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Submitted by Neeraj Kumar B. tech. IV Year (VII Semester) Electrical Engineering
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING GOVIND BALLABH PANT ENGINEERING COLLEGE PAURI GARHWAL (UTTARAKHAND) - 246194
The knowledge of any subject is incomplete until it is done practically. Electrical is a field, which requires thorough knowledge of the subject along with its practical applications. This establishment has given me the opportunity to have the better understanding of this field. This report consists of the description of my work “Study of Design Features Of 220 KV Circuit Breaker” during the period of my summer training at at ABB Ltd. Vadodara Gujrat During this period I got a chance to learn Electrical Switchgear protection Manufacturing. The basic aim of this report is to study the Characteristics of manufacturing of LTB E – SF6 circuit breaker as well as the latest manufacturing techniques employed to produce a quality product. This training helped me enhance my knowledge at a great level. It has made me understand the problems in a more logical way and deal with them analytically.
Neeraj Kumar Electrical Engg. Final Year
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS First and foremost, I would like to thank Dr. Y.Singh (HOD Electronics and Electrical Dept., G.B.P.E.C.) and Mr. Sandeep Kumar (Training and Placement Officer, G.B.P.E.C.), who gave me a chance to undergo training at ABB Ltd. Vadodara Gujrat . My sincere thanks goes to Mr. Mihir Sabnish (B&S HR) for his prodigious guidance, persuasion, and painstaking attitude, reformative and prudential suggestion throughout my summer training schedule. Special thanks go to Mr.K.Patel (Engineer). Who helped me a lot in giving minute details of manufacturing techniques of circuit breaker. Department and enlightened me with the knowledge of Exchange equipments and their working. Last but not the least, my sincere thanks to all the staff members and friends for instilling in me a sense of self-confidence.
Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3
Introduction…………………………………………………………….05 Circuit breaker………………………………………………………...11 Live tank circuit breaker D&E…………………………………....….25
Chapter 4 Project -LTB E – SF6 circuit breaker………………………………...27 Chapter 5 Circuit breaker Applications …………………………………..39 Chapter 6 Bibliography…………………………………………………………….44 Chapter 7 Conclusion…………………………………………….………………45
INTRODUCTION 1.1 ABB - a global leader ABB (www.abb.com) is a global leader in power and Automation technologies that enable utility and Industry customers to improve performance while lowering environmental impact. The ABB Group of companies operates in around 100 countries. ABB’s Power Technologies division offers electric, gas and water utilities as well as industrial and commercial customers a wide range of products, system and services for power generation, transmission and distribution. ABB’s turnkey solution capabilities in the sector range from bulk power transmission, substations and complete electrification to utility automation and distribution systems. The product offering covers a wide spectrum of technologies across the entire voltage range including indoor and outdoor circuit breakers, air and gas insulated switchgear, disconnectors, capacitor banks and reactive power compensators,in India has a long-standing presence over several decades. The company has extensive local manufacturing across 8 centres supported by a marketing presence, including 26marketing offices and a network of around 500channel partners. The operation also has 8 service centres in addition to customer training hubs and global R & D centres. The history of ABB goes back to the late nineteenth century ,and is a long illustrious record of innovation and technological leadership. The ABB group of companies
operates in around 100 countries and employs 110,000 people.ABB operate in india include 14 manufacturing facilities and over 6500 employees.
The company was incorporated on 24th December 1949 as Hindustan electric limited. In 1965,the company‘s name was changed to Hindustan Brown Boveri Ltd(HBB).pursuant to scheme of amalgamation of Asea Limited with HBB with effect from 1st january 1989,the name was further changed to Asea Brown Boveri Ltd(ABB) with effect from 13th october 1989. Flakt India Ltd. Was amalgamated with ABB with effect from 5th October 1995.
1.2 ABB FEATURES ➢ 120 years of technology and innovation ➢ Unparalleled domain competence ➢ Vast global experience ➢ Total solution provider ➢ Large installed base ➢ Environment-friendly technologies .
