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August 2009

Detailed project report for developing Solar


Power Plant at Bap, Jodhpur, Rajasthan

Prepared for
Shri Rangam Brokers and Holding Limited, New Delhi
A subsidiary of Dalmia Cement (Bharat) Limited, New Delhi

Project Report No. 2009RT03

www.teriin.org The Energy and Resources Institute


Contents
Page No.
Executive Summary
Salient features of the project
Terminology
CHAPTER 1 Proposed site to setting up the solar power plant ............................... 1
Site details ........................................................................................................... 1
CHAPTER 2 Solar radiation resource assessment .................................................... 5
Preamble ............................................................................................................. 5
Rajasthan............................................................................................................. 5
Solar radiation over Rajasthan ........................................................................6
Solar radiation resource assessment ..................................................................8
Estimation of solar radiation on different tracking surfaces .............................9
CHAPTER 3 Proposed technology...........................................................................11
Overview of concentrating solar power technology ..........................................11
Parabolic trough collector...............................................................................11
Central receiver system.................................................................................. 12
Parabolic dish-sterling technology ................................................................ 12
Linear Fresnel Reflector (LFR) ..................................................................... 12
Infinia Solar System (ISS)................................................................................. 18
Physical data of Infinia Solar System ............................................................... 19
Environmental ratings ...................................................................................... 19
Performance of Infinia Solar System (ISS) ...................................................20
De-Rating .......................................................................................................... 21
System Control...............................................................................................23
Operation .......................................................................................................23
Inverter ..........................................................................................................24
General specifications/Interface ......................................................................24
Power Electronics and Control System .........................................................25
Operation and maintenance .............................................................................25
Safety..............................................................................................................26
Foundation ........................................................................................................ 27
Layout................................................................................................................ 27
Sizing of a 10 MW Solar Dish-Sterling power plant.........................................29
Estimation of power output ..............................................................................30
CHAPTER 4 Control, internal transmission and evacuation of power.................32
Interconnection facility for the proposed plan.................................................32
CHAPTER 5 Project execution plan .......................................................................36
CHAPTER 6 Financial analysis...............................................................................38
Assumptions & estimates..................................................................................38
Project cost break-up & means of finance.....................................................38
Project implementation schedule..................................................................38
Proposed electricity tariff ..............................................................................39
Annexure I: Solar Radiation Resource Assessment for Bap, Jodhpur.............. 40
Annexure II: Product brochures .........................................................................54
Annexure III: MOU letters between Dalmia group and INIFINA ......................56
Annexure IV(a): Layout of 10 MW power plant ..................................................58
Annexure IV (b): Estimation of cost of electrical & civil works ......................... 60
Annexure-IV (c) Single line diagram of proposed interfacing scheme ...............62
Annexure V: Financial sheets...............................................................................64
List of figures
Figure 1.1 Road Network of Jodhpur (proposed location) ....................................................1
Figure 1.2 Railway Network of Jodhpur (proposed location) ............................................... 2
Figure 1.3 Land Plan of the proposed solar power plant at Bap, Jodhpur ........................... 3
Figure 2.1 DNI map of North-west region on India .............................................................. 6
Figure 2.2 Global solar radiation map of Rajasthan............................................................. 7
Figure 2.4 Global Solar Radiation over Bap, Jodhpur (from Mani and METEONORM) ... 9
Figure 3.1 Overview of Concentrating Solar System............................................................ 11
Figure 3.2 Schematic diagram of concentrating solar thermal (CST) power technologies 13
Figure 3.3 Major components of the ISS ............................................................................ 18
Figure 3.4 Schematic of 3kW system of ISS .........................................................................19
Figure 3.5 Performance curve of the system........................................................................21
Figure 3.6 Pattern of monthly average wind speed at Bap, Jodhpur................................. 22
Figure 3.8 Shadow pattern for solar field at 8.30am on 23rd Dec (ECOTECH) ............... 28
Figure 3.9 Shadow pattern for solar field at 10.30am on 23rd Dec ................................... 28
Figure 3.10 Illustrative power block (1 MW)...................................................................... 29
Figure 3.11 Illustration of sub module of 5x5 arrays of 3 kW ISS ....................................... 29
Figure 3.12 Illustrations of 5x3 arrays of sub modules to make 1 MW module ................. 30
Figure 3.13 Process flow chart diagram of parabolic Dish-Sterling system of ISS.............31

List of tables
Table 2.1 Monthly total values of DNI over Bap, Jodhpur with effective sunshine hours 10
Table 3.1 Technological maturity level of CST technologies................................................13
Table 3.2 Comparison between various CSP technologies ...................................................14
Table 3.3. Technical Characteristics of Concentrating Solar Power Technologies..............16
Table 3.4 Physical details of parabolic Dish-Sterling of ISS.................................................19
Table 3.5 Operating parameters and ranges of parabolic dish-sterling system...................19
Table 3.5 Performance outputs of Parabolic Dish-Sterling system.................................... 25
Table 3.6 Expected service life of service items .................................................................. 26
Table 3.8 Performance summary of ISS of 10 MW............................................................. 28
Table 5.1 Action Plan For Execution of 10 MW Solar Power Plant ................................... 36
Table 6.1 Project cost & means of finance (10 MW)........................................................... 38
Executive Summary

This proposal is for setting up a 10MW capacity concentrating


solar power plant based on innovative parabolic dish sterling
technology developed by a US based company,which has been
successfully developing and delivering innovative Sterling
generators and cryocoolers since 1985. For more than twenty
years, it has developed unique hardware and technology based
on its proprietary free-piston Stirling designs. The technology
provider’s engineers work closely with clients to develop
systems ranging from power for deep-space missions to
cryocoolers for research.The company has already entered into
agreement with the project promoters M/s Shri Rangam
Brokers and Holding Limited, New Delhi. The solar power
project is proposed in Jodhpur district of Rajasthan, which is
one of the best suited locations in terms of higher annual direct
normal insolation (DNI), favourable climatic conditions and
land availability.

About Dalmia
The Dalmia Cement (Bharat) Limited is in business for about 70
years now. They are the pioneers in the cement sector in India.
The DCBL has ushered into a higher growth trajectory and has
been posting phenomenal financial numbers for the past several
quarters. The company balance sheet for FY2009 seems to be
very strong with reserves of Rs. 1252 cr. Over the past decade
the company has commissioned projects worth more than Rs.
2000 crore in cement,sugar and power businesses. The installed
power generation of the company stands at 140.5 MW. To
sustain this growth momentum and as being an environmental
friendly corporate citizen the company plans to diversify in the
renewable energy sector. The group has already experience of
the wind power generation and is currently operating 17 MW
wind power plant in Tamil Nadu. The organization has now
identified to tap the solar bliss of the nature and help the nation
achieve its solar objectives be at forefront of the green power.
They have assigned to its subsidiary company, M/s Shri
Rangam Brokers and Holding Limited, New Delhi, to explore
and take up establishment and operation of solar power plants.
They have engaged M/s The Energy and Resources Institute,
New Delhi as consultant to prepare Detailed Project Report
(DPR).

About TERI
A dynamic and flexible organization with a global vision and
local focus, TERI was established in 1974. While in the initial
period the focus was mainly on documentation and information
dissemination activities, research activities in the fields of
energy, environment, and sustainable development were
initiated towards the end of 1982. The genesis of these activities
lay in TERI’s firm belief that efficient utilization of energy,
sustainable use of natural resources, large-scale adoption of
renewable energy technologies, and reduction of all forms of
waste would move the process of development towards the goal
of sustainability.

Technology
The proposed plant will comprises modular 3kW solar parabolic
Dish- Sterling technology for power generation. Technology
provider has developed and patented innovative oscillating
piston Sterling engine technology which has better performance
and longer life as compared to conventional cranks shaft type
Sterling engine designs.
The technology is stand alone type which needs no external
power or water source and hence is most appropriate for desert
region of Rajasthan. Small amount of processed water is
required only for cleaning of the system.

Solar Energy Action Plan of Shri Rangam Brokers and Holding Limited,
New Delhi/ Dalmia Group
The company proposes to set up concentrated solar power
generation station using Stirling Engine technology. This
technology has been identified as a “technology of future” in the
draft National Solar Mission in the section “mission strategy”
page-7. The company intends to implement this nest generation
technology now. In this context the company has following plans
for assimilation of the aforesaid technology:
1. To start with installing Solar Power Plant based on this
technology imported from the original technology provider.
2. Install manufacturing facility in India to drive down the
costs with the indigenization and by going along the learning
curve with volume growth.
3. Install large size Solar Power Projects in India based on this.
The company is looking at 400 MW installed capacity in
next 5 years.
Salient features of the project

1. Project promoter:- M/s Shri Rangam Brokers and


Holding Limited, New Delhi
2. Project location:- Village Bap, Tehsil Phalodi, Jhodpur
District, Rajasthan
3. Proposed technology:- Solar Dish-Sterling
4. Design consultant:- The Energy and Resources
Institute (TERI), New Delhi
5. Plant capacity:- 10 MW
6. Dish sterling systems required:- 3340 Dish -
Sterling engine systems each of 3kW capacity.
7. Annual average Direct Normal Insolation (DNI):-
2240 kWh/m2
8. Annual Effective DNI:- 2202 kWh/m2
9. Annual output (expected):- 22.2 MU
10. Land area required:- 70 acre
11. Project implementation period:- 26 months from
date of approval.
12. Estimated project cost:- Rs 230 crore
13. Design Optimisation Software used:- ECOTECH
14. Agreement with supplier:- Signed and copy enclosed
in Annexure II.
15. Site selection:- Site identified and suitability confirmed
16. Financial closure:- On approval of the project
promoters will approach banks/ IREDA for loan. Equity
share capital is readily available.
Terminology

Direct solar radiation


It is the solar radiation propagating along the line joining the
receiving surface and the sun. It is also referred as beam
radiation. It is measured through pyrehiliometer.

