Freeway Stories: Speed Reinventions...

in the Forbidden City
A design Studio by:
Jota Samper
The freeway is generally conceived of and used as a soluton for an engineer-
ing problem: moving objects from point A to point B. The freeway exists in-
side the cites but its territory is part of another sphere that does not belong
to the cites or their citzens. It does not interact with the public sphere or the
urban sphere. The freeway is the Forbidden City. Its territory is erased from
cites’ maps. Its signs do not allow humans to enter its domain.
At the same tme, as a contradicton, we require more and more of freeways.
We as a race of humans spend more and more tme in its domain. The free-
way has transformed our percepton of distance, our percepton of proximity;
it has allowed cites’ territories to expand exponentally in the last century.
While this expansion is taking place, the separaton between city and freeway
is also becoming more accentuated.
This separaton has given special freedom to the realm of the cars to develop
their own set of rules. This autstc behavior that now creates this new con-
text in the one-velocity- and not-now-place is the ruling directve. A space, a
place where what is not moving is dangerous. The freeways have facilitated
the hyperextension of the boundary of the city and the connectons to other
cites throughout the country. While this has enabled an unprecedented ease
of mobility through and between cites, these same freeways have alienated
the interactons and relatonships between the cites’ inhabitants.
THE ISSUES
this studio explores the aesthetc of the movement of vectors in the space of the
freeway and seeks ways to interweave this aesthetc with the intrinsic humanity of
the city. Specifcally, this project relates the space of the freeway with the actvity
of the human inhabitants of the city. We will explore the social and spatal condi-
tons of architecture that moves and the objects and ideas that move through
architecture. Specifcally we will explore ways that mobility dehumanizes architec-
ture and the city. We will challenge this and fnd new ways that architecture and
mobility can interact in a humane way. We will focus on the dichotomy between
the need for transportaton inside the cites and what transportaton systems do
to the cites and their inhabitants. The objectve of this course is to give a new
perspectve on the cultural impact of infrastructural projects that moves beyond
reducing freeways to engineering solutons to trafc problems to also consider the
freeway’s dangerous ability as a tool of social control.
THE STUDIO
The project studies the future City of Raleigh Freeway Project (I-540) as designed
on paper and dissect its physical, politcal and cultural dimensions and potental
consequences. From here, we will propose a new hybrid of roadway that is not only
about physical movement but also about integraton in a way that does not obliter-
ate but instead engages with the complexites of community lives. We will move
through four lines of research simultaneously during the semester.
Our territory: the RDU freeway project to study the implicatons of the
existng territory & explore possibilites of the new topography that will
be generated afer the freeway is concluded.
Actors: the complexites of public and private, small and big scale, from
examples of similar projects in history, including: Haussmann in Paris,
the linear city of Arturo Soria y Mata, Pope Sixtus in Rome, La Ronda de
Dalt in Barcelona and The lille of Koolhaas.
The car: Fluxus and the poetc of movement
The urban project: the architectural project as a negotator of scales,
programs, speeds, public and private, city and region.
THE FINAL PROJECT

Reconquering the public space-Alex Larburu
What kind of cites are we building? Vehicles
riding on ever wider streets adding pollutants to
our everyday environment making neighborhoods
unsafe and turning across-the-street neighbors
into strangers… Facilites that used to be provided
only in the public realm but now are routnely
aforded privately… Every place is the center of its
own universe, with no shared focus. Independent
from the world around us and disassociaton from
community ofers us short-term freedoms, but
adverse long-term consequences –not just for
human beings but also for cites…

new dialog-Emily Axtman
What do our cites lack today?
What kind of human interacton do we experience
each day? What kind of dialog do we have with
each other; with our built environment? Can we
manipulate the infrastructure of our cites in order
to create a new dialog between ourselves and our
built environment in order to improve our quality
of life?
CONCRETE MIXER ---> PERSONAL ENTERTAINMENT CACOON
SHIPPING CONTAINER ---> CONTAINER OF LIFE
QUESTIONING EVERYDAY PRECONCEIVED OBJECTS OF OUR TIMES
LOT-EK, HEADED BY ARCHITECTS ADA
TOLLA + GUISEPPE
LIGNANO AND FOUNDED IN 1993, IS AN
INNOVATIVE
NEW YORK BASED FIRM WHICH CAPITALIZES
ON THE RE-
USE OF INDUSTRIAL, STANDARD SIZED OB-
JECTS
SUCH AS SHIPPING CONTAINERS, WATER
TANKS AND
CONCRETE MIXERS, AND USES THEM AS AN
INTEGRAL
PART OF THEIR DESIGNS, TRANSFORMING
THE OBJECTS
INTO LIVABLE, SOMETIMES MOBILE SPAC-
ES. THE MO-
BILE DWELLING UNIT, ONE SUCH PROJECT
OF LOT-EK,
TRANSLATES THE IDEA OF A SHIPPING
CONTAINER AS A
CONTAINER OF TRANSPORTABLE MATERIALS
AND TURNS
IT INTO A CONTAINER OF LIFE. THE IDEA
IS THAT THE CON
TAINER IS STRIPPED OF ITS TYPICAL LA-
BEL OF A SHIPPING
CONTAINER AND THROUGH A SERIES OF
STEPS: THE
SHELL CUT, SUBVOLUMES ARE EXTRUDED
(2) AND THE
CON-TAINER BECOMES A LIVABLE UNIT.
ABLE TO BE MASS
PRO-DUCED AND SHIPPED ALL OVER THE
WORLD (1), THE
MOBILE DWELLING UNIT RESPONDS TO A
NUMBER OF
PROBLEMS IN THE DESIGN FIELD: ENVI-
RONMENTAL IMPACT OF
OUR TIMES, OUR EVER CHANGING LIVES/
MOBILITY, AFFORD
ABILITY, AND EXEMPLIFIES A WAY TO
LOOK AT THE WORLD IN A
DIFFERENT LANGUAGE.
LOT-EK
1
2
3
KENZO TANGE’S MODERN DAY PLUG IN CITY?
SHIPPING CONTAINERS STACKED INTO STRUCTURE VIA CRANE
1 SUBVOLUMES IN CONTAINER
READY FOR TRANSPORTING
2 SUBVOLUMES EXTRUDED
3 SPACE : CONTAINER
4 EXTRUDED SPACE :
CONTAINER
5/6 SECTION CUTS
LOT-EK
4
5 6








