, the next large orifice size should be
used in determining the Reynold's number, R, from either of the following relationship:

Where:
Q = flow rate at the flowing temperature, in U.S. gallons per minute.
G = specific of the gravity of the liquid at the flowing temperature referred to water = 1.00
at 70F
n = absolute viscosity at the flowing temperature, in centipoises.
A= effective discharge area, in square inches ( from manufacturer's standard orifice area).

294
U = viscosity at the flowing temperature, in Saybolt Universal seconds.
Note: Equation is not recommended for viscosities less than 100 Salybolt Universal seconds.
After the value of R is determined, the factor Kv is obtained from interactive graph. Kv is
applied to correct the preliminary required discharge area. If the corrected area exceeds
the chosen standard orifice area, the above calculations should be repeated using the next
larger standard orifice size. Next larger standard orifice size is retrieved form the program
database automatically.
Example form API RP 520
In this example, the following relief requirement are given:
Required crude-oil flow caused by blocked discharge, Q, of 1800 gallons per minute.
Specific gravity, G, of 0.90 ( viscosity at the flowing temperature is 2000 Saybolt Universal
seconds).
Relief valve set at 250 pounds per square inch gauge, the design pressure of the equipment.
Back pressure variable from 0 to 50 pounds per square inch gauge.
In this example, the following data are derived:
Overpressure of 10 percent.
Relieving pressure, P1, of 1.10 * 250 = 275 pounds per square inch gauge.
Back pressure of (50/250) * 100 = 20 percent.
Balanced-bellows valve is indicated, since back pressure is variable. From interactive
graph read Kw value by positiong cursor on the intersection curve-vertical line for 20% of
back pressure. When you place the cursor on proper intersection just double click and Kw
value will be automatically determined , Kw = 0.97.
The manufacturer's effective coefficient of discharge K= 0.75.
Step 1: Sizing first for no viscosity correction (Kv = 1.0),
Program automatically retrieve next larger standard orifice "N" with area of 4.34 square
inches
AR = required area without viscosity correction.
In oreder to determine Kv value place cursor on curve for calculated Reynolds number and
duble click, program will recalculate reqired discharge area and then select next larger
orifice size, "N" orifice size is selected for relief valve, orifice area is 4.34 square inches.
Reference:
API RP 520 Part I - Sizing and Selection, Sixth Edition, March 1993,
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295
Spangler's Modified Iowa Formula for PE
Pipe

Reference:
1. Soil Engineering, Third Edition, Spangler, M.G. and Handy, R.L., Intext
Educational Press
2. Structural Mechanics of Buried Pipes, Watkins, R.K, and Loren, R, A,
3. Polyethylene Pipe Handbook: Design of PE Piping Systems, Second Edition,
Plastic Pipe Institute, Inc.
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297
Gas Pipeline Hydraulics - Spitzglass Equation



The Spitzglass equation is used with pipe diameters of 10" or less and with a range of
pressure:

Nomenclature
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299
Storage Tanks
TANK
Oil storage tank analysis and design according to the very latest API 650 and 653 codes. It
includes settlement calculations and nozzle loads. Design and analysis of supported cone roofs as
well as self supporting cone, dome and umbrella roofs. Thickness design and analysis using the
variable point method, one-foot method and API-650 Appendix A method. All material
adjustments, allowed fluid heights, seismic requirements, internal pressure, wind girder, shell
settlement evaluations, anchorage, wind overturning stability calculations and nozzle limiting
load interactions are all calculated in compliance with the appropriate API 650 and 653
appendix. TANK is currently a DOS based program.
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301
Pipeline Stress Analysis
Stresses & Pressure - Contains calculations to determine design pressures for both
steel and plastic pipe, internal pressure (%SMYS), hoop stress, and longitudinal stress.
Also includes calculations for various bending and pipeline stresses due to external
fluids, soil and vehicular loading, thermal pipe expansion and thrust. ASME B31.4 and
ASME B31.8 have been incorporated into the calculations.
Design Pressure - Steel Pipe
Design Pressure - Plastic Pipe (AGA Manual)
Design Pressure - Plastic Pipe (SDR)
Hoop Stress
Longitudinal Stress
Bending Stress & Deflection
Bending Stress - Caused by Fluid Flowing Around Pipeline
Bending Stress - Caused by Soil & Vehicular Load
Linear Thermal Pipeline Expansion
Thrust at Blow-off
Technical Toolboxes, Inc.