1.3 MAIN PLANTS IN INDIA
NORTH ZONE • NBCC Tower 4th Floor No. 15, Bhikaji Cama Place New Delhi 110 066 EAST ZONE • 4th Floor No. 9 Elgin Road Kolkata 700 020
WEST ZONE • ABB House Dr. S B Path Ballard Estate Mumbai 400 038 SOUTH ZONE • Embassy Star, 1st Floor No. 8, Palace Road Vasanth Nagar
Bangalore 560 052
Century Plaza No. 3C, 3D, 3F, 3rd Floor 561 / 562, Anna Salai Teynampet Chennai 600 018
Vandana House 1st Floor G E Road, Ramkund Raipur 492 001
1.4 Breakers & Systems : Landmarks
➢ 1965 :25 kV CIRCUIT BREAKER ➢ 1966 :245 kV AIRBLAST CIRCUIT BREAKER ➢ 1978 :420 kV AIRBLAST CIRCUIT BREAKER ➢ 1982 :145kV SF6 CIRCUIT BREAKER WITH PUFFER TECHNOLOGY ➢ 1984 :245KV SF6 CIRCUIT BREAKER WITH PUFFER TECHNOLOGY ➢ 1988 :36/72.5 kV SF6 CIRCUIT BREAKER WITH SELF BLAST
➢ 1988 :420KV SF6 CIRCUIT BREAKER WITH PUFFER TECHNOLOGY ➢ 1994 :145KV
➢ 2000 :420KV,
➢ 2002 :25kV POLE MOUNTED INTERRUPTER ➢ 2002 :72.5KV INDOOR CIRCUIT BREAKER WITH FIXED CONTACT &
2003 :DEVELOPMENT OF SWITCH SYNC TYPE CIRCUIT BREAKER PUFFER TECHNOLOGY
➢ 2006 :245 KV SPRING OPERATED CIRCUIT BREAKER WITH AUTO ➢ 2007 :420KV SPRING OPERATED CIRCUIT BREAKER WITH AUTO
CHAPTER 2 Circuit breaker
The circuit breaker is the most important and complicated of all types of power circuit interruption equipment. This is due to its highly important capability of interrupting the powerful short circuit current, over and above its normal role of conducting, isolating and interrupting nominal load currents.
2.1 Main Components of Circuit Breaker
• Power circuit
It is where the main current flows or is interrupted; and it includes:
• Arcing chamber
The arcing chamber is a closed volume containing a fixed contact, a moving contact and the interrupting medium. The current is established when the moving contact touches the fixed contact and interrupted when they part. An arc is created when the contacts part. The interrupting medium is responsible for quenching the arc and establishing the nominal level of isolation between the open contacts.
• Insertion resistor
The sudden modification of circuit characteristics, when circuit breakers operate, produces peak voltage impulses where the level is determined by the circuit
characteristics. These impulses may reach very high levels and must be reduced. •
It is where the needed energy to part the contacts and to extinguish the arc is developed. It includes devices, called energy accumulators, to store the needed energy.
Examples of accumulators are:
➢ Springs ➢ Nitrogen-charged cylinders The most common operating mechanisms in circuit breakers are: ➢ Spring operated ➢ Hydraulically operated ➢ Pneumatically operated
Control The order to operate the breaker is launched in the control part of the circuit breaker, as an electric impulse of a fraction of a second duration. The order is then amplified in the operating mechanism to a complete circuit breaker operation capable of interrupting short circuit currents. The control includes: ➢ Closing and tripping coils ➢ Control relaying system ➢ Pressure switches and gauges ➢ Surveillance and alarm system ➢ Re-inflating system to restore the energy spent on the operation.