4
5
1 ARCHITECTURE MEETS MOBILITY
PERMANANCE : IMPERMANANCE
2 HABITAT + MACHINE
3 MOBILITY / TRANSPORTABILITY

5 CREATING A NEW LANGUAGE (5) PART : WHOLE
LETTER : WORD
HERE, THE LETTERS OF THE WORD VACUUM
ARE STRIPPED OF THEIR VALUE AS LETTERS
AND INSTEAD LOOKED AT FOR THEIR SHAPES.
THE IDEA IS TO TAKE A COMMON LETTER,
FOR EXAMPLE C AND A, AND SEE IT AS A
SHAPE, AND THEN ROTATE THE SHAPE WITHIN
THE CIRCLE AS TO CREATE A NEW INTERPRE-
TATION OF THE SHAPE.
IE: C ROTATED BECOMES U, ROTATED AND
DOUBLED BECOMES M. AS THE SHAPES ARE
ARRANGED A NEW COMPOSITION IS FORMED,
FORMING THE WORD VACUUM, A WORD/LAN-
GUAGE THAT WE CAN UNDERSTAND.
LOT-EK
1
2
3
4 PART : WHOLE
OLD : NEW

3
1 OMA DIAGRAM
2 OMA DIAGRAM
3 PLANES, TRAINS,
CARS, PEOPLE
euralille
EURALILLE EXEMPLIFIES AN AT-
TEMPT TO MERGE THE
ELEMENTS OF A CITY, SUCH AS
RAILWAYS, ROADS,
PARKS, AND BUILDINGS INTO ONE
FLUENT IDEA.
TRAVELING FROM LONDON OR PAR-
IS, LILLE IS
CENTRALLY LOCATED AND ACTS AS
A HUB FOR THESE
TWO MAJOR EUROPEAN METROPO-
LISES. KOOLHAAS’
DESIGN FOR EURALILLE, PRO-
POSED TO BE ONE OF
EUROPE’S PROMINENT BUSINESS
CENTERS, CELEBRATES
THE NETWORKING OF TRAVEL
PATHS AND ALLOWS FOR
THESE PATHS TO SLICE RIGHT
THROUGH THE CITY AS
OPPOSED TO ENCOMPASS THE
CITY. THESE PATHS
AFFECT THE ARCHITECTURE OR
EURALILLE, SO THAT
BOTH ENTITIES WORK TOGETHER.
AS KOOLHAAS
EXPLAINED, “... THE NEW
(RAILWAY) STATION IS DE-
SIGNED TO BE ON CENTER
STAGE.... IT IS TO EXPRESS
THE
SPIRIT OF THE TIMES, CHARAC-
TERIZED BY MOVEMENT
AND ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES.”
1
2





1 CITY AS A PATH
CONNECTION OF PATH
2 CONNECTION OF BUILT ENVIRONMENT
STITCH
3 FILLING THE VOIDS
SOLID : VOID

4 CONNECTION OF VISION
1
3
2
4
euralille
“...THE TECHNOLOGICAL PROGRESS ACHIEVED OVER THE LAST
60 OR 70
YEARS HAS CHANGED THE NATURE OF ARCHITECTURE. IT IS NO
LONGER THE “UNITED WHOLE”
.
.. NOW IT MUST INCORPORATE IN-
CONSISTENCY.”


-KAZUO SHINOHARA
FILLING THE VOIDS / SOLID : VOID
MOVEMENT OF MOBILE ARCHITECTURE
/ DIRECTIONAL MOVEMENT
CREATING VOIDS THROUGH A MIMICKING “GREEN” HIGHWAY
THE HIGHWAY : OUR MODERN-DAY TEMPLE?
YOU WANT ARCHITECTURE WHERE??
WAIT, THE HIGHWAY?