Diffuse solar radiation


It is the solar radiation scattered by aerosols, dust and
molecules. It does not have a unique direction and also dose not
follows the fundamental principals of optics. It is measured by
shading pyrenometer.

Global solar radiation


The global solar radiation is the sum of the direct and diffuse
solar radiation and is sometimes referred to as the global
radiation. The most common measurements of solar radiation
are total radiation on a horizontal surface often referred to as
‘global radiation’ on the surface. It is measured by pyrenometer.

Irradiance
Irradiance is the rate at which radiant energy is incident on a
surface, per unit area of surface.

Direct Normal Insolation (DNI)


It is the direct component of the solar radiation incident on
normal to the collector; means the angle of incidence of incident
solar radiation with the normal of the collector is zero
throughout the day.
CHAPTER 1 Proposed site to setting up the solar power
plant

Site details
The proposed location of the solar power plant based on Dish-
Sterling technology, is near village Bap in Phalodi Tahsil
(latitude 27°06’ to 27°09’ North and 72°20’ to 72°23’ East) of
Jodhpur district of Rajasthan state. Bap town is situated at
distance of 140 km. from Jodhpur and connected to Jodhpur-
Jaisalmer railway line.
Bap (Latitude 27o 22’N and Longitude 72o22’E) is an up
Tahsil of Phalodi and area where land has been selected for
proposed solar power plant. The location is well connected with
the National Highway NH15 (Bikaner-Jaiselmer).
The proposed location has shadow free area (almost flat
terrain) and located at very close (0.5-1.5 km) to a 33/11 kV
substation from where the power generated through the solar
power plant can be feed to the grid. In addition another 132/33
kV grid substation is planned near Bap village. The distance of
this substation from the proposed site is around 4-5 km. Figures
1.1 and 1.2 respectively represent the road and rail connectivity
of the proposed project location; where the important locations
are marked as Red.

Figure 1.1 Road Network of Jodhpur (proposed location)


(Source: www.mapsofindia.com)

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2 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur,
Rajasthan

Figure 1.2 Railway Network of Jodhpur (proposed location)


(Source: www.mapsofindia.com)

The land plan of the identified land area for the proposed solar
power project at Bap, Jodhpur is presented in Figure 1.3. The
next chapters cover solar radiation resource potential, expected
electrical output from the proposed 10MW system along with
the financial analysis of the project.

T E R I Report No. 2009RT03


3 Proposed site to setting up of the solar power plants

Figure 1.3 Land Plan of the proposed solar power plant at Bap, Jodhpur

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4 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur,
Rajasthan

T E R I Report No. 2009RT03


CHAPTER 2 Solar radiation resource assessment

Preamble
India is located in the sunny belt of the earth, thereby receiving
abundant radiant energy from the sun. Its equivalent energy
potential is about 6,000 million GWh of energy per year. India
being a tropical country is blessed with good sunshine over
most parts, and the number of clear sunny days in a year also
being quite high. India is in the sunny belt of the world. The
country receives solar energy equivalent to more than 5,000
trillion kWh per year. The daily average global radiation is
around 5 .0 kWh/m2 in north-eastern and hilly areas to about
7.0 kWh/m2 in western regions and cold dessert areas with the
sunshine hours ranging between 2300 and 3200 per year. In
most parts of India, clear sunny weather is experienced for 250
to 300 days a year. The annual global radiation varies from
1600 to 2200 kWh/m2. The direct normal insolation1 (DNI)
over Rajasthan varies from 1800 kWh/m2 to 2600 kWh/m2.
This chapter covers the detailed-feasibility of solar radiation
resource assessment and Direct Normal Insolation (DNI) study
for Jodhpur Rajasthan.

Rajasthan
Rajasthan is situated in the north-western part of India. It
covers 342,239 square kilometres. Rajasthan lies between
latitudes 23o 3'and 30o 12', North and longitudes 69o 30' and 78o
17', East. The southern part of Rajasthan is about 225 km from
the Gulf of Kutch and about 400 km from the Arabian Sea.
Rajasthan is bounded by Pakistan in the west and north-west;
by the State of Punjab in the north; by Haryana in the north-
east; by Uttar Pradesh in the east, by Madhya Pradesh in the
south-east and Gujarat in the south-west.
The climate of Rajasthan can be divided into four seasons;
summers, Monsoon, Post-Monsoon and winter. A summer,
which extends from April to June, is the hottest season, with
temperatures ranging from 32 oC to 45 oC. In western Rajasthan
the temp may rise to 48 oC, particularly in May and June. The
second season Monsoon extends from July to September, temp
drops, but humidity increases, even when there is slight drop in
the temp (35 oC to 40 oC). 90% of rains occur during this period.
The Post-monsoon period is from October to November. The
average maximum temperature is 33o C to 38o C, and the

1DNI= Direct normal insolation; all concentrating solar power


technologies comprises this component of solar radiation only.

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6 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur,
Rajasthan

minimum is between 18 oC and 20 oC. The fourth season is


winter or the cold season, from December to March. There is a
marked variation in maximum and minimum temperatures and
regional variations across the state. January is the coolest
month of the year. There is slight precipitation in the north and
north-eastern region of the state, and light winds,
predominantly from the north and northeast. At this time,
relative humidity ranges from 50% to 60% in the morning, and
25% to 35% in the afternoon.
The north-west part of the country is best suited for solar
energy based projects because the location receives maximum
amount of solar radiation annually in the country. Figure 2.1
presents the annual average DNI map for the northwest region
of India.

Bap

Figure 2.1 DNI map of North-west region on India


(Source: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, USA)

Solar radiation over Rajasthan


Rajasthan receives maximum solar radiation intensity in India.
In addition the average rainfall is minimum in the state, hence
best suited for solar power generation. The global solar radiation
map of Rajasthan is presented in Figure 2.2; which is based on
the measured data of Indian Metrological Department (IMD)
and satellite data through NASA. The map clearly emphasize

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7 Solar radiation resource assessment

that the western and southern parts of the state receives good
amount of annual average solar radiation. Jodhpur is also one
representative location of Rajasthan State.

Figure 2.2 Global solar radiation map of Rajasthan


(Source: TERI Analysis)
Bap, Jodhpur
Jodhpur is the one of the largest district of Rajasthan is
centrally situated in Western region of the State, having
geographical area of 22850 sq. km. The district stretches
between 2600’ and 27037’ at North Latitude and between 72o55’
and 73o 52’ at East Longitude. This district is situated at the
height between 250-300 meters above sea level. Jodhpur is
bound by Nagaur in East, Jaisalmer in west, Bikaner in North as
well as Pali in the South. The length of the district from North to
South and from East to West is 197 Km. & 208 Km. respectively.
This district comes under arid zone of the Rajasthan state. It
covers 11.60% of total area of arid zone of the state. The average
rainfall is around 360 millimetres, it is extraordinarily variable.
Bap block of Jodhpur district is and situated between Jodhpur,
Jaisalmer and Bikaner districts in western Rajasthan. Located
in the heart of the Thar desert, Bap gives the impression of
endless desolation, with scattered habitation. A typical sun path
diagram2 for Bap, Jodhpur has been presented in Figure 2.3.

2Sun path diagrams are a convenient way of representing annual changes


in the path of the Sun through the sky within a single 2D diagram. Their
most immediate use is that the solar azimuth and altitude can be read off
directly for any time of the day and day of the year. They also provide a
unique summary of solar position that the designer can refer to when
considering shading requirements and design options.

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8 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur,
Rajasthan

Stereographic Diagram N
Lo c a tio n: 26 .3°, 73 .0 ° 34 5° 15 °
S un P o sition : 1 53 .9°, 65 .6°
H SA: 15 3.9 ° 3 30 ° 30 °
VSA: 11 2.1°
1 0°

3 15 ° 4 5°
2 0°

3 0°
3 00 ° 6 0°
4 0°
1st Jul 6
1 st Jun
19 5 0°
1st Aug

2 85 ° 6 0° 7 1 st M ay
7 5°
18
7 0°
1st S ep 8
17
8 0° 9
16 1st Ap r
15 10
2 70 ° 14 11 9 0°
13 12
1st O c t

1 st M ar

1st N °ov
2 55 1 05 °
1st Feb

1 st D ec
1st Ja n

2 40 ° 1 20 °

2 25 ° 1 35 °

2 10 ° 15 0°
T ime : 1 2:00
D ate : 1 st A p r (9 1)
19 5° 16 5°
D otted line s: July-D ec embe r. 18 0°

Figure 2.3 Sun-path Diagram for the location of Bap, Jodhpur


(Source: Ecotech Software)

Solar radiation resource assessment


Resource assessment is the primary and essential exercise
towards project evaluation. In India, the Indian Meteorological
Department (IMD) measures the solar radiation and other
climatic parameters over various locations across the country
however, the measuring stations record only global and diffuse
solar radiation on horizontal surfaces. The parabolic Dish-
Sterling technology utilises infrared component of direct
normal component of global solar radiation; which is essentially
the solar radiation measured/assessed at a surface normal to
Sun rays throughout the day. The direct solar radiation is not
measured at many locations of India; while it could be
estimated through global and diffuse solar radiation on
horizontal surface. The direct solar radiation is not measured by
IMD in Jodhpur while the global and diffuse solar radiation
values are measuring from last 25-30 years. The best way of
carrying out the solar radiation resource assessment is to use

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9 Solar radiation resource assessment

TMY3 (Typical Meteorological Year weather data files) data files


for selected location. Since the TMY data files for Indian
locations are not available hence in the present study the
METEONORM4 database has been used for solar radiation
study and DNI estimation. Further the DNI values estimated
using METEONORM data base have been compared with the
values obtained using IMD data as well as with the NASA
satellite data for the location of Jodhpur.
In order to assess the closeness of the METEONORM data a
comparison of the monthly values obtained from ‘Handbook of
Solar Radiation’ by A Mani5 with TMY data of METEONORM.
The annual global solar radiation through Mani and
METEONORM database has been obtained as 2201 kWh/m2
and 2051 kWh/m2 respectively; which are very close (<7%
deviation). Figure 2.4 presents the global solar radiation over
Bap, Jodhpur using the data of A Mani and METEONORM.