2.1Circuit breaker types
The main problem of circuit breakers stems from the nature of their existence. A circuit breaker has to interrupt weak capacitive or inductive currents, up to high short circuit currents, and as a result, to extinguish powerful electric arcs. The problem is then, essentially, an arcing problem. Another problem is overvoltage impulses; this is related to the nature of the circuit where it is installed. One of the major factors influencing the capacity of circuit breakers is the interrupting medium. It affects circuit breakers' concept and design. By this principle, circuit breakers are classified in families according to the type of interrupting medium used. Three of them are widely preferred by circuit breaker designers around the world. This is due to their excellent breaking and insulating properties that lead to high performance and economic designs. They are:
➢ Mineral oil ➢ Compressed air ➢ Sulfur hexafluoride, or SF6
2.1.1Mineral oil Mineral oil was, until recently, the interrupting medium of choice. It has excellent breaking and insulating quality especially when it is very pure, as is the case when it is used in certain devices such as capacitors or transformers, which are airtight devices. However, circuit breakers have breathing holes and the oil is in contact with the arc. Thus, one finds in the breaker's oil a certain amount of impurities, in the form of moisture and miscellaneous dust, including carbon particles. This decreases its isolation properties significantly.
It is imperative to monitor the state of the oil inside breakers in service, and to replace it periodically in function of the number of breaks performed by the device. The criteria for oil replacement depend on the structure of the breakers and are indicated by the manufacturer.
Air at atmospheric pressure has the following advantages: ➢ Good insulation quality ➢ -Always available ➢ Costs nothing ➢ The insulating quality of air rises rapidly with its pressure. Compressed air was mainly used for interruption in the earlier pneumatic circuit breaker designs. Later on it was used for insulation between the contacts after they opened, the latter being placed inside an insulating chamber designed to resist the air pressure. This reduced significantly the distance between the open contacts. Air quality for pneumatic circuit breakers: It should be noted that the excellent quality of air is greatly affected by the humidity. Indeed, it is important that any condensation in the insulators and air conduits be
avoided, or internal tripping may occur. Installing the costly drying compression stations greatly raises the cost of operating air blast circuit breakers.
Sulfur hexafluoride, SF6
A certain number of gases, called electronegative, have better insulating qualities than air. Among them is sulfur hexafluoride, SF6, has seen a great deal of success in electrical apparatus design because of its excellent insulating properties and remarkable arc quenching abilities. It is five times heavier than air, odorless, colorless, nonflammable and non-toxic when new. Its dielectric strength is 3 times the air's dielectric. When subjected to an electric arc, it partially decomposes. In the presence of moisture and impurities it produces acid by-products that attack metal and the insulating envelopes. An efficient way to reduce by-products is to use activated alumina inside the chambers containing the gas. SF6 being a gas at normal temperatures, and at atmospheric pressure it liquefies at -60 °C, and at 20 bars it liquefies at 20 °C, which is detrimental to its insulating qualities. For applications at very cold temperatures, it must be heated or mixed with other gases like Nitrogen or CF4.
Oil circuit breaker
The first high voltage breakers were the bulk oil circuit breakers, followed by the minimum oil circuit breakers. In an oil circuit breaker, the arc decomposes part of the oil into gases composed of 70% Hydrogen and 20% Acetylene, and also produces carbon particles.
Bulk oil circuit breaker It consists of a steel tank partly filled with oil, through the cover of which are mounted porcelain or composite insulating bushings. Contacts at the bottom of the bushings are bridged by a conducting cross head carried by a wooden or composite lift rod, which in common designs drops by gravity following contact separation by spring action, thus opening the breaker. An air cushion above the oil level serves as an expansion volume to prevent pressure from building up inside the chamber after the interruption of the short circuit current. Regardless of improvements, the bulk oil circuit breaker presents many disadvantages: ➢ Great weight and bulk ➢ Risk of fire ➢ Strong reaction to ground ➢ Frequent bushing failure, etc.