NOT DOWNTOWN RALEIGH?
BUT, WAIT, I’M CONFUSED...
CONSOLIDATE THE CRAP!
IN THIS FILM, I WANTED TO NOT ONLY SHOW THE STORY OF ANY GIVEN PERSON’S EXPERIENCE IN THIS
NEW ENVIRONMENT, BUT ALSO SHOW THE PROCESS THAT I WENT THROUGH. THE OPENING SCENE IS MY
INITIAL REACTION TO THIS PROJECT: CONFUSION, EXCITEMENT, RELUCTANCE....
THE FOLLOWING SCENES ARE THE IDEAS THAT I HAVE CARRIED THROUGH MY PROCESS IN THIS PROJECT.
THE SCENES ARE DIVIDED INTO THREE SECTIONS:
1. “CONSOLIDATE THE CRAP”
2. “USE THE CRAP TO CREATE”
3. “EXTRUDE THE MEDIAN” (AND MAKE HABITABLE)
IN ORDER TO BRING A HUMAN SCALE TO THE HIGHWAY, THE IDEA IS TO BRING THOSE ELEMENTS OF OUR
DAILY LIVES WHICH CREATE A SCALE WE CAN UNDERSTAND IN A WAY THAT, UNLIKE THE SPRAWLED ORGANI-
ZATION OF OUR ENIVORNMENTS TODAY, IS CONSOLIDATED INTO ONE COHESIVE READABLE COMPOSITION.
USE THE CRAP TO CREATE!
HERE THE “CRAP” FOUND SCATTERED THROUGHOUT OUR DAILY ENVIRONMENTS IS ORGANIZED TO CRE-
ATE A COMPOSITION THAT IS AN EYE PLEASER INSTEAD OF THE NORMAL EYE SORE. THIS VIEW IS
TAKEN FROM HIGH ATOP AN EXTRUDED PLANE THAT REACHES OUT OVER THE HIGHWAY. THE ENVIRON-
MENT MOVES WITH THE LIFE OF THE HIGHWAY... FROM THE TIME WE WAKE UP, TO THE TIME WE
FINISH OUR WINE AT DUSK.
A VIEW FROM OUTSIDE THE ENVIRONMENT WAS CHOSEN BECAUSE I WANTED TO SHOW HOW THE “WALL” AND
MOVEMENT OF THE HIGHWAY WORK TOGETHER AND PLAY OFF OF ONE ANOTHER. THE STORY HERE SHOWS AN EVENING
SPENT ON ONE’S OWN PATIO, AN OUTDOOR RESTAURANT, GATHERING SPACE...
EXTRUDE THE MEDIAN!
TAKE EVERYTHING AWAY, WHAT’S LEFT?
THE THIRD SCENE SHOWS THE LIFE WITHIN THE ENVIRONMENT. THE IDEA IS A SYSTEM OF MOVE-
MENT THAT FLOWS WITH THE MOVEMENT OF THE HIGHWAY. HABITABLE VOLUMES ARE CREATED FROM THE
“WALLS” THAT CREATED SCENE TWO. TO ME, THE MEDIAN IS THE MOST EXCITING PART OF THE HIGH-
WAY... IT’S DANGEROUS, FAST... IT CONNECTS THE TWO OPPOSING DIRECTIONS OF THE HIGHWAY...
THE MEDIAN PRESENTS A GREAT POTENTIAL FOR AN ENVIRONMENT WHERE THE HIGHWAY ACTUALLY
BECOMES AN INTEGRAL PIECE OF A BUILT STRUCTURE.
IN THE LAST SCENE, WE REALIZE THAT WHEN WE TAKE AWAY ALL THE “CRAP”, WHAT’S LEFT IS
OURSELVES
www. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=86HWr0lMviU
A successful city is one that is built in response to the need
who inhabit it.







My goal for this project is to blur the line between highway
and city; to create one language as opposed to the language
of the highway and the language of a city as two separate en-
tities.
1. Language of highway vs language of a city
2. One unified language of highway + city
1
2
3
4
5
3. Intimate spaces within a city ; Clothes hanging to dry ;
4. Great communal spaces within a city ; Plaza ; Sienna, It
5. Balance of Public : Private spaces ; Plan of Rome, Italy
“Inside every house is a city
and inside every city is a
house.”










s of the people













Venice, Italy
taly
y


6 7
8
9 10 11
If we look at our movement through cities today, can we manipulate that movement to better the quality of
life?
6. Raleigh, NC Skyline ; street movement : horizontal / building movement : vertical
7. Flip
8. Extrude ; street and building movement : horizontal ie: one language
9. Raleigh, NC Downtown Plan ; street movement : grid
10. Tilt
11. I-540 City





























The I-540 city is an attempt to create a new language and dialog within a city. Using the
two separate pieces, but connects them through green space. The city is rooted to its site
through the highway which intertwines throughout the city. In this sense the highway and b


The freeway is fast, crazy, and
exactly what its name depicts:
free. The freeway is a different
realm of society. It’s like a
slow moving snake weaving its
way through our cities.
110 and 105 freeway; Los Angeles






4 G o m n s







































nature of the highway, the components of the city are added to make a fluid whole. Important to the idea is to create a breathable environment that does not act as a highway usually does, dividing the territory into
through the communities that surround it. Dense areas of the city organize to form plazas as well as smaller inimate spaces. Long streches of unbuilt territory is dedicated to green space. The cities are connected
uildings of the city begin to be of one language.