303
Suction Specific Speed

Reference:
1. Engineering Data Book, Volume 1, Gas Processors Suppliers Association, Tenth
Edition
2. Pump Handbook, Fourth Edition, McGraw-Hill Professional
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305
Surge Analysis - Water Hammer
The program module/solution is based on the Method of characteristics. Calculation of
pressure wave speed is specifically designed for liquid hydrocarbons.
Mathematical Model Basic Equations:
V- Instantaneous velocity
H- Instantaneous piezometric head
g - Acceleration of gravity
f - friction factor
x - Distance along pipe
t - time


306

Surge Analysis - Water Hammer
307

Boundary condition: Valve on the end of pipe.
References:
Streeter, V.L. and Wylie, E.B. (1967), Hydraulic Transients, McGraw-Hill, New York.
Streeter, V.L. (1969), `Waterhammer analysis'. J our. Hyd. Div., ASCE., Vol. 88, HY3, pp79-
113 May.
Streeter, V.L. (1972), `Unsteady flow calculations by numerical methods', J our. Basic Eng.,
ASME., 94, pp457-466, June.
J. P Tullis (1989), Hydraulic Pipelines, John Wiley & Sons
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309
Liquid Pipeline Hydraulics - T.R. Aude Equation


The Aude equation has been reported to be accurate for Reynolds numbers in a range
from:
- 6,000 to 130,000 for 8" and 12" crude oil lines.
- over 57,000 for 6" and 8" refined product lines.
References:
"Pipeline Design for Hydrocarbons Gases and Liquids", ASCE, Commitee on Pipeline Planning
"Hydraulics for Pipeliners", Volume I: Fundamentals, Second Edition, C.B. Lester
"Hydraulics of Pipeline Systems", Bruce E. Larock, Ronald W. Jeppson, Gary Z. Watters
Nomenclature
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311


313
Nomenclature
C - Constant for English or Metric (S.I.) units
D - Internal pipe diameter, inches or millimeters
e = 2.718 , natural logarithm base
E - Pipeline efficiency factor
F - Transmission factor, dimensionless
G - Gas specific gravity, relative to dry air ( relative density )
H - Elevation above some reference, feet or meters

h - Pressure,
k - Absolute roughness, inches or millimeters
L - Length of pipeline, miles, feet / kilometers, meters

, dimensionless
Q - Flow rate, standard cubic feet per day ( hour ) / standard cubic meter per day ( hour )
s - Gas density factor, dimensionless

Z - Compressibility factor at average flowing conditions, dimensionless


315


317
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marketing professionals for the following core expertise:
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Integration of Software Applications
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Applications Software Training
Integrated applications training
Visio/Visio Technical training
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Value-Managed Solutions For Engineering & Technology Firms
Technical Toolboxes, Inc.

319
Technical References
Pipeline Hydraulics
- A.G.A GEOP Series Book T-1 Pipeline Planning and Economics
- A.G.A Plastic Pipe Manual for Gas Service, 1989
- Petroleum Fluid Flow Systems, Boyd, CAMPBELL CPS Petroleum Series
- Pipeline Design for Hydrocarbon Gases and Liquids, American Society of Civil
Engineers, 1975
- DOT Office of Pipeline Safety Handbook
- Hydraulics for Pipeliners, C.B. Lester, Gulf Publishing 1994
- Hydraulics of Pipeline Systems, Larock, Jeppson Watters, CRC 1999
Pipeline Design and Stress Analysis
- DOT Pipeline Safety Regulations
- ASME B31.8 Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping Systems
- DOT Office of Pipeline Safety, Handbook
- A.G.A GEOP Series Book T-1 Pipeline Planning and Economics
- A.G.A Plastic Pipe Manual for Gas Service, 1989
- Gas Engineers Handbook, Industrial Press, 1965
- Introduction to Pipe Stress Analysis, Kannapann, Krieger Publishing Company
- Evaluation of Buried Pipe Encroachment, BATTELLE, Petroleum Technology Center,
1983
- Technical Summary and Database for Guidelines for Pipeline Crossings Railroads and
Highways GRI 1991
Pipeline Testing and Miscellaneous
- DOT Pipeline Safety Regulations
- ASME B31.4 Pipeline Transportation System for Liquid Hydrocarbons and Liquids
- DOT Office of Pipeline Safety, Handbook
- A.G.A GEOP Series Book T-1 Pipeline Planning and Economics
- Gas Engineers Handbook, Industrial Press, 1965
Corrosion Control
- DOT Pipeline Safety Regulations
- Control of Pipeline Corrosion, A.W. Peabody, NACE International
- Pipeline Corrosion and Cathodic Protection, Parker & Peatie,Gulf Publishing Company,
1984
- A.G.A GEOP Series Book TS-1 Corrosion Control/System Protection
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321
Temperature Rise Due to Piping