Minimum oil circuit breaker These breakers were developed for 170 and 245 kV systems, the highest voltages at the time, where the inherent problems of bulk oil breakers were the most severe, also to eliminate oil as insulating medium and thus reduce the quantity of oil in switchgear installations to an amount that would not cause any hazard. The excellent arc-quenching properties of oil, however, were used later in specially developed oil- and pressure-tight arc-interrupting chambers. Minimum oil circuit breakers for high voltage are single-interrupter up to 170 kV and multiple-interrupter breakers for 230 kV and higher. Contacts are placed in a cylindrical, insulating envelope, with connection terminals at either end, and placed on an insulating support. Compared to a bulk oil breaker, ground isolation is considerably improved by the elimination of the vulnerable isolating bushings and of the metal tank in proximity of the arc. The oil no longer insulates to ground, and oil volume is reduced by a factor of 10 to 20. They use an arc-control device in the arcing chamber which physically shortens the arc and the arcing time, thereby reducing the arc energy. When the breaker interrupts small currents, the arc is extinguished by a forced axial flow of oil. In short-circuit range the arc is quenched as a function of current. The arc is blown by a jet of oil at right angles to its axis, and extinguished. .
Air blast circuit breaker
Until recently, the air blast circuit breakers have dominated the high and very high voltage applications. From 170 kV to 800 kV and breaking capacity from 20 kA to 100 kA. Over 100 kV the breaker has multiple chambers connected in series. Each element is optimized to around 80 kV. At first, 800 kV breakers had 12 chambers in series per phase, now they have only 8 chambers per phase. Although increasing the air pressure increases the speed of dielectric regeneration, it is still relatively slow. Insertion resistors are often used to reduce voltage surges. For example, adding insertion resistors, single or double step, to reduce closing voltage surges, is easily done. Also, it is capable of achieving very fast breaking times, 2 cycles and even less, improving the network's stability. In general, air blast circuit breakers are high tech and robust equipment, with great electrical and mechanical endurance. Contact wear is low due to the short arc duration and low arc voltages. The compressed air circuit breaker has two major disadvantages: ➢ Installation of expensive compression stations ➢ High noise levels on operation
SF6 Circuit breaker Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) gas has proved to be an excellent arc-quenching and insulation medium for circuit breakers. SF6 breakers are available for all voltages ranging from 14.4 kV to 800 kV, continuous current up to 4000 A and symmetric interrupting ratings up to 63 kA. SF6 circuit breakers are either the dead tank design, or the live tank design and the GIS design.
During recent years SF6 circuit breakers have reached high phenomena. Their completely closed gas system eliminates any exhaust during switching operations and thus adapts to environmental requirements. They may be installed horizontally or vertically, according to the structural requirements of the substation. The quick dielectric regeneration of the arc plasma in SF6 makes insertion resistors unnecessary, simplifying the apparatus. Their compact design considerably reduces space requirements and building and installation costs. In addition, SF6 circuit breakers require very little maintenance.
SF6 Circuit Breakers
SF6 circuit breakers operate to switch electric circuits and equipment in and out of the system. These circuit breakers are filled with compressed sulfur-hexafluoride gas which acts to open and close the switch contacts. The gas also interrupts the current flow when the contacts are open.
Figure 1. SF6 gas power circuit breaker Figure 2. SF6 gas power circuit breaker
In SF6 circuit breakers, the same principle is employed, with SF6 as the medium instead of air. In the "puffer" SF6 breaker, the motion of the contacts compresses the gas and forces it to flow through an orifice into the neighborhood of the arc. Both types of SF6 breakers have been developed for EHV (extra high voltage) transmission systems
2.1 MAKE/BREAK CONTACTS The breaker's heart is the switching element. It is where the arc quenching takes place. It mainly contains the make/break contacts and the interrupting medium. The make/break contacts functions can be reduced to: Conduct the electric current when the breaker is closed. Withstand the arc's destructive effect while interrupting.
Generally, the make/break contacts have a stationary part and a moving part. By bringing the moving part to touch the stationary one, electric current flows and the breaker is closed. By driving the moving contact away from the stationary contact the electric arc develops and by quenching it the current stops flowing and the breaker is open.
Contact design and choice of materials are greatly affected by the arc's energy, duration and the chemical reactions that may occur with the ambient medium under the arc's effect.
2.2 ELECTRIC ARC The electric arc is a natural phenomenon. Despite its destructive nature it is of great use to current switching in circuit breakers. It acts as variable impedance from zero value when the breaker is closed to infinity when the breaker is open.