Mobile Architecture-James Handy
Mobile architecture that creates mobile communites. The architecture
interacts with our forbidden highways by using the highways to travel from
one locaton to another. Our society is mobile, so why shouldn’t we have
architecture that responds to our conditons. People change jobs fnding
themselves commutng up to two hours or having an employer relocate
the to a new locaton. The concept of mobile architecture would allow us
to move our residence close to our work locatons or create mobile work
locatons altogether. Locatons would be set up providing services to allow
these mobile units to come together to form communites. The mobile units
are designed to collapse to a size that can travel on our highways and provide
beter aerodynamics. When the unit is at a fxed locaton, it expands into
a more dynamic and formal space. The mobile units can be confgured as
single or multple units that come together to form a single form. The mobile
units are equipped with an array of solar panels providing energy for the unit
and charging the electric vehicles which would be more feasible with the
shorter commutes. The electric vehicles themselves are a smaller piece of
mobile architecture that plugs into a work place and provides ofce space.
The benefts of this concept are placing our built environment were and
when it is needed, not creatng a built environment only to abandon it for
another locaton. Reducing commuter tme, trafc congeston, and energy
consumpton and making it feasible to use renewable energy sources.
Creatng an as needed environment that can shrink and expand with a
ever changing society. This concept embraces a gradual shif in technology
utlizing existng infrastructures while placing resources, services, and people
where they are needed.
The linear city is a concept
that creates public services
along a highway instead of
growing a city circularly
which eventually creates an
urban mass with city
services in the center.
The circular city design
typically has rings of
highways circling the center
rings are created further
and further from the center
of the city. This
creates traffic
congestion from people from
outer reaches of the city
trying to get to the
business center to work.
It also pushes farming,
green space away from the
city center.
The linear city places work
places, businesses, servic-
es, and residences a short
distance from the high-
way providing all the ser-
vices along each stretch of
the highway. This eliminates
the need to travel into and
out of the city center. It
also allows green space and
farming to be close to the
city elimination the need to
transport goods in and out
of the city center.
The linear design also al-
lows for easy public trans-
portation, instead of cre-
ating a spider web network
of transportation lines, a
single linear route can pro-
vide access along the entire
city route. This could re-
duce the need for 2 cars per
household or even eliminate
the need altogether.
Linear City Arturo
Soria and Mata
Connection
The Linear city connects to urban centers or points of interest. Creating the
density along the connecting highway.
Connection
Public Transportation
Business Traffic
Residential Traffic
Business
Residential
Pathways
The Linear city centers on the main highway, creating simple public
transportation accessible to the entire city. Short distances to business,
service and residence eliminate the need for personal transportation for
everyday needs.
Density
The Linear city concept brings farming green space for recreational use close
to all parts of the city, reducing the need for transportation.
Connection
Public Transportation
Business Traffic
Residential Traffic
Business
Residential
Linear City Arturo
Soria and Mata -
Connection, Pathways,
and Density
The world theater embodies
Rossi’s ideals about archi-
tecture. That architecture
creates a stage for life
with public spaces acting as
the back drop for life. His
theater floats and can be
moved form place to place
changing the your view both
from inside and outside.
His creation is not only a
place to watch performances
but a place to be watched.
The mobility of the architecture is what
makes this theater unique. It has the
ability to move and change it’s
surrounding context. The theater can
create a continually changing context by
moving from one location to
another. This changes the traditional
role of architecture from a static
environment to a mobile environment. The
ability to move and change public space
adds another dimension to architecture.
This almost unexplored region opens up
many new possibilities.
Aldo Rossi -
Treato Del Mundo
Aldo Rossi -
Treato Del Mundo -
Context
The concept of
Treato Del Mundo
Is architecture
that is mobile,
that can move or
be moved to the
place where it is
needed. This is
public space that
can be shared and
njoyed by people
in different
location.
Architecture that
changes with it’s
context and
changes it
context.
Architecture that
you can have a
different
experienced in
different
location.
Architecture that
you can
experience the
world from.
Architecture that
can plug where
ever it is
located,
universal,
connected,
and modular.
Mobile space that provides public functionality where ever it is
located. Reduces the need for resource, land and
utilities for building duplicate facilities.
Aldo Rossi -
Treato Del Mundo -
Mobile
Linear City Plan
Centralized City
Linear City As Applied to Raleigh’s 540
Outer Loop.
Creates inexpensive central public
transportation with business and residential in
short distance. Reduces the need for personal
cars, pollution, and traffic.
Puts services, work, residences, recreation,
food supply locally, less need for good
transportation. Puts green space near city and
keeps more farm land for production.
Design Concept -
Linear City verses
Centralized City
Mobile Environment
Mobile Environment is completely automated, computer programed destination,
order ahead retail services or goods can be brought to you by mobile retail
units. The Modular environment allows you to take a little piece of home with
you where ever you go.
Mobile Environment Unit
Mobile environment unit contains work station, Entertainment center with 100”
wrap screen, fold out bed, entertainment seating, and kitchenette.
Metro Transit System
Your mobile environment connects to the
metro transit system and
allows you to travel with no
worries. Your standard unit is de-
signed to plug into work, apartment,
home and retail services centers.
Design Concepts - Mobile
Environment, Unit, and
Metro Transit System
Analysis of area used for
Residential, commercial, and
undeveloped space. Determine
how much area is being re-
moved for the highway.
Mobile Architecure
Analysis of how the highway
impacts growth in affected
towns, Holly Springs, Apex,
Cary, Morrisville, and
Raleigh. Determine what ar-
eas have not been claimed
by towns and what areas are
designated for parks.
Mobile Architecure
Analysis of possible growth
sinerios for existing
patterns and examine the
linear city patterns of
growth.
Mobile Architecure
Analysis of architecture
that can collapse into a
size that can travel on the
raod and expand to a livable
size.
The arcitecture when col-
lapsed should be
areodynamic.
Analysis of how to create
space that when collapsed
or expandable is usable and
livable space.
Mobile Architecure
Floor plans that collapse
and expand.
Analysis of how structural-
ly and functionally the ar-
chitecture could expand and
collapse.
Mobile Architecure
Analysis designs that create
more complex spaces,larger
square footage.
Space that separates into
sections.
Mobile Architecure
Suburb Layouts
Create communities close
to work
No need to rebuild over
when moving
reduce comute time and
energy
Mobile Architecure
City - Office Corporate
Campus
No need for parking
spaces
utilize home and office
space as one
Movie - Is It Real Or Is
It Just An Illusion
reeway Temporary Rest Stops
Take advantage of unused
freeway space
Provides teporary residen-
tial space for mobile units
Creates rest stops for mo-
bile units
Movie - Is It Real Or Is
It Just An Illusion
Urban High density La
outs
Create infill spaces
Create high density r
idential spaces
Movie - Is It Real Or
It Just An Illusion