250
Global Solar Radiation (kWh/m )

200
2

150

100

50

0
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC

MANI METEONORM

Figure 2.4 Global Solar Radiation over Bap, Jodhpur (from Mani and
METEONORM)

Estimation of solar radiation on different tracking surfaces

3 † TMY data sets for 234 U.S. locations, derived from the widely accepted 1952-1975 SOLMET/ERSATZ data base, have
been modified at the Solar Energy Laboratory for ease of use with the TRNSYS energy system simulation program. The
original TMY files are ASCII text files containing one year of weather data (ranging from solar radiation to precipitation) at one
hour time intervals. TRNSYS TMY files, containing only the most widely used information from the original files and corrected
for known problems.

4 METEONORM is a comprehensive meteorological reference, incorporating a catalogue of meteorological data and


calculation procedures for solar applications and system design at any desired location in the world. It is based on over 20
years of experience in the development of meteorological databases for energy applications. METEONORM addresses
engineers, architects, teachers, planners and anyone interested in solar energy and climatology. The database includes
climatological data of 7 700 weather stations (60 stations of India) based on measured climatic parameters viz. solar radiation,
temperature, humidity, precipitation, days with precipitation, wind speed and direction, sunshine duration etc. including
complete coverage of the global, including polar regions.

5 Mani, A., Handbook of Solar Radiation, Allied Publishers, 1982.

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10 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur,
Rajasthan

TMY file for the locations of Jodhpur has been selected from
METEONORM database. A program has been developed to
estimate the direct solar radiation over stationary and tracking
surfaces (single axis, double-axis) using computer software
TRNSYS6. TRNSYS is a time dependent systems simulation
program, which recognizes a system description language in
which the user specifies the components that constitute the
system and the manner in which they are connected. The
TRNSYS library includes many of the components commonly
found in thermal and electrical energy systems, as well as
component routines to handle input of weather data or other
time-dependent forcing functions and output of simulation
results. TRNSYS is well suited to detailed analyses of any
system whose behaviour is dependent on the passage of time.
Table 2.1 presents the outcome of solar radiation resource
assessment for Bap, Jodhpur. It has been estimated that the
location receives 2241 kWh/m2 Direct Normal Incidence over
the year. The monthly values of global solar radiation, diffuse
radiation and effective sunshine hours at Bap, Jodhpur has also
been given in the Table 2.1. The daily average values of solar
radiation, sunshine hours, effective DNI and associated climatic
parameters especially ambient temperature and prevailing wind
speed have been summarized in Annexure-1.

Table 2.1 Monthly total values of DNI over Bap, Jodhpur with effective sunshine hours
Month Global Solar Diffuse Solar Direct Solar DNI (two axis Effective DNI* Effective
Radiation on Radiation on Radiation on tracking)(kWh/m2) (kWh/m2) Sunshine
Horizontal Horizontal Horizontal Hours (hrs)
(kWh/m2) (kWh/m2) (kWh/m2)
Jan 142 29 113 222 221 289
Feb 154 31 123 215 213 274
Mar 201 46 155 240 239 331
Apr 214 62 151 217 214 330
May 226 79 147 204 202 361
Jun 189 83 106 147 141 269
Jul 146 85 61 83 77 173
Aug 135 88 47 65 56 131
Sep 212 32 179 270 269 326
Oct 171 47 124 208 206 315
Nov 134 39 95 182 179 270
Dec 126 34 93 187 185 273
Total 2050 655 1394 2240 2202 3342
*meeting the performance conditions for selected technology
(Source: TERI analysis using TRNSYS software and METEONORM Database)

6 http://sel.me.wisc.edu/trnsys/

T E R I Report No. 2009RT03


CHAPTER 3 Proposed technology

Concentrating solar power (CSP) plants produce electricity by


converting the infrared part of solar radiation into high-
temperature heat using various mirror/reflector and receiver
configurations. The heat is then channelled through a
conventional generator. The plants consist of two parts: one
that collects solar energy and converts it to heat, commonly
known as ‘solar field’ and another that converts heat energy to
electricity, known as ‘power block’.
CSP plants use the high-temperature heat from concentrating
solar collectors to drive conventional types of engines turbines.

Overview of concentrating solar power technology


All CSP are based on four basic essential sub systems namely
collector, receiver (absorber), transport/ storage and power
conversion. Following four CSP technologies have either
reached commercialisation stage or are near it:
ƒ Parabolic Trough
ƒ Power towers
ƒ Parabolic Dishes (Dish-Sterling)
ƒ Compound Linear Fresnel Reflectors (CLFR)

FOSSIL – FIRED
BACKUP
SYSTEM

Thermal
Solar Thermal Energy Energy

SOLAR
CONCENTRATOR RECEIVER
RADIATION
Stored
Thermal
Concentrated Solar Radiation Energy

POWER
CONVERSION
SYSTEM

Figure 3.1 Overview of Concentrating Solar Thermal System

Parabolic trough collector


Parabolic trough-shaped mirror reflectors are used to
concentrate sunlight on to thermally efficient receiver-tubes
placed in the trough’s focal line. The troughs are usually
designed to track the Sun along one axis, predominantly north–
south. A thermal transfer fluid, such as synthetic thermal oil, is
circulated in these tubes. The fluid is heated to approximately

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12 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur,
Rajasthan

400°C by the sun’s concentrated rays and then pumped through


a series of heat exchangers to produce superheated steam. The
steam is converted to electrical energy in a conventional steam
turbine generator, which can either be part of a conventional
steam cycle or integrated into a combined steam and gas
turbine cycle.

Central receiver system


A circular array of heliostats (large mirrors two-axis with
tracking) concentrates sunlight on to a central receiver mounted
at the top of a tower. A heat-transfer medium in this central
receiver absorbs the highly concentrated radiation reflected by
the heliostats and converts it into thermal energy, which is used
to generate superheated steam for the turbine. To date, the heat
transfer media demonstrated include water/steam, molten salts
and air. If pressurised gas or air is used at very high
temperatures of about 1,000°C or more as the heat transfer
medium, it can even be used to directly replace natural gas in a
gas turbine, making use of the excellent cycle (60% and more)
of modern gas and steam combined cycles.

Parabolic dish-sterling technology


A paraboloid dish-shaped reflector (commonly called as
parabolic dish) concentrates sunlight on to a receiver located at
the focal point of the dish. The concentrated beam radiation is
absorbed into a receiver to heat a fluid or gas (air) to
approximately 750°C. This fluid or gas is then used to generate
electricity in a small piston or Stirling engine or a micro turbine,
attached to the receiver. The parabolic dish are designed to
track the Sun along both axis, predominantly north–south and
east-west.

Linear Fresnel Reflector (LFR)


An array of nearly-flat reflectors concentrates solar radiation
onto elevated inverted linear receivers. Water flows through the
receivers and is converted into steam. This system is line-
concentrating, similar to a parabolic trough, with the
advantages of low costs for structural support and reflectors,
fixed fluid joints, a receiver separated from the reflector system,
and long focal lengths that allow the use of flat mirrors. The
technology is seen as a potentially lower-cost alternative to
trough technology for the production of solar process heat.
Figure 3.2 presents the schematic diagram of above CST
technologies.

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13 Proposed technology

Figure 3.2 Schematic diagram of concentrating solar thermal (CST) power technologies

On the basis of technological aspects Table 3.1 presents the


maturity levels of CSP technologies while inter-comparability of
CSP technologies is presented in Table 3.2.