Reference:
1. Engineering Data Book, Volume 1, Gas Processors Suppliers Association, Tenth
Edition
2. Pump Handbook, Fourth Edition, McGraw-Hill Professional
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323
THERMAL EXPANSION OF PIPELINES - LINEAR

E = elongation, in.
C = coefficient of linear expansion, inches per in per degrees F
L = length, feet

MATERIAL COEFFICIENT
steel 6.80E - 06
cast iron 6.60E - 06
copper 9.00E - 06
plastic 9.0E - 05
water 1.15E - 04
LONGITUDINAL STRESS
DUE TO TEMPERATURE CHANGES

S = stress, psi
E = modulus of elasticity, psi
C = coefficient of linear expansion, inches per inch per degrees F

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325
Track Load Analysis
SCOPE:
The Track Load Program was designed to calculate the overburden and track loads on
buried pipe with a Single Layer System (soil only). The information used to design this
program was taken from the Battelle Petroleum Technology Report on "Evaluation of
Buried Pipe Encroachments" which considered the theoretical work done by M.G.
Spangler on overburden and vehicle loads on buried pipe.
REQUIRED INFORMATION:
1. Values for all of the following variables:
H - cover, vertical depth from the ground to the top of the pipe (ft.)
B - trench width (ft.)
Ds - weight per unit volume of backfill (lbs./ft.)
D - outside diameter of the pipe (in.)
SMYS - specified minimum yield stress of the pipe (psi.)
P - pipe internal pressure (psi.)
T - pipe wall thickness (in.)
2. Values for the following information about the track:
Lt - operating weight of the object crossing the pipeline with tracks (lbs.)
Tw - width of standard track shoe (in.)
Tl - length of track on the ground (ft.)
Tg - track gauge (ft.)
3. The Design Class of the pipeline being analyzed (1-3) which is used to find the
Maximum Allowable Combined Stress (% SMYS), see 7.
4. The Soil Type which is used to find the friction force coefficients (Km), see Table II.
5. The Crossing Construction Type which is used to find the bedding constants for
buried pipe (Kb & Kz), see Table V & Figure 3.

326

REQUIRED INFORMATION IF LONGITUDINAL BENDING STRESS OCCURS:
6. All the above information along with values for the following variables:
X - longitudinal distance over which deflection occurs (ft.)
Y - vertical deflection (in.)
7. Maximum Allowable Internal Stress of 72% for Max. Levels (Per Code) and for
Target Leveles (Temporary Crossings).
Maximum Allowable Combined Stress of 90% for Max. Levels (Per Code) and 80% for
Target Levels (Temporary Crossings)
ASME B31.4 - 1998 allows effective stress due to internal pressure and external loads
(including both live and dead loads) to be as high as 90% of specified minimum yield
strength under highway and railroads. ( Sections 434.13.4 and 451.9)
As a first estimate of the soil load on the pipe it could be assumed that the backfill soil
slides down the trench walls without friction. Additionally assume that all soil above the
pipe is supported by the pipe itself and that the backfill soil on either side of the pipe does
not assist in this support. These assumptions are very conservative but they help a great
deal in initial understanding of the method of solution. The assumptions yield a soil load on
the pipe equal to the weight of the backfill soil above the pipe. This analysis provides an
estimate of soil loads on the buried pipe if nothing else is known about the system.
The basic analysis developed by M.G. Spangler follows similar arguments to that given
above. In this analysis, Spangler includes frictional forces between the trench wall and the
backfill. This permits the weight of the overburden to be partially carried by the
surrounding soil and reduces the total soil load on the pipe. The resulting equations for
calculating the pipe load due to overburden are as follows:

Track Load Analysis
327
Cd - trench coefficient.
B - trench width (ft.).
H - cover, vertical depth from the ground to the top of the pipe (ft.).
Km - coefficient of friction force between the backfill soil and the trench wall.
Cd determines how much load is carried by the pipe. If there is no soil friction Cd becomes
equal to H/B and the entire backfill load must be supported by the pipeline.
The term Km provides a coefficient of friction force between the backfill soil and the
trench wall. A high value of Km implies that friction between the backfill and trench wall is
high and the weight of the backfill is supported largely by the wall friction. A low value
implies that there is little friction encountered and the backfill is allowed to settle more
such that the weight must be supported by the pipe. Table II provides values of Km used in
the program for five different soil types. Also in Table II are examples of values for Ds, the
density which is the weight per unit of backfill, which may be used if an actual value is not
known. Note: If a value for Ds is already given use that value instead of the one in Table II.
Table II
Friction Force Coefficients For Various Soils
Soil Type Km Ds
(lbs/ft)
(1) Granular Materials without Cohesion 0.1924 90-100
(2) Sand and Gravel 0.165 110-120
(3) Saturated Top Soil 0.150 110-120
(4) Clay 0.130 110-120
(5) Saturated Clay 0.110 120-130

The soil types and coefficients given in this table represent the range that could normally
be expected. Saturated clay has little internal friction so that it has the smallest value for
Km. This implies that almost all of the soil load is carried by the pipe. Granular materials
have a great deal more internal friction. Their value of Km is higher which leads us to the
conclusion that the pipe carries less of the backfill load. Spangler, in his work, recommends
using the value for clay in most instances. Higher values may be used when there is
adequate evidence that the internal friction is higher and warrants a higher value of Km.
Spangler's recommendation provides a conservative estimate for common buried pipe
situations. Marsh and bog areas, however, have friction properties more similar to
saturated clay such that a value for Km equal to 0.110 should be used in these areas.

Wc - load per unit length of the pipe due to overburden (lbs./in.).
B - trench width (ft.).
Ds - density which is the weight per unit of backfill (lbs./ft.).
H - cover, vertical depth from the ground to the top of the pipe (ft.).
Km - coefficient of friction force between the backfill soil and the trench wall.
The Impact Factor (I) for a track load calculation with a single layer system is always going
to be 1.5. The reason for this is that the impact factor for soil is 1.5 and that is the only
thing that separates the track from the pipe in a single layer system.

328
Calculating track load is somewhat different from calculating a wheel load because the
load of a track expands over a larger area rather than a single point as does the wheel load.
The information needed from the track are the operating weight (Lt) of the object crossing
the pipeline with tracks is measured in lbs., the width of the standard track shoe (Tw)
measured in inches, the length of the track on the ground (Tl) measured in ft., and the
track gauge (Tg) measured in ft .
The weight of a track can be considered as a uniformly distributed load applied at the top
of the soil over an area equal to the length of the track on the ground times the width of the
standard track shoe. On the basis of this assumption, the unit pressure at a point on the top
of the line pipe or casing pipe directly beneath the center of the area may be estimated by
means on Newmarks Integration of Boussinesq equation. Newmark determined the
pressure at a point in the undersoil at any elevation below one corner of the rectangular
area over which unit loads are uniformly applied, and gave influence coefficients
corresponding to the Influence Factor m and Influence Factor n.

H - cover, vertical depth from the ground to the top of the pipe (ft.).
Tw - width of standard track shoe (in.).

H - cover, vertical depth from the ground to the top of the pipe (ft.).
Tl - length of the track on the ground (ft.).
These two factors are used by M.G. Spangler in the table called "Influence Coefficients for
Solution of Holl's and Newmark's Integration of the Boussinesq Equation for Vertical
Stress", see Table VI. Both of the influence factors will be rounded off to the nearest 0.01 in
order to cross reference Table VI.

Track Load Analysis
329

Qd - maximum static pressure on the pipe directly under the center of the object with
tracks
(lbs./ft.).
Ic - Influence Coefficient selected from Table VI.
Lt - operating weight of the object crossing the pipeline with tracks (lbs.)
Tl - length of the track on the ground (ft.).
Tw - width of standard track shoe (in.).
The equation for Qd is widely employed in structural work to estimate the unit pressure on
a deep soil stratum below a foundation, it appears to be appropriate for this problem. The
constant equal to 0.5 will be multiplied by Lt to get the operating load of one track.

Wt - total track load on the pipe (lbs./in.).
D - outside diameter of the pipe (in.).
I - impact factor of 1.5.
Qd - calculated result from equation Qd (lbs./ft.).
Dividing the part of the equation (I * Qd) by twelve gives the load per linear inch of pipe.
Dividing the outside diameter of the pipe by twelve converts D, which is measured in
inches, into units of feet.