The Organism-Jason Dail
This project is an intense interventon into the boundaries that the
freeway has traditonally created and how the freeway of the future can
overcome this boundary conditon through the use of new Materials and the
Spatal Paterns that these materials make possible. Through the use of a
new form of living material that can be programmed to replicate and
perform to the architect’s desire, we can see an integraton of
architecture, biology, and the higher agricultural sciences within the
realm of the freeway. The role of the architect can morph into a hybrid
of architectural design, biologist, hortculturalist, and collaborator
with many other scientfc communites. In this future, architecture and
agriculture will collide to form an:
Agri-tectural Archi-culture
T h e O r g a n i s m
Speed Reinventions in the Forbidden City
A por t f ol i o of St udi o 402 by J as on B Dai l
T h e O r g a n i s m
Speed Reinventions in the Forbidden City
Where is the Forbidden city?
The freeway has been a no-manÕs land since its invention. by the freewayÕs
very deÞnition it is a ÒplaceÓ free of impedement. Mobility is the law of the
freeway. This has forever been a forbidden zone, where architects would
not dare venture. Architecture is largely thought of as standing still, Þrm,
and stable. This project is an investigation of how the built environment can
engage this forbidden zone, without being an impedement to mobility.
The following project has been done in conjunction with studio 402, at
North Carolina State University
Professor: Jota Samper
The virus: Congestion
In this study of the I-540 corridor of Raleigh,
NC. it has been observed that: As the freeway
begins to interact with the existing fabric of the
city, physical barriers such as noise screens are
added to separate the two. This very act gives
way to the paradoxical condition that automobil-
ity produces. This condition is both of freedom
and conÞnement, of connection and separation,
and of progression and regression.
Lagos, Nigeria
Existing Segment I-540
Investigated
Future
Segment I-540
Future Segment I-540
Ebola Virus L.A. Interchange
Symptom: Isolation
Our freeways are increasingly becoming a barrier
to life. The freeway acts as an effective city wall.
The most commonn interpretation of the Pe-
riphery freeway is a negative image. A concrete
monster, a source of noise pollution, gripping the
city in a stranglehold.
Paris Peripherique
Noise Diagrams
Mobility and the City
Ron HerronÕs vision within the group Archigram
Walking City still remains provocative imagery
for the future of our city nearly 45 years after its
Þrst publication. The walking city that Herron
developed consists of intelligent vehicles which
act as cities. These vehicles can walk, grow,
split, reduce, and move, and serve as objects
that house people and the various functions that
humans need to live such as hospitals, govern-
ment ofÞces, entertainment venues, service
vehicles, etc. Each city consists of numerous
vehicles, each performing a different function,
such as the housing vehicle or the government
vehicle. Herron envisioned a smaller one to two
person vehicle that could break off of from the
main module and transport humans from module
to module. The city moves with its retractable
telescopic Òlegs,Ó which also ground the vehicle
to the earthÕs surface
Modern Interpretations
of The Mobile City
Power and Compassion. The
modern aircraft carrier and
hospital ships epitomize Ron
HerronÕs vision of a mobile
city.
The Network
Raleigh
Cary
Apex
RDU
Research
Triangle
The Site
HWY 55
HWY 64
HWY 1
HWY 55
The
ORGANISM
Movie
R a d i o l a r i a n S t r u c t u r e s
Time Shared Freeway-Maria Hill
how can we crossprogram the freeway?
High density
(8+ dwelling units/acre)
Medium density
(3-8 dwelling units/acre)
Low density
(0-3 dwelling units/acre)
Non-residential
Parks
Airport space
Projected
Housing-2025
Raleigh
Cary
Morrisville
Apex
Holly Springs
Unincorporated
Students by
Residence
Schools
Elementary
Middle
High
Parking Lot Areas
2008
Parking Lot Areas
2208
Scale differences between adults and children
Field of Vision
Children are more in tuned to Surface/Texture changes
Instead of giving children manufactured sculptures to paly with,
we should be giving them the components for making their own sculptures;
allow them to be a part of the creation process, because that is how they learn.
Barrier Conditions
between the freeway and public spaces
Parking plan morphs and folds to
create public spaces
Timeshare Freeway
The same space is shared between different functions depending on need.
The freeway is redirected or squeezed and the area that it normally occupies
is given to other entities: parks, playgrounds, schools, etc.
However, during rush hours, the highway reclaims the space and expands to
full capacity in order to accomodate high traffic flows.
Plan for
Tokyo Bay
1960
Many cities that have a central fo-
cus (a civic hub) expand freely in
a radial pattern, however, the bay
prohibits the growth of the city of
Tokyo in the southeast direction.
Thus a new idealistic proposal by
Kenzo Tange suggested that the city
make a shift from the radial devel-
opment to a planned linear expansion
over the Tokyo Bay, although planned
cities were not accepted by many Jap-
anese politicians. The city was tied
together by technological communica-
tion, but lacked in direct communica-
tion. KENZO TANGE proposed a utopian
city plan (allowing for 15 million
inhabitants) that would span across
the 18 mile wide Tokyo Bay on a cen-
tral axis, serving as a spine for
growth beginning in the heart of the
city.
The foundation of the plan was a net-
work of looped expressways: a three-
level road system with connecting
ramps which formed direct communica-
tion and transportation throughout
the city. Towers placed 200 meters
apart and rising 150-250 meters above
the average sea level would form a
framework grid to support the “sus-
pension bridge city” 40 meters above
the ground and 50 meters above the
water.
In 1960, with the rise in subur-
banization surrounding the city of
Tokyo and the growing need for a
daily commute, traffic and conges-
tion were rapidly increasing. Cit-
ies like Tokyo, which has an or-
ganic radial structure, cannot be
functional with such a large and
still growing population (over 10
million in 1960).
Central spine
perpendicular
arteries
Hierarchy of connections
Pedestrian
circulation
between
buildings
Plan for
Tokyo Bay
1960
The principles of the Plan for
Tokyo Bay can by applied to any
city development.
Tange’s plan replaces the sub-
tractive process of road con-
struction that destroys uni-
ty within a city. Instead of
bisecting the land, the road
is lifted off of the ground,
thereby reducing its impact on
the surrounding environment.
The direct route spans over the
ground plane, which makes it
possible to preserve connection
underneath the road.
The only structures that touch
the land are the public build-
ings that support the main cir-
culation artery. The buildings
add to the urban fabric. This
system creates multi-level con-
nections that support a more
dense urban fabric.
Plan for
Tokyo Bay
1960
Encore Condos, located in the heart of
downtown Charlotte, NC, take the sub-
urban idea of a private garage and make
it an urban reality.
Each car is elevated from the street
level up to the owners condo where it
is parked.
Encore
Condos
the Encore Condos concept is
advertised as a radical in-
novation, yet when a condo
plan is compared to a tradi-
tional house plan, the rela-
tionship of parking to liv-
ing is the same. The garage
space is adjacent to the
living space. The only dif-
ference is in the way the
plans are arranged. Instead
of being sparead out across
a vast area of land, Encore
Condos stacks the individu-
al units and uses land more
economically.
Area of garage vs.
Area of bedroom
Traditional arrangement
of car space adjacent to
living space