Table 3.1 Technological maturity level of CST technologies


Installed Capacity Appropriate capacity
(MW) under construction
CSP Technology Type till 2009 and proposed (MW)
Parabolic Trough 500 > 10,000
Central Receiver 40 > 3,000
Parabolic Dish-Sterling <1 > 1500
CLFR 5 > 500

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14 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur,
Rajasthan

Table 3.2 Comparison between various CSP technologies


Fresnel linear
Parabolic trough Central receiver Parabolic Dish reflector
Applications Grid-connected plants, Grid-connected plants, high Stand-alone, small off-grid Grid connected
midium to high-process temperature power systems or plants, or steam
heat process heat clustered to larger grid generation to be used
(Highest single unit solar (Highest single unit solar capacity connected dish parks in conventional
capacity to date: 80 MWe. to date: 20 MWe under (Highest single unit solar thermal power plants.
Total capacity built: construction, Total capacity capacity to date: 100 kWe, (Highest single unit
over 500 MW and more ~50MW with at Proposals for solar
than 10 GW under least 100MW under development) 100MW and 500 MW in capacity to date is
construction or proposed) Australia and US) 5MW
in US, with 177 MW
installation under
development)
Advantages • Commercially available • Good mid-term prospects for • Very high conversion • Readily available
over 16 billion kWh of high conversion efficiencies, efficiencies – peak solar • Flat mirrors can be
operational experience; operating temperature potential to net electric purchased and bent
operating temperature beyond 1,000°C (565°C proven conversion over 30% on site, lower
potential up to 500°C at 10 MW scale) • Modularity manufacturing
(400°C commercially • Storage at high temperatures • Most effectively costs
proven) • Hybrid operation possible integrate thermal • Hybrid operation
• Commercially proven • Better suited for dry cooling storage a large plant possible
annual net plant concepts than troughs and • Operational experience • Very high space
efficiency of 14% (solar Fresnel of first demonstration efficiency around
radiation to net electric • Better options to use non-flat projects solar noon.
output) sites • Easily manufactured and
• Commercially proven mass-produced from
investment and operating available parts
costs • No water requirements
• Modularity for cooling the cycle
• Good land-use factor
• Lowest materials
demand
• Hybrid concept proven
• Storage capability

It has been observed that parabolic trough collector is well


proven but the suppliers are not available in India and the
projects based on the technology become viable for large
capacity. The size of power plant under trough as well as tower
technology is dependent on size and economics of steam turbine
and such trough as well as tower technology does not have
capability and flexibility of development on modular concept for
small to large size. The power tower technology also requires big
amount of land as compared with other CSP technologies.
CLFR technology is new but again similar as above technologies
in point of view of modularity. In addition all these three

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15 Proposed technology

technologies consume a big amount of water for cooling tower


and heat transfer medium. In these power plants only thermal
energy is collected through solar collectors, rest parts are
similar as conventional thermal power plants which comprise
steam turbine, generator and other associated moving parts.
Hence the cost of operation and maintenances increases.

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16 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur,
Rajasthan

Taking in to account all advantages and limitations of all CSP


technologies Shi Rangam Brokers & holdings Limited (Dalmia
cement [Bharat] Ltd.) has selected parabolic-dish sterling
technology which is modular and requires no water and heat
transfer fluid etc. Presently there are three major companies
worldwide who are manufacturing parabolic dish-sterling
systems of different capacities. These are M/s Infinia Solar
Systems, M/s Sterling Energy Systems and M/s Sun Power. The
technological characterises of all CSP technologies are given in
Table 3.3.

Table 3.3. Technical Characteristics of Concentrating Solar Power Technologies


Area Total
CSP Concentra- Solar Thermal Thermal Required* Installed
Technology tion Ratio Tracking Radiation Input Storage (acre/MW) Capacity Projects Company
Parabolic trough 80 Single- Direct radiation 250-400 oC Possible 7-8 > 400 MW SEGS, USA Luz
axis over single axis (354 MW) International
Ltd.
ANDASOL-1
(50 MW) Solar
Millenium
Central receiver 500-1500 Two-axis Direct Normal 250-1200 Possible 14-15 PS-10 Abengoa
Incidence oC >25 MW (11 MW) Solar
Solar Tres
(17 MW) SENER,
Sppain
Parabolic dish- 500-1500 Two-axis Direct Normal 700 oC Not 7-8 < 1MW NA Sterling-
engine Incidence Possible engine
systems
Concentrating 80 Single- Direct radiation 250-400 oC Possible 4-5 1 MW NA Ausra
Linear Fresnel axis over single axis Australia
Reflectors

Presently, solar energy is utilised to generate electricity through


solar photovoltaic, concentrated solar thermal power (CSP)
plants and parabolic dish sterling engine etc. The solar
photovoltaic route comprises ultraviolet portion and high
energy region of solar spectrum; and mainly utilizes crystalline
silicon, polycrystalline silicon, amorphous silicon (a-Si) or
cadmium telluride (CdTe) and other thin film photovoltaic solar
cells. It has been noticed that these materials are based on
highly refined silicon or rare earth tellurium; which has lesser
potential of cost reduction in near future. The thin films has
shown possibilities of cost reduction but also carries sufficient
degradation and hence reduction of efficiency.
The Parabolic trough collector, or heliostat field collectors
based CSP power plants and other concentrating solar thermal
technologies utilizes visible and infrared portion of incident

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17 Proposed technology

solar radiation to achieve high temperatures and hence


generation of steam to run the turbine.
Rajasthan receives significant annual average DNI and
comprises huge waste/desert land, which are the basic
requirements to install CSP plant. Water requirement for CSP
plants might be one of the drawbacks for the region because
Rajasthan has limited water resources. The power generation
can be effected only because of the availability of water. Getting
water supply from existing reservoirs or canal might add
additional cost in the project and could affect its viability. The
electricity generation through parabolic dish sterling engine
system does not require water for operation. In addition these
systems are best suited solar power technology for decentralized
and distributed power generation as they are modular units of
3kW capacity. This dish-sterling engine, is based on sterling
cycle instead prior to carnot cycle and hence shows the highest
efficiency. The sterling engine has efficiency of 24% compare to
the 15% maximum efficiency of solar photovoltaic. It is
therefore the best suited technology for Rajasthan. Further
being simple mechanical device, has potential of cost reduction
by indigenisation.
The company has identified Parabolic Dish-Sterling
concentrating solar power technology developed by INFINIA
Corp, USA. INFINIA Corporation, a USA based company is
commercially manufacturing the parabolic dish-sterling
systems and has joined hands with Dalmia Cement (Bharat)
Ltd., towards supply of the technology. The technical
specifications of this parabolic dish-sterling system of are
discusses below.
The System consists of following principal components;
ƒ Heat Drive
ƒ Chassis
ƒ Parabolic dish solar Reflector
ƒ Bi-axial Drive and
ƒ Solid state Power Electronics & Control System

All components are out-door rated and will meet Ingress


Progression Standards IP54 (Heat Drive), IP56 (Electrical
Enclosures) and IP66 (Bi-axial drive)7. The Heat Drive consists of a
Cavity Receiver that captures the concentrated sunlight from the
parabolic reflector, a Free Piston Stirling Engine that efficiently
converts the solar energy to electricity, and a heat rejection system
similar to an automotive cooling system (Figure 3.3).
The Product manual and detail specifications are enclosed in
Annexure II.

7IP54, IP56, and IP66 are the international standards applicable for
outdoor installation of mechanical/electrical system.

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18 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur,
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Figure 3.3 Major components of the ISS

Infinia Solar System (ISS)


Infinia’s Solar System relies on a advanced Free-Piston Stirling
Engine (FPSE)- initially developed for NASA for space
applications- to convert concentrated solar heat to electricity.
Infinia FPSEs convert thermal energy from external energy
sources to linear motion which drives an integral linear
alternator, thus generating clean, reliable electricity. The system
integrates a Stirling engine (Heat Drive), a parabolic dish solar
Reflector, a Bi-axial Drive mounted on a Chassis, and Power
Electronics and Control Systems. The Bi-axial Drive points the
system at the sun and tracks the sun throughout the day to
concentrate sunlight off the mirrored face of the parabolic dish
into the Heat Drive. This concentrated thermal energy is
converted to linear motion and drives the power piston of a
linear alternator. AC electrical output of the alternator is
rectified to DC by the power electronics and automatically
inverted to match the AC voltage and frequency of the connected
grid. The main features of the parabolic dish-sterling system of
Infinia Solar System are;
ƒ 3,000 W net AC
ƒ Long-life, zero-maintenance Free-Piston Stirling Engine
ƒ Dual Axis Tracking
ƒ Self-contained power electronics that meet utility
interconnection requirements
ƒ No Cooling Water required

The 3 kW Solar System is comprised of a parabolic solar


concentrating dish, a 3 kW Stirling engine module, and a
supporting post, as illustrated in figure 3.4.

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19 Proposed technology

Figure 3.4 Schematic of 3kW system of ISS

Physical data of Infinia Solar System


The weight and dimensions of this parabolic dish-sterling of are
given in Table 3.4 as following;

Table 3.4 Physical details of parabolic Dish-Sterling of ISS


Dimension Position at Horizon
Width 4.7 m
Length 4.4 m
Height 5.6 m
Total Weight 864 kg

Environmental ratings
The range of environmental parameters under which this
parabolic dish-sterling system works, is given in Table 3.5 as
following;

Table 3.5 Operating parameters and ranges of parabolic dish-sterling system


Operating Parameter Operating Range
Operating temperature range -20oC to 55 oC
Operating elevation range Up to 1890 m above sea level

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20 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur,
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Operating Parameter Operating Range


Operating relative humidity range 0 to 100 %
Wind speed – no power degradation 7 m/s
Wind speed – max operation 14 m/s
Wind speed – maximum 45 m/s

Additional features of dish sterling system


ƒ 3 kW peak at 850 W/m2 output
ƒ 28% gross efficiency
ƒ 24 % net efficiency
ƒ closed-loop tracking & unattended operation
ƒ Output 120/240 VAC 1 Phase or 208/230 VAC 3 Phase
ƒ UL, CE, CEC certifications compliant
ƒ Power Factor > 0.95
ƒ 3.5 kW Sterling Generator (3.0 kW net electrical output at
inverter output and 0.5 kW auxiliary consumption of the
generation system)
ƒ Stand alone system which does not need any external source
of power or water etc
ƒ Power plant can be built from smaller kW to MW scale with
the use of 3 kW module.
ƒ Modular in design hence easy to install and maintain
ƒ Sealed engine which is practically maintenance free
ƒ Innovative Sterling engine technology is already
commercialised for various waste heat recovery and biomass
based combined heating and power applications.
ƒ The company is in the process of setting up mega watt level
power plants in Spain.