Fig-4 Electric Arc Chamber
Found in blast type circuit breakers (air-blast, SF6 and oil circuit breakers). Great heat generation and relative long durations characterize them. They also generate deposition of solid by-products that may affect the conductivity of the contacts. 2.3 VACUUM ARC Found in vacuum circuit breakers. They are limited and of short duration. They cause no deposition of by-products.
CHAPTER 3 Live tank circuit breaker D&E 3.1 Live tank circuit breaker-D(LTB D-Breaker)
• With Auto-Puffer for outdoor installation
LTB D is operated by a motor-charged spring operating mechanism type BLK or FSA, or by the digital servomotor-system, Motor Drive. The energy required for interrupting short-circuit current is partly taken from the arc itself, thereby reducing the energy required from the operating mechanism to less than 50 percent compared to a conventional SF6 puffer-type circuit breaker. The low energy requirements result in reduced stresses, which in turn lead to increased reliability.
Options: Can be equipped with Switch sync Controller for elimination of transients Equipment for safer handling of SF6 gas Composite insulators Grey insulators With draw able design Extended creepage distance across insulators Bracket for installation of current transformer type IMB Bursting discs Technical data :-
• • •
Rated voltages Rated current Rated breaking current Ambient temperatures
72.5 - 170 kV 3150 A 40 kA -50°C to +50°C
tank breaker- E(LTB-E)
With Auto-Puffer for outdoor installation LTB E is operated by a motor-charged spring operating mechanism type BLK or type BLG. The energy required for interrupting short-circuit current is partly taken from the arc itself, thereby reducing the energy required from the operating mechanism to less than 50 percent compared to a conventional SF6 puffer-type circuit breaker. The low energy requirements result in reduced stresses, which in turn lead to increased reliability.
Options: Can be equipped with Switch sync Controller for elimination of transients Equipment for safer handling of SF6 gas
• • •
Composite insulators Grey insulators With draw able design Extended creepage distance across insulators Bursting discs
Rated voltages Rated current Rated breaking current Standards
72.5 - 550 kV 4000 A 50 kA Complies with international standards IEC and other major standards like ANSI, DIN, GOST, etc.
-40°C to +50°C
LTB E – SF6 circuit breaker
LTB E is an outdoor SF6 circuit breaker designed for System voltages in the range of 245 to 550 kV and rated short-circuit currents up to 50 kA. The design incorporates an advanced Auto-Puffer interrupter based on the latest developments in arc technology and dielectrics. The energy required for interrupting short circuit Currents is partly drawn from the arc itself, thereby reducing the energy required for the operating mechanism by more than 50 percent as compared with a conventional SF6 puffer type circuit breaker.The low energy requirements result in a design optimized for low operating forces which in turn results in higher reliability .All single pole operated circuit breakers are equipped with one operating mechanism per pole .Circuit breakers with one breaking unit per pole can be
operated with one operating mechanism per breaker .The LTB E circuit breaker complies with the international standards IEC and ANSI. restrike-free interruption of capacitive currents due to optimized ‘contact’ design and movement Optimum quenching at zero current ensures low over-voltages during switching of inductive currents Protection from gas leakage by double X-rings in dynamic seals and double O-rings in static seals, tested in varying climatic conditions over 30 years of field operations. (SF6 gas loss lower than 1 percent / year.)
4.1 Key features and advantages ➢ Optimized contact gap ensures high dielectric Strength even when the SF6 gas in the pole is at atmospheric pressure
Low noise level due to low mechanical energy required for operation
➢ Pre-tested, pre-assembled units for easy installation ➢ Optimized pole and structure for high seismic ‘withstand’ capability
➢ Synchronised switching with Switch sync.