In order to use space more efficiently, we
need to challenge preconceptions of how a car
should be parked.
Horizontal parking Vertical parking
Parking on building
surface
Encore
Condos
What if parking plane becomes wall? The parking system could be used
as a way of forming space with cars as the surface.
Building size vs.
Parking lot size
Public spaces defined by the vertical
parking plane located along the highway
Encore
Condos
70mph
50mph
35mph
10mph
0mph
The needs of a vehicle
change with speed. At
higher speeds a full en-
closure is necessary, but
as a car approaches the
city,
It can shed it’s outer
shell to allow for more
interaction between driv-
ers and pedestrians.
Without confinement, the
car becomes part of the
public realm.
The vehicle can further
transform to become part
of the living space. The
car can enter the liv-
ing space as furniture.
It can also be used in
public spaces as seeting
in restaurants or movie
theatres. Parking lots
could become obsolete.
If Raleigh continues developing in the same manner as it is today, in 200 years the en-
tire city will be taken over by a monsterous sea of parking lots. There are two ways of
dealing with this problem: either we eliminate parking lots and, consequently, cars, or
we embrace the monster.
What if the parking lot could grow into something beautiful? Lets imagine that the park-
ing plane morphs into a fluid landscape that accomodates a plethora of activities; the
space is shared between the freeway, playgrounds, parks, schools, etc.
Depending on demand, surface area will be given to a specific activity and the freeway
will be redirected or squeezed. It will become a 24 hour space. At night, instead of
being a desolate landscape that the freeway is currently, the spae will be alive with art
galleries and concert venues.
A new city with real texture will emerge, and the texture will be formed by cars. Park-
ing lots will be turned vertically to create interior and exterior surfaces with a wall-
paper of cars. Vehicles will be appreciated, even when they are not occupied.
Timeshare Freeway
freeway
m-f
7:30am - 9:30pm
4:30pm - 6:30pm night life
th-sa
10:00pm - 2:00am
recreation
sa-sun
9:00am - 5:00pm
work
m-f
8:00am - 5:00pm
restaurant
m-su
12:00pm - 2:00pm
sa- sun
5:30pm - 8:00pm
school
m-f
9:00am - 3:00pm
sports
m-f
3:00pm - 5:30pm
entertainment
sa-su
2:00pm - 8:00pm
7:30-9:30 freeway
9:30-12:00 playground
12:00-2:00 restaurant
2:00-4:30 track
4:30-6:30 freeway
6:30-11:00 rest/bar
7:30-9:30 freeway
9:30-12:00 plaza
12:00-2:00 tennis court
2:00-4:30 park
4:30-6:30 freeway
6:30-11:00 art gallery
11:00-2:00 night club
2008
parking lot areas
2208
parking lot areas
parking lot
transformed and
manipulated into
an artificial
topography that
encourages space
sharing.
program shift - 9am
program shift - 12pm
program shift - 7pm
permanent- flexible
program areas
zoning areas
school/ residential
business/ commercial
recreation/ residential
interactions of artificial topography with the existing,
traditional environment
8:00 AM
1:00 PM
6:00 AM
9:00 PM
WEEKEND
10:00 AM
WEEKEND
2:00 PM
8:00 AM
3:00 PM
WEEKEND
11:00 AM
8:00 AM
5:00 PM
10:00 PM

between the highway-Rob Franklin
The highway as we know it today is a large area of unusable land that
while connectng areas on a large scale, it actually acts as a barrier on
a more local scale. This current setup not only wastes valuable land,
but also divides communites and creates a dependence on vehicles,
lessening the role of the pedestrian. Using this informaton and looking
at current trends in community planning, where the size of the house is
approaching the size of the lot in which it is placed, I have created a
system that works with this trend, while solving some of the problems
posed by our current highway system. Through taking variables and
creatng rules for how they interact, I have devised as system that
encourages interacton between the highway, the pedestrian, and the
architecture itself. By introducing a ribbon-like green space that
weaves in and out of the highway and using the topography of the site,
the grid of the area surrounding city is formed. This grid becomes
disrupted by the green space that acts as a pedestrian highway that
allows the pedestrain to connect to diferent to various public spaces.
On the other hand, the highway not longer divides anything. The grid of
the city is allowed to overtake the highway, allowing access across it,
and also providing space for architecture to interact with it.
1. Major intersections
2. Transportation connections
3. Existing recreation
4. Potential greenspace
5. Potential development
6. Population density
7. Casualties
8. Overlay of 1-7
1. 2. 3.
4. 5. 6.
7. 8.
Opposite:
1. Highway v. topography
2. High and lows
3. Intersections v. topography
4. Greenspace v. topography
5. Overlay of 1-4
6. Section diagram of the topography and its
relation to the living and working space.
Site Analysis: Robert Franklin
1. 2.
3. 4. 5.
6.
how can we crossprogram the freeway?


