Performance of Infinia Solar System (ISS)

Methodology
The annual electrical output has been estimated on the basis of
hourly DNI values, ambient air temperature and prevailing
wind speed along with the rated specifications of Infinia Solar
System. Following considerations have been taken in to account
for output estimation;
ƒ Proposed Net efficiency of Infinia Solar System will be 24%
ƒ Electrical output 3 kW when DNI is greater than 850 W/m2
ƒ Efficiency De-rating because of ambient temperature
ƒ Efficiency De-rating because of wind
ƒ Efficiency De-rating because of age

Peak Power
Peak Electrical Power produced is 3,000 W at 850 W/m2 of
Direct Normal Incidence (after all internal parasitic power

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21 Proposed technology

requirements), at an ambient temperature of 20 °C. Electrical


energy output is grid-ready AC 3-phase 208/230 volt.

Performance curve
The performance curve (power output vs. solar DNI) of the ISS
is presented in Figure 3.5. The efficiency increases with solar
insolation. There is no generation till solar insolation of 100
kWh/sq. meters and when DNI increases above 850 W/m2, the
ISS does not increase its power production beyond the nominal
3,000 W output. As DNI increases above 850 W/m2, the system
will defocus reflectors thereby diverting the additional heat
input out of the system.

Figure 3.5 Performance curve of the system

De-Rating
The overall performance of the these systems mainly depends
on the DNI availability and partially depends upon ambient
temperature and prevailing wind speed. In addition the de-
rating factor is also associated with the age of the system.

Temperature De-rating
Altitude and ambient temperature affects the performance and
energy output of ISS. Over the operating temperature range, -20
°C to 55 °C , power is de-rated by ~2.5-3.0% for every
temperature increase of 10 °C above 20 °C ambient, at 850
W/m2 of DNI.
For elevations above 1890 m [6,200 ft], increased fan
performance may be required.
Calculating the de-rating factor for high temperature
environments is as following;
850 W/m2, 20 °C >> 3,000 W
850 W/m2, 30 °C >> 3,000 W*(1-0.03) = ~2,910 W

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22 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur,
Rajasthan

The hourly values of ambient temperature have been taken


using METEONORM database and day time values have been
filtered when system produces electricity. The above criteria
have been taken in to account with mentioned de-rating factors.

Wind Power De-rating


In order to assess the pattern of annual prevailing wind speed at
the location of Bap, satellite data of wind speed at the height of
10 meter has been taken and analyzed. It has been observed that
at the location maximum monthly average wind speed at the
height of 10 m is 3-3.5 m/s. Figure 3.6 presents the pattern of
monthly average wind speed at Bap, Jodhpur.

4.0

3.5

3.0
Wind Speed (m/s)

2.5

2.0

1.5

1.0

0.5

0.0
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug S ep Oct Nov Dec

Figure 3.6 Pattern of monthly average wind speed at Bap, Jodhpur

The ISS has been designed to structurally withstand wind


loading up to a maximum of 45 m/s. It will operate with
practically no power degradation due to no structural deflection
for wind speeds up to 7 m/s. Figure 3.7 shows the impact of a
constant wind during an entire day. This will result in a 1.7%
reduction in energy production for the location used in this
example.

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23 Proposed technology

Figure 3.7 Impact of wind on performance

System Age De-rating


System Efficiency has been calculated and is expected to
modestly degrade over time at a rate of 0.5% or less per year.
Several factors may affect system efficiency over time, such as
mirror edge degradation or environmental conditions that may
affect mirror reflectivity (e.g., wind debris or high humidity).
Over a twenty-five year life, the system efficiency may be
reduced as shown in the example here:

System Control
Infinia Solar System uses a high quality control mechanism to
control operations of individual dishes. It operates in following
modes;

System Calibration
At initial start-up, an electronic calibration table is
automatically built to ensure solar tracking accuracy.

System Check
Inverter, Rectifier, Motor (Azimuth, Elevation) Controllers, and
Sensors perform self tests at Operational Wake-Up and when
initialized by the user.

Operation
Typical operation starts with a system self check, the system
then “wakes up” and slews to the sun. Using Built In
algorithms, system calibrations, project site meteorological
inputs, real time sensor data and environmental conditions (like
temperature and wind), and user defined limits (in terms of
time of day or elevation of sun), system control automatically
monitor ISS/faults, initiates system alerts, processes algorithms,

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24 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur,
Rajasthan

to make decision for tracking, adjusting tracking, stand by, slew


to sun and slew to stow mode.

Tracking
Tracking consists of aligning the axis of parabolic dish with that
of incident ray of the sun so that sun rays reflected by parabolic
dish is concentrated on receiver. Tracking is adjusted after
predefined interval so that at no stage sun rays do not focus on
receiver.

Standby
If after tracking has commenced during the day, sun can not be
tracked due to environmental conditions other than those of
slew to stow (e.g. low solar insolation not coinciding with sun
shine hours preset say due to cloud cover, suspended dust etc),
parabolic dish remain in stand by mode i.e. last tracked
position.

Slew to Sun
Slew to sun is initiated if user defined conditions of sun shine
are met to initiate it after wake up.

Slew to Stow
In addition to non sun shine hours ,if during sun shine hours
supplied by users, if abnormal conditions of high wind, hail
storm, fault on system (likely to remain uncured for long time),
etc, occurs system takes a decision to slew to stow”.

Inverter
Power output is set and produced compliant with the utility
voltage. Protective relay functions ensure safe system shutdown
in the event of grid failure or if system operates beyond
specification limits.
When the system is off, the unit enters the stow position and
remains connected to the grid. When the grid is not present, the
24-V DC battery provides power to the system electronics and
stows the system until the grid is present.

General specifications/Interface
Table 3.5 presents the output details of the parabolic dish-
sterling system. The peak power has been estimated at rated
input direct normal incidence (DNI) ≥ 850 W/m2 at 20oC
ambient temperature and wind speed <7 m/s. The voltage and
frequency automatically sensed and adjusted according to
voltages on output (grid connect) voltage and frequency used
adjustable, 4-wire output (stand alone) Overall System
Efficiency and 28% gross efficiency (gross AC output divided by
rated direct normal insolation times collector area). The

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25 Proposed technology

frequency is based on local utility requirements, with no-de-


rating for ‘50 Hz +3Hz’ so that the plant operates satisfactorily
up to 47 Hz.

Table 3.5 Performance outputs of Parabolic Dish-Sterling system


Output Input
Pear power Minimum 3,000 W Tracking grid load Maximum 50 W, typical 5-10 W
Voltage 208 VC, 50 Hz 3 Wire Slew to Sun/Stow grid connection Maximum 250 W, typical 50 W
Frequency 50 Hz or 60 Hz

Power Electronics and Control System


Engine Controller/Rectifier
The high efficiency engine controller/rectifier transforms
electrical power from the sterling engine in a closely controlled
manner to maintain engine control and maximize Stirling
engine energy conversion efficiency. The resulting high-voltage
DC power is an ideal supply source for the functionally
independent inverter.
Output Inverter
“The high efficiency bi-directional output inverter converts high
voltage DC produced by the engine controller/rectifier to grid-
Quality AC. As the inverter is a current source only, it
automatically matches the AC voltage and frequency that it sees
on the system output terminals. In addition, the inverter also
performs all the protective relay functions. Software has
adjustable parameters and set points for these protective relay
functions which allow the product to be easily configured to
meet the interconnect requirements. The output inverter is
housed in the weatherproof (IP56 rating) enclosure mounted on
the ISS unit near the ground and also houses the user interface
and connections, and batteries”

Interface
Voltage and frequency are automatically sensed and adjusted
according to voltages on the output/interconnection terminals
(grid connect). AC output from the system shall be connected to
the local grid in accordance with local regulations and
requirements. The ISS control system is accessed via the key
switch and the Ethernet port.

  Operation and maintenance

Preventive maintenance
The ISS is a safe and reliable power conversion device which
can provide many years of safe dependable performance. Like
any power conversion device, preventive maintenance and a few
basic safety guidelines are to be followed.

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26 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur,
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Proper operation of the tracking system is critical. The


tracking system ensures that the reflector is positioned to
maximize the solar energy captured by tracking the sun
throughout the day. This system will invert the dish to the
“stow” position at night or when environmental conditions are
outside of the system’s operating range. The Bi-axial Drive,
which is an integral part of the tracking system, must have its
oil changed every 10 years to ensure proper operation.
The ISS, designed with robust fail-safe circuitry that
prevents harm to the whole system in the event of component
failure, has an expected 25-year field life (listed at Table 3.6);
however several external components, with a service life less
than the 25-year field life, will need to be serviced or replaced if
they fail. For example, the batteries are constantly monitored by
the Control System to assure proper charge rates, discharge rate
and capacity. A system fault is triggered when the health of a
battery declines below safe tolerances; the system will either not
slew to sun for normal operation or will return to stow during
normal operation.

Table 3.6 Expected service life of service items


Components Life
Coolant pump 10 years
Coolant fan(s) 10 years
System electronics 7 years
Receiver sensors 7 years
Inverter box 10 years
Sensors 7 years
Batteries 5 years

Cleaning
Mirror cleaning maintains system efficiency and promotes the
long-life, high output of the ISS. Heat exchanger (radiator)
fouling is to be expected in the field life of this product.
Periodically cleaning the radiator fins will promote maximum
efficiency of the system.