Sc - circumferential stress due to pipe wall deflection (PSI).
D - outside diameter of the pipe (in.).
E - pipe material modulus of elasticity (2.9 x 107).
Kb - bending coefficient which is a function of the crossing construction types.
Kz - deflection coefficient which is a function of the crossing construction types.
P - pipe internal pressure (PSI).
T - pipe wall thickness (in.).
Wc - load per unit length of pipe due to overburden (lbs./in.).
Wt - total track load on the pipe (lbs./in.).
Note that the equation Sc includes pressure in the denominator so that bending stresses are
reduced by increasing pressure.
Equation Sc, as well as equation St, have two constants which depend upon the bedding
material upon which the pipe is placed. This bedding material is based on the crossing
construction type. When the pipe is placed on a rigid bedding such as an Open Cut-Rock,
little soil deformation occurs so that the load application area on the bottom is very small.
However if the pipe is placed on soil, the support conforms to the pipe somewhat and the
load is distributed over a larger area (See Figure 3). The latter case produces less pipe
stress and is preferable. Spangler's formulation includes both of these possibilities in order
to provide a conservative estimate for the rigid bedding case without penalizing the soil
bedding case. It does so by varying the constants Kb and Kz. Spangler's recommended
values for the constants are provided in Table V.

330
Table V
Bedding Constants for Buried Pipe
Width of
Uniform Crossing
Soil Reaction Construction
(Degrees) _ Type Kz Kb

0 (1) Open Cut-Rock 0.110 0.294
30 (2) Open Cut 0.108 0.235
90 (3) Bored 0.096 0.157


Sh - hoop stress due to internal pressure (PSI).
D - outside diameter of the pipe (in.).
P - pipe internal pressure (PSI).
T - pipe wall thickness (in.).

St is the total circumferential stress in the pipe wall due to pressure (hoop) stress and
bending stresses resulting from circumferential flexure caused by external loads measured
in PSI. The first term on the right hand side of the equation is the formula for hoop stress
due to internal pressure (Sh) and the second term is the formula for circumferential stress
due to pipe wall deflection (Sc).
Longitudinal Bending Stress (Sb) is when the overburden and vehicle loads on buried
pipelines will cause pipe settlement into the soil in the bottom of the trench. This settlement
occurs because soil is not as stiff as the pipe and will deform easily as the pipe is "pushed"
downward. Under uniform soil conditions and overburden loading, the pipe will settle
evenly into the trench bottom along its entire length. Soil is not generally uniform,
however, and regions of "softer" soil will occur adjacent to regions of stiff soil, so that the
pipe will settle unevenly and hence bending will occur. A load that is applied on only one
portion of a pipeline will cause the section of pipe under the load to settle more than the
unloaded pipe, such that bending will also result. Longitudinal bending stress occurs in
tension on the outside of the bend and in compression on the inside of the bend. Tensile
stress is represented with a positive value for Sb; conversely, compressive stress takes a
negative value for Sb. The longitudinal bending stress is calculated as follows:

Sb - longitudinal bending stress (PSI).
D - outside diameter of the pipe (in.).
E - pipe material modulus of elasticity (2.9 x 107).
X - longitudinal distance over which deflection occurs (ft.).
Y - vertical deflection (in.).
Track Load Analysis
331
A negative value will be used when calculating the total combined stress (S). This will result
in a larger (more conservative) combined stress. Note: If longitudinal bending stress does
occur, click onto the option box. If the box is not marked then the program will assume "0"
for Sb.

S - total combined stress by Von Mises (PSI).
Sb - longitudinal bending stress (PSI).
St - total circumferential flexure caused by external loads (PSI)
Note that if longitudinal bending stress is not present then the S will equal St.
The final calculation is % SMYS. This is calculated to determine if the current conditions
exceed the Maximum Allowable Combined Stress determined by Transcontinental Gas
Pipe Line Corporation.

S - total combined stress by Von Mises (PSI).
SMYS - specified minimum yield stress of the pipe (PSI).
References:
ASME B31.4 - 1998 Edition "Pipeline Transportation Systems for Liquid Hydrocarbons
and other Liquids", Art. 404.3.1(c)
"Evaluation of Buried Pipe Encroachments", BATTELLE, Petroleum Technology Center,
1983
Technical Toolboxes, Inc.