1 2 3
4
1 Rooftop Highway
2 Interior Circulation
3 Commercial and Residential space
4 City versus Private development
inversion
Opposite
Corbusier's drawings, and
diagrams showing the city center,
its elevation, and and its connec-
tion to other areas
Algiers Urban Plan, Le Corbusier-1930/33
Pneumatic Living Unit: Prototype
Design ideas for an architecture that is as
variable as a cloud. Pneumatic construction
permits changes in volume due to a new building
element: air. And the new forms - supported
through projections of color, sound, and fra-
grance - influence the quality of experience
within the spaces.
The pneumatic prototype is composed of three
spaces:
The pulsating space with the revolving bed,
projections, and sound programs. Appropriate
fragrances to accompany the changing audiovi-
sual program are blown in through the ventila-
tion system.
The pneumatic, transformable space: eight
inflatable balloons vary the size of the units
space from minimum to maximum volumes.
The space in the suitcase - the mobile space.
From a helmet-shaped suitcase, one can inflate
an air-conditioned shell, complete with bed.
Villa Rosa, Coop Himmelb(l)au-1967
I wake up to the sound of the computer telling me “wake up. If you don’t
get to the link up by 9am you will miss the group., and you know what
that means.” He was right, if I missed my transport group it would cost
us all time and money. I had better get ready.
As I dress and prepare for the day I tell the computer that I will be done
soon and that it should ready my vehicle. Our transportation units line
that hollow core of our building, and rest in circuitous tracks . As I
leave my home and enter the corridor that leads to the area where I can
load into my vehicle, I look out the window into the buildings interior.
Just as I do this I see my vehicle line up with the door that allows me
access to it. Once I enter my vehicle I tell the computer to take me to
the highway. In a instant we start our decent down the vertical track
that leads out of my building and onto the feeder track that leads to the
highway. As I admire the hollow core of my building, the computer tells
me that I should be able to make the group in time. Excellent, the high-
way grouping system allows people to group together based on destination,
and these groups share the energy needed to reach their destination. This
saves money but it also time, considering the larger groups have right of
way over the smaller ones.
As I glide along the feeder track I reach the transition area, where the
feeder track ends and the computer releases control to me and I can drive
the vehicle. These transition areas can be quite animated places, because
not only is there a transfer in control, but the vehicle itself goes
through a physical transformation which makes it more stable. I think
that my heart skips a beat every time I make this transition.
Once I have control of my vehicle the computer tells me that the group is
approaching. My group consists mainly of people I work with, some I have
never spoken to, but some how I feel like I know them because of our morn-
ing rendezvous . I look in my rear view mirror and see the group behind
me.
As the group approaches, the computer asks to take over control and I
give it permission to do so. Suddenly I lose control and feel my vehicle
being drawn into the group. Once in the group I turn on my intergroup
communicator, and chat with some of my friends as we ride to work. Other
people eat and even sleep on the way.
As we progress down the highway I see our building approaching. It is
hard to miss considering it towers out of the middle of the highway. Get-
ting closer, our group reconfigures into a straight line and gets ready
to exit the highway via transition area. The feeder track to my office
leads right into the interior of my building. Once there my vehicle ride
up the vertical track right to the floor where my office is located. My
vehicle then files itself into the circuitous tracks and awaits my return
home.
Movie: Script and Storyboard
Robert Franklin
1
2
3 4
5
6
7
1
2
3 4 5 6
7
A. Topography and the greenway dictating the city grid
B. Path and event along the greenway
Opposite:
C. Physical model representing the layering of the city
A.
B.
C.
The highway as we know it, is a large area of wasted land
that acts as a connector on a large scale, but on a more
local scale, the highway becomes a divider. This divide is
promoted by the way that the land is reformed through
grading techniques, where high areas are flattened, low
areas are filled in, and the highway rests on top.
It is my opinion that instead of massively reshaping the
landscape, we should use arechitecture to raise the highway
in low areas. This not only achieves the goal of having
the optimal grade for the highway, but it also allows areas
where the city can continue under or even over the highway
to make use of wasted space and connect areas that might
have otherwise been divided.
In laying out the highway and the surrounding city I looked
at the topography as a guide. I used it to create zones of
large-scale commercial areas, and smaller scale residential.
areas. I did this by drawing a line through the topography
between 27ft. and 320 ft. This line would mark the resident
-ial areas.
I also looked at the shape of the highway itself, and tried
different ways make space within the line of the highway
itself. I decided on three basic shapes, and then applied
them to the highway in my section.
Taking into consideration the density of future cities I
began to introduce a ribbon-like greenspace which would act
as a recreation area as well as a pedestrian highway.This
greenway connects larger recreation areas and is meant to
connect communities instead of dividing them.
city within-Stephanie Greene
Contain all the movement and functons of an entre city within one vertcal
form and to integrate the freeway into the architecture. I am creatng this
new urban environment where the volumes are made of diferent materials
that create a collaged texture for the city. Instead of hallways and corridors
connectng these volumes, there will be streets, parks and plazas, for
vehicular and pedestrian movement throughout the city. As the populaton
and need grows, the city can be built up in sectons. The building will be at
the intersecton of I-540 and US-1. Here the freeways and railroad will be
able to service the new city and provide a connecton for the surrounding
territories outside the 440 and 540 rings to the old city of Raleigh. The
connecton ramps at this intersecton will enter the building and connect
travelers to various spaces and volumes, and anchor the building to the site.