Installation
The Infinia Solar System arrives in the field packaged in the
following subsystems:
ƒ Heat Drive Kit
ƒ Chassis Kit
ƒ Reflector Kit
ƒ Bi-axial Drive Kit
ƒ Power Electronics and Control System Kit

Safety
Lightning

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27 Proposed technology

ISS has built-in lightning protection that requires external


grounding. A 13 mm stainless steel stud/jam-nut is provided at
the base of the chassis pole to allow a heavy duty spade eyelet to
be connected. This can be interconnected to an external
ground/ lightning protection system. Besides this four
lightning masts will be installed in the four corners of the solar
field for lighting of the solar field as well as lightning protection.

System
The ISS is a safe and reliable power conversion device that will
provide many years of safe dependable performance. Just as
with any power conversion device, good sense and a few basic
safety guidelines should be heeded.

Foundation
The solar system structures have been designed to a survival
wind speed of 45 m/s in stow position. The system will move to
stow position when the wind speed approaches 14 m/s. The
foundation loads were calculated for these situations and
determined that the highest loads occurs when the dish is at the
horizontal position, while moving from operation position to
stow position. This condition could exist when the dish has
sensed a high wind condition and is moving to stow position.

Layout
Layout of parabolic solar dishes i.e. distances between dishes is
critical as it influences the output of the system and land area
requirement; while too close dishes can reduce land
requirement and also electrical cabling losses and cost, but the
dishes can cast shadow on each other and solar system
performance is reduced.
TERI has utilised special software named ECOTECH to
calculate/ show sun path and sun position in the sky for the
selected place (Bap) based on its geographical parameters,
simulate the shadow pattern for any unit, date and time and
analyse its impact on adjoining units thereby to optimise the
solar plant layout design. The pictorial out put of the ECOTECH
software are shown in the Figure 3.8 and 3.9 below.
The calculation shows that solar field area of about 60-70
acre is required for the 10 MW capacity plant.

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28 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur,
Rajasthan

Figure 3.8 Shadow pattern for solar field at 8.30am on 23rd Dec
(ECOTECH)

Figure 3.9 Shadow pattern for solar field at 10.30am on 23rd Dec

The performance summary of ISS of the capacity of 10 MW is


given in Table 3.8 as following.

Table 3.8 Performance summary of ISS of 10 MW


Array details
Number of Infinia units 3340
MW (peak AC capacity) 10
MW/acre (peak AC capacity) 0.15
Area (acres) 70

The 3-D schematic diagram of the solar concentrating power


plant of the capacity of 1 MW is presented in Figure 3.10.

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29 Proposed technology

Figure 3.10 Illustrative power block (1 MW)

Sizing of a 10 MW Solar Dish-Sterling power plant

Solar dish sterling power plant will be built in 1 MW modules.


The total numbers of Infinia solar system units of 3 kW capacity
in each 1 MW module of a solar concentrating power project are
estimated as 334. Each module will be made up mainly of sub
module of 25 dishes connected in array of 5x5 to produce 75kWp
power (vide Figure 3.11). There will be 14 such modules (13 full
75 kW module and 1 part module of 45kW - vide Figure 3.12) to
give 1MW module.

Figure 3.11 Illustration of sub module of 5x5 arrays of 3 kW ISS

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30 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur,
Rajasthan

TX = 208 v/distribution voltage transformer


Figure 3.12 Illustrations of 5x3 arrays of sub modules to make 1 MW module

The total area required for the ISS based solar power plant of
the capacity of 10 MW is approximately as 70 acres. This are
includes the inter dish spacing, area of cabling and internal
transmission network of the power plant etc.
As there are 333-334 ISS dishes are used for 1 MW
concentrating solar power plant. Hence 3330-3340 ISS dishes
are required in the power plant of the capacity of 10 MW.

Estimation of power output


The efficiency of the ISS system is claimed to be 24 percent.
Accordingly the net annual electrical energy output of the ISS
parabolic dish-sterling system mainly depends upon the
following parameters;
ƒ Direct normal incidence (DNI)
ƒ De-rating factors
- Ambient temperature (oC)
- Prevailing wind speed (m/s) and
- System age
ƒ Field losses (~ 4.0 %)

The efficiency distribution pattern of the complete system is


shown in Figure 3.13.

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31 Proposed technology

ISS Parabolic Dish


Tracking & Optical
Losses
Sterling Engine
Efficiency = 24%
System Losses

Inverter

Cabling, Control,
Interconnections,
4% Maximum losses
Transformers up to
HV side of 11/33 KV

Figure 3.13 Process flow chart diagram of parabolic Dish-Sterling system of ISS

The output of the ISS dish has been estimated on hourly basis
incorporating the de-rating due to ambient temperature and
prevailing wind speed. The de-rating because of system age has
not been taken into account for estimating electrical output in
first year only.
It has been estimate that Bap, Jodhpur receives 2202
kWh/m2 annual equivalent effective DNI (150 W/m2 ≤ DNI ≥
850 W/m2). Taking in to account the efficiency of the system
(i.e. 24 percent) and the respective value of DNI along with the
simultaneous de-rating factors due to ambient temperature and
prevailing wind speed the annual electrical output of an ISS
parabolic dish-sterling system of 3kW capacity has been
estimated as 6946 Units per year at sterling engine terminal (i.e.
AC terminals of inverter). Multiplying with the number of
dishes (i.e. 334) in 1 MW capacity the aggregate electrical output
per MW module at sterling engine terminals has been estimated
as 2227579.6 (2.22 MU) Units annually at HV end of inverter
considering cut off DNI of 150 W/m2 and maximum DNI
clamped to 850 W/m2.
Further considering the field losses from sterling engine
terminal to HV side of 11/33 kV 16000 kVA transformer, including
losses in cables, 1600 kvA 208 volt / 11 kV transformer etc., at 4
percent, the effective cumulative electrical output has been
estimated as 2.14 MU per MW annually at PH bus bar. Hence the
ISS based solar plant of 10 MW capacities will generate 21.39 MU
sellable units per year.

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CHAPTER 4 Control, internal transmission and evacuation of
power

Interconnection facility for the proposed plan


The electrical generation, transmission and synchronisation
with grid will consist of;
ƒ Panel – I: Power panel I with circuit breaker (MCB/MCCB),
junction bus and general protection system including panel
earthling for each 3 kW solar generators.
ƒ Panel – II: Power panel II with circuit breaker
(MCB/MCCB), junction bus and general protection system
for each section consisting 5 nos of solar power generators.
This circuit breaker will enable us to cut off the particular
row from the system in case of any fault.
ƒ Panel – III: Power panels III with ACB/VCB and protection
system for 75 kW modules.
ƒ Panel – IV: Power panels IV with VCB and necessary
protection system for 1 MW modules. The panel will be
indoor type along with the necessary protection and safety
system.
ƒ Step up power transformer of 1600 kVA, 208/11000 V, to
interconnect the 1 MW power generator with local grid of 11
kV (approximate length of 2.3 km).
ƒ Transmission line of 11 kV, 1.6 MVA capacity to
interconnect power generation of phase I of 1 MW. The
estimated length of the transmission line will be 1.5 km up
to existing 11/33 kV substation of Jodhpur Vidyut Vitran
Nigam Limited (JdVVNL) at village Bap.
ƒ Power station with grid protection system
ƒ Step up power transformers of 16 MVA, 11/33 kV, to
interconnect the power generation with commissioning of
phase II (9MW) with JdVVNL or Rajasthan Rajya Vidhyut
Prasaran Nigam Limited (RVPNL)’s grid.
ƒ Double circuit transmission line of 33 kV, 16 MVA capacity.
This transmission line will be the interconnection between
33kV substation of JdVVNL and the 10 MW solar power
plant. The estimated length of the transmission line will be
about 2 km. Also, RVPNL is proposing the 132 kV
substation at Bap, Jodhpur. If permitted, 33 kV line will be
extended to feed the power directly to the 132 kV grid of the
state. The estimated length of the double circuit
transmission line will be 4.5 km of 132 kV, 16 MVA capacity.
ƒ Layout of 10 MW power plant is given in Annexure IV (a).
ƒ Energy monitoring and information system: Energy
Management Information System (EMIS) is a hardware
interconnection of energy meter installed at PH bus bar of
11 kV in phase I and 33 kV in phase II, and power

T E R I Report No.2009RT03
33 Control, internal transmission and evacuation of power

distribution panel to PC based data acquisition system for


report generation and analysis of energy generation
profiling of the solar power generation system. The meter
will communicate on RS – 485 modbus/RS - 232 protocol.
The data communication may be the Power Line
Communication (PLC) or RF communication over the plant.
The estimated cost for electrical system like cables, power
panels, power transformer and internal transmission lines is
given in Annexure IV (b).

Interfacing scheme proposed


The power generated from the power plant will be transmitted
through the grid of JdVVNL. JdVVNL operates a high voltage
transmission and distribution network in the Jodhpur,
Rajasthan. It is envisaged that the solar generation plant will be
connected to the 33 kV high voltage network at Bap.
The concentrating solar project size is proposed to be 10
MW. This higher rating solar power plant would feed the
generated power to high voltage electricity grid of state
distribution company.
The proposed plant will be connected to the 33 kV transmission
systems through an 11kV/33 kV substation. This involves an
11kV/33 kV power transformer; underground cables and
overhead lines at 11kV and 33 kV with at least 15 MVA rated
capacity. The network connection is designed to carry rated
power on a 24-hour basis. For connection to the 33 kV
transmission grid, Indian Electricity Rules / CEA’s regulations
will be followed and the connection will meet State Grid code
requirements.
This study and design is based on the following
ƒ Load flow studies,
ƒ Dynamic stability assessment,
ƒ Connection substation concept design, and
ƒ Protection design (connection substation and transmission
line).
Further studies would be conducted, if required, in consultation
JdVVNL /RVPNL’
The single line diagram of proposed interfacing scheme is
given in Appendix IV (c).