relay (optional) ➢ Supervisory control with condition monitoring equipment Switch guard / Switch control
Circuit-breaker type-LTB 72.5-170D1/B. The breaker pole constitutes a sealed unit, which Includes one or two breaking unit(s), support and Operating insulators, as well as pole linkage housing With tripping spring attachment. A filter for Absorbing moisture maintains quality of SF6 gas. ➢ The circuit-breaker is made up of three separate poles. These consist of three main parts. ➢ At the bottom is a mechanism in alloy housing, above this is hollow post insulators through which the operating insulator runs and at the top is the breaking unit. ➢ Each breaking unit consists of one breaking chamber insulator, which together with an upper and a lower flange make up the enclosure, and upper and lower
current path and a puffer. The puffer, which is designed with integrated lower operating current contacts, runs outside of the lower current path. The upper operating current contacts are integrated in the upper current path. ➢ The poles are mounted on a separate hot-dipped galvanized column frame. ➢ The frame consists of two welded formed plate halves, which are interconnected with bolted cross stays.
LTB-E Circuit-breaker gas system
The circuit-breaker poles are as standard design, permanently filled with gas to the following pressure at +20°C: ➢ for LTB 72.5-145D1/B, 50 Hz: •
0.5 MPaabs,SF6 gas for circuit-breakers operating down to -40°C ambient temperature 0.7MPaabs, SF6 gas mixed with N2 gas or CF4 gas for circuit-breakers operating down to -50°C ambient temperature.
➢ for LTB 72.5-145D1/B, 60 Hz: • 0.7MPaabs,SF6 gas for circuit-breakers operating down to -30°C ambient temperature
0.7MPaabs,SF6 gas mixed with N2 gas or CF4 gas for circuit-breakers operating down to -50°C ambient temperature.
➢ for LTB 170D1/B, 50 and 60 Hz: • • 0.7MPaabs,SF6 gas for circuit-breakers operating down to -30°C ambient temperature 0.7MPaabs, SF6 gas mixed with N2 gas or CF4 gas for circuit-breakers operating down to -40°C ambient temperature.
The circuit breaker is operated by a motor charged spring operating mechanism, which is installed in compact splash-proof and corrosion resistant housing. ➢ Three BLK 222 mechanisms are used for single pole operation at 245 kV ➢ One BLG 1002A mechanism is used for three pole operation at 245 kV ➢ Three BLG 1002A mechanisms are used for single-pole operation at 420 Kv ➢ The LTB circuit-breaker is operated by a motor-charged spring operating mechanism type BLK 222. ➢ The operating mechanism is connected to the circuit-breaker poles’ mechanisms via a pull-rod system.
➢ The circuit-breaker is closed by means of the operating mechanism, which
houses the closing springs. On closing, the opening spring is tensioned, which is permanently fixed to the pole’s link gear. The tripp latch in the operating mechanism keeps the circuit-breaker in the closed position. Opening of the circuit breaker only requires the release off the trip latch.
➢ The normal operating cycle is: O-0.3 s-CO-3 min-CO (according to IEC) or CO-
15 s-CO (according to ANSI)
4.5 Standards The circuit-breakers comply with the requirements according to IEC Publication 60056 and in most cases also ANSI C37 and are restrike-free when breaking a capacitive load.
4.1 Testing and Quality Assurance
➢ The circuit breakers are type tested as per IEC standards for each circuit breaker. ➢ Mechanical endurance tests performed for 10,000 operations. ➢ Routine test reports issued showing actual test results. ➢ The manufacturing facility is ISO 9001 certified, covering all aspects of production and testing to
ensure the highest quality standards. ➢ The manufacturing facility is also EHS certified for Environment and Occupational Health and Safety Management Systems (OHSMS).
Transportation and erection
The LTB E circuit breaker poles are transported as complete units filled with SF6 gas to a slight overpressure. Circuit breaker poles with two breaking units per phase are supplied as two separate units: breaker-head and support insulator. ➢ Erection work at site can be done within a day. ➢ SF6 gas should be filled to specified working pressure by the following equipment: ➢ One special control valve for connection to the SF6 gas bottle and a gas-filled hose with connectors. ➢ Gas filling can be done without SF6 gas being released into the atmosphere. No gas treatment is necessary before gas filling.