1 Side elevation of the building and the glass screens along the sides
protecting drivers from the glare and the surrounding area from traffic noise.
1
Our project is the fullest sense of passage, infused with dynamic equilibrium. A single project, but seven transi-
tions: The transition towards Paris, The transition from shadow to light, The transition from weight to lightness, The
transition from static to dynamic, The transition between north and south sections of the park, The transition from
the tunnel to the bridge. A poetic conception of a section of the motorway into Paris along the Grand Axe comprises
the main route out of teh heart of Paris along the Champs Elysees and through La Defense, marked by the Arc de
Triomphe and the Grand Arche building located in the park underneath a viaduct. The viaduct forms a connection
between an underground tunnel passing under La Defense and a heavy concrete motorway bridge over the Seine
and out of Paris through the suburb of Nanterre. The architects extended the scheme to embrace the redesign of the
viaduct intself as a light metal structure supported on arc-shaped legs over the park.
2 Long section through the building below and the viaduct above, with the op-
erations room at centre and the look-out tower and mast antenna emerging above. (top
left)
3 Cross section through building and viaduct. (bottom left)
4 Elevation (top right)
2
3
4
The road surface is designed in
concrete, to create a visual continu-
ity
with the existing bridge, but the
structure as a whole, consisting of
clearly defined, detached elements,
is designed to produce an aerody-
namic effect
in contrast to the monolithic struc-
ture of the bridge. As the road
emerges from the tunnel, it passes
through a shell of glass screens,
changing from opaque to translu-
cent, which protects the surrounding
area from traffic noise and drivers
from glare. By night, these screens
become luminous walls reflecting
light ontothe road, and transforming
this section of the Grand Axe into a
shining ray visible from the ground
below.
5 Section through the edge of the
viaduct showing details of the metal struc-
ture. (top left)
6 Section through roadway, opera-
tions center, and administrative offices. (bot-
tom left)
The building is suspended from the underside of the viaduct. By detaching the building from the ground, the
architects aimed to avoid creating a barrier across the park at the site of the viaduct, and to preserve it physi-
cal and visual continuity; an open green space free from traffic, in which the operations centre becomes a
positive element integrated with the design and landscape vocabulary of the park.
5 6
The building contains two levels beneath the bridge,
plus an underground level containing garaging, services,
and a covered patio and winter garden. On the ground
floor is a police headquarters and public reception, with
further administrative accommodation on the upper
floor, organized in a U-shaped plan around the opera-
tions room at the centre. This element emerges through
the viaduct above the road level as a look-out tower,
crowned by a tall antenna and red light which indicates
the nerve centre of the motorway operations system,
and also provides a key landmark along the dramatic
entrance sequence leading into the city.
7 Front elevation of the building, viewed beneath the viaduct.
8 Elevation of the look-out tower and mast above road level
7
8
9 Diagrams of building’s facade expressing the idea of
speed and movement in the work.
10 Massing diagram of the building under the viaduct.
9
10
11 View of viaduct
12 Series of views of the viaduct under construction
13 Completed Viaduct and control centre.
“Pilgrimize the city”
Stephanie Greene
Pope Sixtus V
Rome
1
The Renaissance history of the Lata-via Flaminia axis is bracketed by two significant events. In 1466, Pope Paul II,
motivated by his building campaign for Palazzo Venezia as Piazza S. Marco, the southern terminus of the corridor,
decided to relocate a number of the carnival celebrations, especially the races, to the street. At that time, the street
was renamed via del Corso.
In 1586 when Pope Sixtus V Peretti added the church of S. Maria del Popolo to the list of the city’s seven basilicas,
obligatory stops for all pilgrims to Rome, he also clearly established Porta Flaminia, by then renamed Porta Popolo in
honor of the church, as the major entrance for visitors arriving from the north. The attention directed during the Renais-
sance toward activities associated with the Corso fueled a progressive building campaign that would continue into the
early 17th century.
1 Axonometric view of the Piazza del Popolo and surrounding areas.
2 Via Lata and Via Flaminia comprise the main axis from the city to the Piazza
del Popolo
3
Pope Pius IV had the exterior of Porta
del Popolo redressed in 1561, and Greg-
ory XIII established the central fountain
and subsidiary utility fountains at Piazza
del Popolo and was also responsible
for the establishment of Giacomo della
Porta’s fountain at Piazza Colonna. The
provision of water along the Corso intro-
duced an important amenity, requisite for
further development of the immediately
surrounding areas.
In 1586, Sixtus V had the Corso paved,
and in 1589 he commissioned
Domenico Fontana to restore and orna-
ment the column of Marcus Aurelius. He
also raised the obelisk at the heart of
Piazza del Popolo; both efforts were part
of the Sistine Campaign to “pilgrimize”
the city.
3 Drawings shows placement of holy sites
along Via del corso.
4 Perspective shows relationships be-
tween various piazzas and obelisks.
5 Piazza del Popolo with obelisk at
center.
4
5
Via dei Condotti was opened between 1544 and 1547, and by the 1570’s the area between the Corso
and Capo le Case to the east was divided into smaller pivate properties. By the end of the 16th cen-
tury, the east-west network of parallel streets, egmenting the area defined by via del Babuino and via
di Ripetta and bisected by the Corso (the closest thing to a grid in Rome) was established. Residen-
tial developments, restoration and building campaigns sprung up in the area as an urban renewal
program. One of Pope Sixtus’ preoccupations was the establishment of streets linking the Piazza del
Popolo and its surrounding territories with the city. The three streets seen in the image above, filter
pilgims into the Piazza, which also holds the obelisk that can be seen from the city. The Piazza was
constructed to appear symmetrical, even, and all the more perfect, as was expected for such a holy
place.
6 Shows three main streets directing people into the Piazza del Popolo.
6
7
8
9
10
7 View of symmetry of Piazza del Popolo.
8 Perspective of the Piazza.
9 Major entrance to Piazza del Popolo.
10 Interior view of main entrance.
Barrier created by freeway
Barrier condition avoided by architects, when
freeway raised off ground
Rapid movement vs Solid architecture
Functions of transportation and operations
center merged into one architectual element
ROME
NANTERRE
Obelisk is destination for pilgrims
Obelisk is obstacle
Diagrams compare function of differ-
ent obelisks in Rome and Nanterre.
In Rome, people travel to the obelisk
as part of a pilgrimage. In Nanterre,
drivers move around tower, some
can also move up into it.
(Narrative)
Jack had taken the train home from work that day. Jill had taken their new mobile environment
out for a test drive on the freeway. He looked out the window of their apartment and was able to see
Jill approaching. He went out to the atrium, where mostly tourists would stand and watch the vehicles
slide past each other as they scaled the vertical structure. As they move before him, Jack can see
blurred images of the underbellies of the vehicles that pass.
Still, with the constant movement and velocity at which the vehicles travel, there was no sound
contamination and Jack could overhear his neighbors talking. Once Jill arrived, she and Jack left
their 226th floor apartment for the florist that was 45 floors below them. They were getting flowers for
Jack’s mother, who was flying in from Wyoming. Jack and Jill would pick her up from the airport and
give her a tour of the realm. On the freeway, there were vehicles to the left and the right, in front of
them and behind them, and above and below them. Everyone was going to the same place, but none
of them for the same reason. The realm was the one place that would allow everyone to accomplish
their task. The realm smoothly filters each vehicle and person within it to the proper destination.
Jack, Jill, and Jack’s mother scaled the same structure that Jack had observed earlier. The
80th floor was the home of Jack’s favorite restaurant and also framed the best view of the old city.
Jack and Jill showed his mother around the apartment then went up to the observation deck. From
here, they could see the swarms of red and white lights of the vehicles moving toward, through,
around, and out of the realm. Jack’s mother had never seen anything so amazing.
(Story Board)
(Movie) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K8Kj6XN78fQ
Movement through city of Raleigh Movement at intersection of 540 and US-1
Section A
Section B
Site Plan
Within freeway
On 540
Within City
Ground level

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