Net Metering
The Energy accounting metering system will be installed at 11
kV or 33 kV Power Station bus to account electric energy
generated by the powerplant and delivered to the local grid of
JdVVNL or State Grid of RVPNL and the electrical energy
imported from the grid during the non – power period. The
energy meter will measure import and export energy
parameters. This meter will be sealed by JdVVNL/RVPNL.

T E R I Report No. 2009RT03


34 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur,
Rajasthan

Additionally energy management and control system will be


installed in the solar plant which will monitor and record the
performance at each power generator and each 1 MW module.
Factors to be considered when selecting meters are the
ƒ Possible harmonics content of metering signals
ƒ Associated degree of inaccuracy of the meter selected; and
ƒ Site specific that need to be considered in metering design.

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35 Control, internal transmission and evacuation of power

T E R I Report No. 2009RT03


CHAPTER 5 Project execution plan

Total project can be completed within 26 months from date of sanction of the project. The proposed execution plan is shown below.

Table 5.1 Action Plan For Execution of 10 MW Solar Power Plant


Months
S.No Activity
M9 J9 Ju9 A9 S9 O9 N9 D9 J10 F10 M10 A10 M10 J10 Ju10 Au10 S10 O10 N10 D10 J11 F11 M11 A11 M11 J11 Ju11 Au11 S11 O11 N11
Project Approval by
1 SLEC with all prior
approvals
2 Tariff Petition
3 Tariff Approval by RERC
Site Allotment and
4*
possession
5 Financial Closures
6 Detailed Engineering
Equipment Supply/
7 Construction &
Installation
Commencement of
8 Commissioning (First
1MW)
Extension of
9
Transmission line
Installation and
10 Commissioning for 9
MW

T E R I Report No.2009RT03
37 Transmission of power and evacuation plan

T E R I Report No. 2009RT03


CHAPTER 6 Financial analysis

Assumptions & estimates


The proposed solar parabolic Dish-Sterling power project is of
10 MW capacity. Estimate cost of the project is Rs. 23.0 crores
per MW. The total project cost is Rs. 230 crores. Gross
aggregate electricity generation has been arrived at 22.27
million kWh per annum at 3 kW sterling engines’ terminals at
the proposed site at Bap, Jodhpur. The plant load factor is
25.42%. There will be losses between Sterling engines and
substation out put, which is estimated at 4% maximum.
Therefore, total annual sellable electricity has been estimated as
21.379 million kWh. There will be deterioration of 0.5% every
year due to the aging of the plant

Project cost break-up & means of finance


Apart from machinery, installation and commissioning cost,
interest during construction, financial institution fees and
margin money for working capital is part of project cost. Project
financial analysis has been carried out considering debt equity
ratio of 70:30. Interest rate at debt part has been considered at
12.5%. The total project cost and means of finance are
summarized in Table 6.1.

Table 6.1 Project cost & means of finance (10 MW)

PROJECT COST:BREAK-UP
Cost, Rs. Lacs phase-2(9MW) phase-1(1MW)
20700 2300

Sr. No. Particulars


1 Project Cost
1.1 Imported Component 16884.62 1876.07
1.2 Local Component including EPC charges 2700 2430.00 270.00
2 preoperative costs 40 36.00 4.00
3 Interest During Construction (IDC) 1132.03 125.78
4 Financial Institiution Fees 217.35 24.15
5 Project Cost 20700.00 2300.00
6 Total Project Cost 23000.00 20700.00 2300.00
7 Sources of fund
7.1 Loan 70% 14490.00 1610.00
7.2 Equity 30% 6210.00 690.00
Project implementation schedule
Based on international practices and technological
advancements, it is estimated that 1 MW capacity phase of the
project will be supplied, installed and commissioned in 13
months from project approval and additional 9 MW of phase –
II of the project will be installed and commissioned in 26
months from project approval.

T E R I Report No.2009RT03
39 Transmission of power and evacuation plan

Proposed electricity tariff


Project will be implemented as IPP (Independent Power
Project) and envisages sale of generated electricity to the grid.
The tariff calculations are at Annexure V.The technical and
financial parameters are also listed therein.The tariff works out
to be at Rs. 19.03/kWhr for the whole project life of 25 years.
This tariff has been considered with 16% post tax return on
equity. The details of the local components (estimation of cost
of electrical & civil works) are attached as Annexure IV(b).

The solar power plants are entitled to CDM benefit. The


Developer shall endeavour for CDM benefit. CDM benefit ,
interalia, depends on non firm/firm nature of supply of power
and is market driven. The generation from this power plant,
which can not have thermal storage and thus will be infirm. On
account of these, it will attract lower CDM credit. Therefore, it
will not be possible to quantify it beforehand. Its certification
also involves cost and time. Developer will share the CDM
benefits as per RERC regulations. It is anticipated the average
CDM credit of 30 paisa/KWh and corresponding reduction in
annual tariff.

T E R I Report No. 2009RT03


40 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur,
Rajasthan

Annexure I: Solar Radiation Resource Assessment


for Bap, Jodhpur
It has been estimated that Jodhpur receives 3301 kWh/m2
annual average extraterrestrial solar radiation, which has been
considered for parabolic dish sterling engine power plant at
Bap. Table 1A presents the daily total values of extraterrestrial
solar radiation based on its hourly values. It has been estimated
that the annual average global solar radiation availability on
horizontal surface over Bap, Jodhpur is 2051 kWh/m2; direct
component is 1395 kWh/m2 and diffuse is 656 kWh/m2 on
horizontal surface. The daily total along with the monthly total
and average values of global, diffuse and direct solar radiation
on horizontal surface are presented in Tables 2A to Table 4A
respectively.
Only direct solar radiation is directional and can be reflected
/concentrated using mirrors. Further the direct solar radiation
has been processed using TRNSYS and hourly values of direct
radiation have been estimated over tracking surfaces. Since the
selected technology (i.e. parabolic dish-sterling) comprises two
axis tracking hence the results have been reported under two
axis tracking conditions only. Table 5A presents the daily total
values of direct normal irradiance (DNI) for Bap, Jodhpur. It
has been estimated that the total annual DNI over Jodhpur is
2241 kWh/m2. The DNI has been estimated maximum in the
month of September (270.4 kWh/m2) and minimum in the
month of August (63.4 kWh/m2).
The parabolic Dish-Sterling technology uses only direct
normal incident solar radiation; which is transient and varies
with time. It has been observed that in early morning and late
evening hours the fraction of beam radiation is quite low.
Hence ISS Dish-Sterling technology has low efficiency at low
irradiance levels. For present Infinia Solar System technology
the minimum level of instantaneous direct solar radiation for
power generation is 150 W/m2. Therefore the analysis has been
made considering this aspect also. Table 6A presents the
effective DNI (more than 150 W/m2) over Bap, Jodhpur which
shows that the location receives 2202 kWh/m2 annual effective
DNI. The effective number of sunshine hours has also been
carried out and it has been obtained that Bap, Jodhpur receives
2202 kWh/m2 effective DNI in 3342 effective sunshine hours
(DNI>150 W/m2). The daily total effective sunshine at Bap,
Jodhpur hours are presented in Table 7A.
It has been noticed that the efficiency of ISS parabolic Dish-
Sterling technology reduces when DNI goes above 850 W/m2;
while the electrical output becomes constant. The effective
sunshine hours have also been estimated for DNI more that 850
W/m2. Table 8A presents the effective sunshine hours at more

T E R I Report No. 2009RT03


Annexures

than 850 W/m2 DNI. It has been estimated that during 846
sunshine hours the DNI remains more than 850 W/m2 at
Jodhpur throughout the year.
The overall performance of the selected technology critically
depended on the climatic parameters namely ambient
temperature, prevailing wind speed, etc. The daily average
values of day time ambient temperature of Bap, Jodhpur are
presented in Table 9A; which indicated that the monthly
average temperature varies from 17.6 oC to 34.8oC.
The annual average wind speed has been observed from 0.59
m/s in October to 2.30 m/s in the month of June. The daily
average values of prevailing wind speed have been presented in
Table 10A. The other climatic parameters namely relative
humidity (%) and visibility (km) have also analyzed and their
daily average values are represented in Tables 11A and Table
12A respectively.