333
Unrestrained Liquid Pipeline Stress Analysis
- Steel Pipe
Longitudinal Stress Unrestrained Pipe

Reference: ASME B31.4 - 2009
Technical Toolboxes, Inc.

335
Values of E'n - Native Soil Modules of Soil
Reaction

Technical Toolboxes, Inc.

337
ASTM D 341 - Viscosity Temperature
Relations for Hydrocarbons
General:
Liquids log
Gases
Andrade's Equation
ASTM 2161:
General form: log log Z = A + BlogT
Crude oil form: loglog( = A - BlogT
Explicit
A = log(log( ))+BlogT
B=(log(log( )/(log( ))))/log(T /T )
Where:

References:
ASTM D 341
"Hydraulics for Pipeliners",Second Edition, C.B. Lester
Technical Toolboxes, Inc.

339
Wheel Load Analysis
SCOPE:
The Wheel Load Analysis Program was designed to calculate the overburden and vehicle
loads on buried pipe with a Single Layer System (soil only) or a Double Layer Systems
(timbers, pavement and soil). The information used to design this program was taken from
the Battelle Petroleum Technology Report on "Evaluation of Buried Pipe Encroachments"
which considered the theoretical work done by M.G. Spangler on overburden and vehicle
loads on buried pipe.
REQUIRED INFORMATION:

1. Values for all of the following variables:
H - cover, vertical depth from the ground to the top of the pipe (ft.)
B - trench width (ft.)
Ds - weight per unit volume of backfill (lbs./ft.)
D - outside diameter of the pipe (in.)
Lw - concentrated surface load (lbs.) (Wheel Load) (see Section 4, Page 11)
H1 - thickness of the pavement layer (in.) (see Figure 2)
SMYS - specified minimum yield stress of the pipe (psi.)
P - pipe internal pressure (psi.)
T - pipe wall thickness (in.)
2. The Design Class of the pipeline being analyzed (1-3) which is used to find the
Maximum Allowable Combined Stress (% SMYS), see 7.
3. The Soil Type which is used to find the friction force coefficients (Km), see Table II.
4. The Pavement Type which is used to find the impact factor (I), see Table III, and the
elastic constants for layered media analysis (E1, E2, G1, & G2), see Table IV &
Figure 2.

340

5. The Crossing Construction Type which is used to find the bedding constants for
buried pipe (Kb & Kz), see Table V & Figure 3.

REQUIRED INFORMATION IF LONGITUDINAL BENDING STRESS OCCURS:
6. All the above information along with values for the following variables:
X - longitudinal distance over which deflection occurs (ft.)
Y - vertical deflection (in.)
7. Maximum Allowable Internal Stress of 72% for Max. Levels (Per Code) and for
Target Leveles (Temporary Crossings).
Wheel Load Analysis
341
Maximum Allowable Combined Stress of 90% for Max. Levels (Per Code) and 80% for
Target Levels (Temporary Crossings)
ASME B31.4 - 1998 allows effective stress due to internal pressure and external loads
(including both live and dead loads) to be as high as 90% of specified minimum yield
strength under highway and railroads. ( Sections 434.13.4 and 451.9)
Figure 1 shows a cross sectional view of a pipe buried in a trench. As a first estimate of the
soil load on the pipe it could be assumed that the backfill soil slides down the trench walls
without friction. Additionally assume that all soil above the pipe is supported by the pipe
itself and that the backfill soil on either side of the pipe does not assist in this support.
These assumptions are very conservative but they help a great deal in initial understanding
of the method of solution. The assumptions yield a soil load on the pipe equal to the weight
of the backfill soil above the pipe. This analysis provides an estimate of soil loads on the
buried pipe if nothing else is known about the system.
The basic analysis developed by M.G. Spangler follows similar arguments to that given
above. In this analysis, Spangler includes frictional forces between the trench wall and the
backfill. This permits the weight of the overburden to be partially carried by the
surrounding soil and reduces the total soil load on the pipe. The resulting equations for
calculating the pipe load due to overburden are as follows:

