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ABSTRACT

A pendulum is an object that is attached to a pivot point so it can swing freely. This object is subject
to a restoring force that will accelerate it toward an equilibrium position. When the pendulum is
displaced from its place of rest, the restoring force will cause the pendulum to oscillate about the
equilibrium position. Physical pendulum is small compared with the length of the cable.When these
approximations are not sufficient, one must take into account the way in which mass is distributed in
the cable and bob. This is called the physical pendulum, as opposed to the idealized model of the
simple pendulum. Significantly, the period of a physical pendulum does not depend on its total mass
either.This experiment, physical pendulum is done to determine the mass moment of inertia by
oscillation at centre of gravity and at suspension point of the wooden pendulum.The experiment
was performed in the dynamic lab by using universal vibration apparatus. In this experiment there
are two suspension point that we use to hang wooden pendulum. And at each point, the pendulum
is oscillated.By letting the pendulum to be oscillated for 10 cycles, the time is then taken. By this, we
will get the time needed for the pendulum to oscillate ten cycle released from the angle of 30
degrees.In this experiment we can measure and calculate the length, wide, volume, and density of
the wooden pendulum.And from the data we are able to calculate the period of oscillation, mass
moment of inertia at centre of gravity and mass moment of inertia at suspension point. We can
conclude that the time and period for each point of suspension is about the same. Different angle
does not affect the period of oscillation. The value of

and

between two points are also


toleranced.











INTRODUCTION

A simple pendulum consists of a point-mass hanging on a length of a string assumed to be
weightless. A small weight hanging by a string from a retort stand illustrates this condition. If the
mass is displaced slightly from its equilibrium position, the mass will perform simple harmonic
oscillation. An extended solid object that is free to swing on an axis is called a physical pendulum,
whose period is now dependant on the mass moment of inertia about the rotational axis and it
distance from the centre of mass.
A pendulum is a weight suspended from a pivot so that it can swing freely. When a pendulum is
displaced from its resting equilibrium position, it is subject to a restoring force due to gravity that
will accelerate it back toward the equilibrium position. When released, the restoring force combined
with the pendulum's mass causes it to oscillate about the equilibrium position, swinging back and
forth. The time for one complete cycle, a left swing and a right swing, is called the period. A
pendulum swings with a specific period which depends mainly on its length. From its discovery
around 1602 by Galileo Galilei, the regular motion of pendulums was used for timekeeping, and was
the world's most accurate timekeeping technology until the 1930s. Pendulums are used to regulate
pendulum clocks, and are used in scientific instruments such as accelerometers and seismometers.
Historically they were used as gravimeters to measure the acceleration of gravity in geophysical
surveys, and even as a standard of length. The word 'pendulum' is new Latin, from the Latin
pendulus, meaning hanging.














THEORY

A simple pendulum consists of a relatively massive object hung by a string from a fixed support. It
typically hangs vertically in its equilibrium position. The massive object is affectionately referred to
as the pendulum bob. When the bob is displaced from equilibrium and then released, it begins its
back and forth vibration about its fixed equilibrium position. The motion is regular and repeating, an
example of periodic motion. Pendulum motion was introduced earlier in this lesson as we made an
attempt to understand the nature of vibrating objects. Pendulum motion was discussed again as we
looked at the mathematical properties of objects that are in periodic motion. Here we will
investigate pendulum motion in even greater detail as we focus upon how a variety of quantities
change over the course of time. Such quantities will include forces, position, velocity and energy -
both kinetic and potential energy.



















EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE

1. Ruler is used for calculate the dimensions of the wooden pendulum.
2. The wooden is hanged on one end to vee support.
3. The wooden pendulum is then displaced to a degrees angle from its intial position.
4. The wooden pendulum is released to let t oscillate due to gravitational force.The stopwatch
is used to record the periodic time of 10 oscillations.
5. The average of the three periods is calculated for each suspension point.






















RESULT

, T1(average) = 13.59 s (period) Mass of pendulum = 600g

, T2(average) = 13.34 s (period)



a.

Length = 80 mm l = 76 mm

Point Angle, Oscillation Time,s

1 10 10 13.63

2 10 10 13.54


b.

Length = 80 mm l = 40 mm

Point Angle, Oscillation Time,s

1 10 10 13.34

2 10 10 13.34



1. Volume of each component

a. Component 1

b. Component 2

c. Component 3

d. Total volume of the wooden pendulum.


2. Total density of wooden pendulum.

3. Mass of each component.

4. Moment of Inertia about point O
1
and point O
2
(Experimental Calculation)



a. Point O
1
.

Component Area, A (m
2
) length (m) volume (m
3
)
1 0.4
2 0.275
3 0.76






Component 1:
I
1
= 1/12 m l + m d

=

= kgm
3



Component 2:
I
2
= 1/12 m l + m d

=

= kgm
3


Component 3:
I
3
= 1/4 m r + m d

=

= kgm
3

Total:
I
G1
= I
1
I
2
I
3


=

= kgm
3



I
o1
= I
G1
+ md
2

=
= kgm
3


b. Point O
2

.

Component Area, A (m
2
) length (m) volume (m
3
)
1
2
3




Component 1:
I
1
= 1/12 m l + m d

=

= kgm
3


Component 2:
I
2
= 1/12 m l + m d

=

= kgm
3


Component 3:
I
3
= 1/4 m r + m d

=

= kgm
3

Total:
I
G2
= I
1
I
2
I
3


=

= kgm
3



I
o2
= I
G2
+ md
2

=
= kgm
3