As a guide to the selection of oils and greases for circuit-breakers, Combined, Compact HPL and LTB with operating mechanisms, a description is given below of the application areas as well as trade names and suppliers.
Safety instructions Protective gloves, long-sleeved overalls and eye protection must be worn when handling greases and oils. All spillage shall be covered with an absorption agent and taken care of as chemical waste according to applicable local directives.
➢ Oil “A” Thin, fully synthetic lubricating oil for precision components in the operating mechanism and circuit-breaker Also used for post lubrication of bearings that cannot be lubricated with grease “G” without dismantling, e.g. links and link gears. Viscosity at 40°C: 62-65 cSt Lowest pour temperature: -52°C
➢ Oil “D” Breaker oil with a low viscosity ~ 6.0 cSt at 20°C. Also used as oil in dashpots. Dashpots with the letter “s” punched on the cover shall be filled with oil “S”. ➢ Oil “S” Silicone oil intended for dashpots in heavy-duty operating mechanisms, type BLG. Only dashpots with the letter “s” punched on the cover shall be filled with this oil.
➢ Grease “G” Low-temperature grease for all types of bearings, gearing and worm gears and valves in air-blast circuit-breakers. Also used for greasing sealing rings and crevice corrosion protection on breakers type HPL and for moving contacts (opening contacts) for disconnectors. ➢ Grease “K” Molykote grease for lubricating pins in link gears and in earthquake dampers ➢ Grease “N” For lubricating moving contacts and puffer cylinders in SF6 circuit-breakers The grease shall be applied in a very thin layer on the contact’s sliding surfaces. ➢ Grease “L” Low-temperature grease especially suitable for lubricating precision components, for example, latch mechanisms in operating mechanisms that shall work in severe cold. ➢ Grease “M” Low-temperature grease for long-term and permanent lubrication of worm gears, and spur gears and other machine elements. Counteracts wear and corrosion. Also for lubricating moving contacts (opening contacts) for earthing switches. ➢ Grease “P”
Vaseline for coating contact surfaces on fixed joints on the inside of the breaking unit. ➢ Grease “S” Fluoro-silicone grease for lubricating the EPDM-O-rings and as crevice corrosion protection on circuit-breakers type ED as well as for lubricating rotating shaft seals on circuit-breakers types LTB and HPL.
Before starting the assembly, make certain that all requisite tools and documents are on hand. ➢ Standard tools with torque wrenches (10 - 430 Nm). ➢ Lifting device and lifting slings.
➢ Lubricants, see Lubricants 1HSB445409-1 for suppliers and brand names.
Grease “G”: ABB Art. No. 1171 4014-407 Grease “SV”: ABB Art. No. 1171 4016-610. ➢ Check pin, ABB Art. No. 1HSB539782-1 ➢ Crank extension, ABB Art. No. 1HSB532188-F. ➢ Crank, ABB Art. No. 2188 754-G. ➢ Applicable dimension drawing and diagrams for the order. 4.7.1 Assembly markings On delivery the circuit-breakers are supplied dismantled in transport units. The component parts are marked to facilitate assembly. The circuit-breaker poles and operating mechanism have been tested together. Check that the assembly markings correspond with that the serial number on the operating mechanism corresponds with the serial number on the circuit-breaker. Assembly should always be carried out as the circuit-breaker has been adjusted and tested with the circuit-breaker poles in this order
Foundation The circuit-breaker’ foundation must be flat and level deviations in mm for the position of the foundation bolts and phase clearance. See the dimension drawing for the dimensions of foundation bolts and nuts. Adjust any deviations using spacer washers, see .The nominal dimensions are stated on the dimension drawing for the order in question.
Frame assembly The frame is supplied in welded halves with six cross stays and nuts, bolts and washers. Bolt together the halves as shown in Fit the cross stays according to the numbering 1-4, using the supplied nuts, bolts and washers. N.B Make sure the stays are fitted as set out in Tighten the bolted joints to a torque of 190 Nm.