Cd - trench coefficient.
B - trench width (ft.).
H - cover, vertical depth from the ground to the top of the pipe (ft.).
Km - coefficient of friction force between the backfill soil and the trench wall.
Cd determines how much load is carried by the pipe. If there is no soil friction Cd becomes
equal to H/B and the entire backfill load must be supported by the pipeline.
The term Km provides a coefficient of friction force between the backfill soil and the
trench wall. A high value of Km implies that friction between the backfill and trench wall is
high and the weight of the backfill is supported largely by the wall friction. A low value
implies that there is little friction encountered and the backfill is allowed to settle more
such that the weight must be supported by the pipe. Table II provides values of Km used in
the program for five different soil types. Also in Table II are examples of values for Ds, the
density which is the weight per unit of backfill, which may be used if an actual value is not
known. Note: If a value for Ds is already given use that value instead of the one in Table II.
Table II
Friction Force Coefficients For Various Soils
Soil Type Km Ds
(lbs/ft)
(1) Granular Materials without Cohesion 0.1924 90-100
(2) Sand and Gravel 0.165 110-120
(3) Saturated Top Soil 0.150 110-120
(4) Clay 0.130 110-120
(5) Saturated Clay 0.110 120-130


342
The soil types and coefficients given in this table represent the range that could normally
be expected. Saturated clay has little internal friction so that it has the smallest value for
Km. This implies that almost all of the soil load is carried by the pipe. Granular materials
have a great deal more internal friction. Their value of Km is higher which leads us to the
conclusion that the pipe carries less of the backfill load. Spangler, in his work, recommends
using the value for clay in most instances. Higher values may be used when there is
adequate evidence that the internal friction is higher and warrants a higher value of Km.
Spangler's recommendation provides a conservative estimate for common buried pipe
situations. Marsh and bog areas, however, have friction properties more similar to
saturated clay such that a value for Km equal to 0.110 should be used in these areas.

Wc - load per unit length of the pipe due to overburden (lbs./in.).
B - trench width (ft.).
Ds - density which is the weight per unit of backfill (lbs./ft.).
H - cover, vertical depth from the ground to the top of the pipe (ft.).
Km - coefficient of friction force between the backfill soil and the trench wall.
A Pavement Type must be determined in order to select an Impact Factor (I) to be used in
the Wv equation. Table III provides Impact Factor values for the three different pavement
types used in this program. A Pavement Type is also used to select the elastic constants for
layered media analysis. The variables E1 & G1 will be used to represent the elastic
constants for the top layer and E2 & G2 will be used to represent the elastic constants for
the soil. See Figure 2 for a visual explanation of the elastic constants for the top layer and
the soil. These values will also be used in the Wv equation. Table IV provides the values for
the three different pavement materials used in this program.
Table III
Impact Factor
Pavement Type Factor
(I)
No Pavement 1. 5
Asphalt 1. 3
Timber Mats (2" x 12" minimum) 1.2
Concrete 1.0


Wv - average load per unit length of pipe for vehicular load (lbs./in.).
D - outside diameter of the pipe (in.).
E1 - modulus of elasticity of the top (timber or pavement) layer (lbs./in.).
E2 - modulus of elasticity of the soil cover (lbs./in.).
G1 - Poisson's ratio of the top (timber or pavement) layer.
Wheel Load Analysis
343
G2 - Poison's ratio of the soil cove
H - thickness of the pavement layer plus the depth of the soil from the pavement interface
to thetop of the pipe (ft.). (See Figure 2)
H1 - thickness of the pavement layer ("0" is used when there is no pavement) (in.).
H2 - depth of the soil from the pavement interface to the top of the pipe (ft.).
I - impact factor.
Lw - concentrated surface load (a value of 16,000 lbs. is recommended when the maximum
is unknown), wheel load in lbs..
Examination of equation Wv shows that this equation also may be used with a Single Layer
System because the Pavement Material on the Top Layer chosen is "Soil", which makes E1
equal to E2, G1 equal to G2, and H1 equal to zero which cancels out the second and third
part of the equation. Thus when there is no pavement layer the revised equation will
provide a solution for soil cover only. Table IV provides the values for E1, E2, G1 & G2
that will be used in the program.
Table IV
Elastic Constants for Layered Media Analysis
Pavement E
Material (psi.) G

(1) No Pavement (Soil Only) 1. 5 x 104 0.35
(2) Asphalt 1. 0 x 105 0.40
(3) Timber Mats (2" x 12" 1. 2 x 106 0.25
(4) Concrete 2. 0 x 10 6 0.15