Assembling the frame on the foundation The three frames are the same. Locate the frames on the foundation as in Check that the frames are upright and adjust them to the same level using the nuts (2). For dimensions of foundation bolts, spacer washers and nuts refer to the dimension drawing. Fill the gap between the lower nut and the foundation, which should be as small as possible, with spacer washers. Final tightening of the frame is done with the
upper nut, which is tightened to a tightening torque of 300-350 Nm.Foundation bolts, nuts and spacer washers are not supplied.
Assembling the circuit-breaker pole on the frame
➢ Check that the bolts (1), have a tightening torque of 79 Nm.
➢ Check that the circuit-breaker pole is sealed before assembling on the frame. ➢ Unscrew the sealing cap (1).
➢ Press the non-return valve’s disk (2) inwards using the test tool (3). A clear
hissing noise should be heard from the pole. If no hissing sound is heard, the pole leaks. This must be rectified before assembly. 4.9.6 Final assembly of the operating mechanism ➢ Check that the operating mechanism is assembled correctly in relation to the mechanism housing and frame. ➢ Tighten the bolts (1), in the joint between the pipe flange and the mechanism housing with the tightening torque 79 Nm. ➢ Tighten the bolts (3),in the joint between the operating mechanism and the frame with the tightening torque 200 Nm. ➢ Release the lifting device.
➢ Dismantle the operating mechanism’s lifting rails. ➢ Refit the lifting rail bolts.
CHAPTER 5 Circuit breaker Applications
➢ Arcing In Circuit Breaker ➢ Transient Recovery Voltage (TRV) ➢ Switching Of ➢ Transformer/ reactor ➢ Capacitor Bank ➢ long Lines/ cable ➢ Short-line Fault Terminal Faults ➢ Phase Opposition Switching ➢ Synchronous Switching ➢ First-pole-to-clear Factor ➢ Circuit breakers at high altitude ➢ Circuit breakers in polluted atmosphere ➢ High and low temperature application
Fi g5-Switching phenomena of Circuit Breaker
Terms Related to Circuit Breaker
5.1.1Transient Recovery Voltage (TRV)
Fig-6 Transient recovery voltage
➢ During short circuit the fault current is inductive
➢ Current interrupts at natural zero
➢ Due to circuit `L’ & `C’ high frequency voltage appears across CB contacts
5.1.2 TRV (Transient Recovery Voltage)
➢ May be oscillatory or non-oscillatory ➢ Frequency of oscillation ➢
f n = 1 /(2π LC )
➢ L = equivalent system inductance ➢ C = equivalent system capacitance
➢ ƒn = few Hz to several thousand Hz ➢ Increase in fn rate of rise of TRV increases (see Fig a)
voltage stress on contact gap to continue arc
➢ Higher frequency ⇒ greater stress on CB Breaking capacity reduce.
5.1.2 Effect of Power Factor on TRV
➢ Unity power factor current: at current zero, voltage across CB contacts
also zero hence no stress on contact insulation
➢ Zero power factor current at current zero, voltage is at peak hence stress
on contact insulation due to transient & high rate of rise of TRV ➢ Conclusion : interrupting low power factor current is difficult
The following sources have contributed to an extent for some of the contents of this project. These sources are:➢ Reference sources:-
Product Manual Electricity Today Advanced Power system
Sunil S.Rao “Switchgear Protection and Power System” Wadhwa C.L. “Electrical Power System” Ashfaq Husain & Harun Ashfaq “Basic of Electrical Power System” Rajput A.K. “Power System Element”
IEEE Journal Design Section Department of ABB ➢ Internet links:
Google search engine
CONCLUSION On the whole my training at ASEA BROWN BOVERY LIMITED,(ABB LTD.) MANEJA VADODRA GUJRAT was very useful
obiviously made in the field
a tremendous impact on of Electrical
my quest for has given
knowledge a better
understanding and exposure to some of the operational and practical problems that engineers have to grapple in the designing of Circuit Breaker. The pleasant working atmosphere and helpful nature of people made staying there and working a memorable experience.