Sc - circumferential stress due to pipe wall deflection (PSI).
D - outside diameter of the pipe (in.).
E - pipe material modulus of elasticity (2.9 x 107).
Kb - bending coefficient which is a function of the crossing construction types.
Kz - deflection coefficient which is a function of the crossing construction types.
P - pipe internal pressure (PSI).
T - pipe wall thickness (in.).
Wc - load per unit length of pipe due to overburden (lbs./in.).
Wv - average load per unit length of pipe for vehicular load (lbs./in.).
Note that the equation Sc includes pressure in the denominator so that bending stresses are
reduced by increasing pressure.
Equation Sc, as well as equation St, have two constants which depend upon the bedding
material upon which the pipe is placed. This bedding material is based on the crossing
construction type. When the pipe is placed on a rigid bedding such as an Open Cut-Rock,

344
little soil deformation occurs so that the load application area on the bottom is very small.
However if the pipe is placed on soil, the support conforms to the pipe somewhat and the
load is distributed over a larger area (See Figure 3). The latter case produces less pipe
stress and is preferable. Spangler's formulation includes both of these possibilities in order
to provide a conservative estimate for the rigid bedding case without penalizing the soil
bedding case. It does so by varying the constants Kb and Kz. Spangler's recommended
values for the constants are provided in Table V.
Table V
Bedding Constants for Buried Pipe
Width of
Uniform Crossing
Soil Reaction Construction
(Degrees) _ Type Kz Kb

0 (1) Open Cut-Rock 0.110 0.294
30 (2) Open Cut 0.108 0.235
90 (3) Bored 0.096 0.157


Sh - hoop stress due to internal pressure (PSI).
D - outside diameter of the pipe (in.).
P - pipe internal pressure (PSI).
T - pipe wall thickness (in.).

St is the total circumferential stress in the pipe wall due to pressure (hoop) stress and
bending stresses resulting from circumferential flexure caused by external loads measured
in PSI. The first term on the right hand side of the equation is the formula for hoop stress
due to internal pressure (Sh) and the second term is the formula for circumferential stress
due to pipe wall deflection (Sc).
Longitudinal Bending Stress (Sb) is when the overburden and vehicle loads on buried
pipelines will cause pipe settlement into the soil in the bottom of the trench. This settlement
occurs because soil is not as stiff as the pipe and will deform easily as the pipe is "pushed"
downward. Under uniform soil conditions and overburden loading, the pipe will settle
evenly into the trench bottom along its entire length. Soil is not generally uniform,
however, and regions of "softer" soil will occur adjacent to regions of stiff soil, so that the
pipe will settle unevenly and hence bending will occur. A load that is applied on only one
portion of a pipeline will cause the section of pipe under the load to settle more than the
unloaded pipe, such that bending will also result. Longitudinal bending stress occurs in
tension on the outside of the bend and in compression on the inside of the bend. Tensile
stress is represented with a positive value for Sb; conversely, compressive stress takes a
negative value for Sb. The longitudinal bending stress is calculated as follows:
Wheel Load Analysis
345

Sb - longitudinal bending stress (PSI).
D - outside diameter of the pipe (in.).
E - pipe material modulus of elasticity (2.9 x 107).
X - longitudinal distance over which deflection occurs (ft.).
Y - vertical deflection (in.).
A negative value will be used when calculating the total combined stress (S). This will result
in a larger (more conservative) combined stress. Note: If longitudinal bending stress does
occur, click onto the designated box next to "Longitudinal Bending Stress" . If the box is
not marked then the program will assume "0" for Sb.

S - total combined stress by Von Mises (PSI).
Sb - longitudinal bending stress (PSI).
St - total circumferential flexure caused by external loads (PSI).
Note that if longitudinal bending stress is not present then the S will equal St.
The final calculation is % SMYS. This is calculated to determine if the current conditions
exceed the Maximum Allowable Combined Stress determined by Transcontinental Gas
Pipe Line Corporation.

S - total combined stress by Von Mises (PSI).
SMYS - specified minimum yield stress of the pipe (PSI).
References:
ASME B31.4 - 1998 Edition "Pipeline Transportation Systems for Liquid Hydrocarbons
and other Liquids", Art. 404.3.1(c)
"Evaluation of Buried Pipe Encroachments", BATTELLE, Petroleum Technology Center,
1983
Technical Toolboxes, Inc.

347
How to Export Report to Microsoft Word?
Requirements: In order to export report to Microsoft Word, Word must be installed on
your computer.
1. On the report toolbar

select and click on the Copy button.
2. Minimize application, open MS Word select Edit and then click Paste

Note: The report should be exported page by page, to scroll through pages use following
buttons on the report toolbar.

348
The imported report may need some additional editing.
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