T E R I Report No. 2009RT03


42 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur,
Rajasthan

Table 1A. Daily total values of Extraterrestrial (IExt) solar radiation (kWh/m2) in Jodhpur
Days Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
1 6.23 7.07 8.41 9.89 10.86 11.27 11.26 10.95 10.12 8.85 7.31 6.34
2 6.24 7.12 8.46 9.93 10.89 11.27 11.25 10.93 10.08 8.80 7.27 6.33
3 6.25 7.16 8.51 9.97 10.91 11.28 11.24 10.92 10.05 8.76 7.23 6.31
4 6.27 7.20 8.56 10.01 10.93 11.28 11.24 10.90 10.01 8.70 7.19 6.29
5 6.28 7.25 8.62 10.05 10.95 11.28 11.23 10.88 9.97 8.66 7.14 6.27
6 6.30 7.29 8.67 10.08 10.97 11.29 11.22 10.86 9.93 8.61 7.10 6.26
7 6.32 7.34 8.72 10.12 10.99 11.29 11.21 10.84 9.89 8.55 7.06 6.24
8 6.34 7.38 8.77 10.15 11.00 11.29 11.20 10.82 9.84 8.50 7.02 6.23
9 6.36 7.43 8.82 10.19 11.02 11.29 11.20 10.80 9.77 8.45 6.91 6.22
10 6.38 7.47 8.87 10.22 11.04 11.30 11.19 10.78 9.73 8.40 6.88 6.20
11 6.40 7.52 8.93 10.26 11.06 11.30 11.18 10.76 9.69 8.35 6.84 6.19
12 6.42 7.57 8.98 10.29 11.07 11.30 11.18 10.73 9.66 8.30 6.81 6.19
13 6.45 7.62 9.03 10.32 11.08 11.30 11.17 10.71 9.61 8.25 6.78 6.18
14 6.47 7.66 9.08 10.35 11.10 11.30 11.16 10.68 9.57 8.20 6.74 6.17
15 6.50 7.71 9.13 10.38 11.11 11.29 11.15 10.66 9.53 8.15 6.71 6.16
16 6.53 7.76 9.18 10.41 11.13 11.29 11.14 10.63 9.49 8.09 6.68 6.16
17 6.55 7.81 9.23 10.44 11.14 11.29 11.13 10.61 9.45 8.04 6.65 6.16
18 6.58 7.86 9.27 10.47 11.15 11.29 11.12 10.58 9.41 7.99 6.62 6.15
19 6.61 7.91 9.32 10.49 11.16 11.29 11.11 10.55 9.36 7.94 6.59 6.15
20 6.64 7.96 9.37 10.52 11.18 11.28 11.10 10.52 9.32 7.89 6.56 6.15
21 6.67 8.00 9.42 10.55 11.18 11.28 11.09 10.49 9.27 7.84 6.53 6.15
22 6.70 8.05 9.46 10.57 11.19 11.28 11.08 10.46 9.23 7.79 6.50 6.15
23 6.73 8.10 9.51 10.60 11.20 11.27 11.07 10.43 9.18 7.74 6.48 6.15
24 6.76 8.15 9.55 10.62 11.21 11.27 11.06 10.40 9.14 7.69 6.45 6.16
25 6.80 8.20 9.60 10.65 11.22 11.27 11.04 10.37 9.09 7.64 6.43 6.16
26 6.84 8.25 9.64 10.67 11.23 11.26 11.03 10.33 9.04 7.59 6.41 6.17
27 6.87 8.30 9.69 10.73 11.24 11.28 11.01 10.30 8.99 7.54 6.39 6.17
28 6.91 8.36 9.73 10.76 11.24 11.28 11.00 10.27 8.95 7.48 6.36 6.18
29 6.95 9.77 10.80 11.25 11.28 10.98 10.23 8.90 7.43 6.26 6.19
30 6.99 9.81 10.83 11.26 11.28 10.97 10.20 8.87 7.38 6.22 6.20
31 7.03 9.85 11.26 10.98 10.16 7.33 6.21
Total 203 216 284 311 344 339 345 329 285 251 202 192
Average 6.6 7.7 9.2 10.4 11.1 11.3 11.1 10.6 9.5 8.1 6.7 6.2

T E R I Report No. 2009RT03


Annexures

Table 2A Daily total values of global solar radiation (kWh/m2) on horizontal surface in Bap, Jodhpur
Days Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
1 4.16 5.01 5.74 6.72 7.22 7.42 7.68 7.47 7.44 5.55 5.23 3.95
2 4.39 4.99 6.12 5.03 6.11 7.70 7.72 5.61 7.41 5.44 5.04 4.36
3 4.34 5.13 6.40 7.11 7.66 7.87 6.59 3.62 7.36 5.05 4.89 4.29
4 4.32 5.02 6.19 6.78 7.01 6.03 1.48 3.43 7.34 5.69 5.04 4.03
5 4.13 5.00 6.26 7.24 7.52 7.47 1.42 3.55 7.32 6.20 5.03 4.43
6 4.11 5.17 6.15 6.53 6.46 7.70 5.98 4.26 7.33 6.05 4.95 4.26
7 4.17 5.32 6.46 7.05 5.38 7.89 5.98 5.22 7.30 6.09 4.96 3.54
8 4.50 5.36 6.37 6.74 7.04 7.23 4.54 5.45 7.27 4.50 4.69 3.56
9 4.58 5.30 6.29 6.72 7.31 7.55 2.49 7.09 7.25 5.75 4.69 4.03
10 4.37 5.57 5.95 6.81 7.19 3.71 4.41 3.69 7.20 5.79 4.82 3.99
11 4.56 5.30 6.15 7.28 7.63 6.50 3.30 1.98 7.17 5.83 4.46 4.11
12 4.59 5.55 6.42 7.34 7.17 3.89 7.71 3.09 7.19 5.14 4.78 4.15
13 4.61 5.63 6.14 7.16 7.86 5.23 7.91 3.18 7.17 5.78 4.45 4.16
14 4.64 5.44 6.20 6.90 7.75 3.71 7.52 6.04 7.04 5.99 4.75 4.34
15 4.44 5.41 6.07 7.18 7.74 2.89 1.56 7.01 7.12 5.76 4.48 4.33
16 4.47 5.65 6.57 7.21 7.28 5.78 5.23 3.27 7.03 5.65 4.14 3.88
17 4.70 5.97 5.92 7.54 7.31 6.74 4.11 2.98 7.05 5.63 4.60 4.11
18 4.53 5.51 6.79 7.42 6.88 7.45 2.85 2.41 7.02 5.56 3.97 4.17
19 4.58 4.75 6.65 6.95 7.57 6.28 2.07 2.03 6.96 5.78 3.93 3.94
20 4.39 5.62 6.28 7.12 7.47 3.50 6.42 3.10 6.96 5.73 3.68 4.15
21 4.84 5.61 6.87 7.36 7.23 7.87 4.05 2.97 6.88 5.49 4.08 4.12
22 4.87 5.63 7.07 7.06 7.62 5.59 6.54 5.48 6.88 5.34 4.30 4.24
23 4.56 6.16 6.27 7.53 7.43 7.79 7.29 3.02 6.81 5.63 3.93 4.01
24 4.90 6.01 6.99 7.24 7.71 2.70 6.25 3.41 6.83 5.35 4.49 3.92
25 4.84 5.93 6.93 7.12 6.37 8.06 2.63 4.41 6.78 5.21 4.41 4.23
26 5.03 5.96 6.88 7.57 7.49 7.60 3.74 4.01 6.75 5.23 4.30 3.87
27 4.79 6.31 7.13 7.65 7.50 7.82 1.93 3.52 6.75 5.59 4.63 3.93
28 4.76 5.95 6.48 7.67 8.07 8.03 3.26 7.25 6.72 4.95 4.33 3.76
29 5.10 7.14 7.64 7.62 3.90 4.71 4.12 6.68 5.32 4.48 3.97
30 5.14 7.17 7.92 7.96 7.46 3.75 5.57 6.63 4.91 2.79 4.19
31 5.06 7.11 7.89 4.74 6.53 4.92 4.36
Total 142 154 201 214 226 189 146 135 212 171 134 126
Average 4.6 5.5 6.5 7.1 7.3 6.3 4.7 4.3 7.1 5.5 4.5 4.1
(Source: TERI analysis using TRNSYS software and METEONORM Database)

T E R I Report No. 2009RT03


44 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur,
Rajasthan

Table 3A. Daily total values of diffuse solar radiation (kWh/m2) on horizontal surface in Bap, Jodhpur
Days Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
1 0.92 0.97 1.61 2.16 2.59 2.69 2.22 2.36 1.24 2.26 1.08 1.48
2 0.90 1.02 1.20 3.21 3.35 2.39 2.42 3.67 1.22 2.35 1.29 0.92
3 0.87 1.06 0.89 1.50 1.82 2.14 3.40 3.02 1.19 2.61 1.29 0.89
4 0.87 1.10 1.23 2.10 2.85 3.41 1.47 3.17 1.23 2.04 1.14 1.26
5 1.13 1.18 1.14 1.49 2.11 2.72 1.41 2.92 1.25 1.17 1.12 0.83
6 1.18 1.21 1.38 2.35 3.26 2.49 3.43 3.08 1.17 1.34 1.12 0.82
7 1.09 0.99 1.04 1.85 3.53 2.03 3.51 3.30 1.14 1.30 1.05 1.66
8 0.86 0.98 1.17 2.35 2.80 2.94 3.33 3.36 1.12 2.67 1.36 1.71
9 0.79 1.10 1.49 2.43 2.56 2.72 2.37 2.46 1.17 1.66 1.34 1.04
10 1.02 0.83 1.82 2.29 2.69 2.70 3.45 2.93 1.19 1.65 1.07 1.06
11 0.86 1.12 1.63 1.78 2.28 3.52 2.91 1.94 1.19 1.40 1.45 1.00
12 0.76 1.02 1.35 1.74 2.77 3.31 2.19 2.71 1.07 2.20 1.03 1.00
13 0.70 0.88 1.82 2.03 1.82 3.61 1.96 2.81 1.06 1.40 1.32 1.01
14 0.75 1.11 1.84 2.50 2.14 3.12 2.48 3.38 1.14 1.09 1.02 0.69
15 1.03 1.24 2.07 1.99 2.19 2.55 1.53 2.50 1.04 1.22 1.36 0.75
16 1.04 1.11 1.41 2.11 2.65 3.62 3.34 2.49 1.13 1.50 1.69 1.34
17 0.85 0.72 2.27 1.53 2.67 3.26 3.13 2.76 0.99 1.51 1.11 1.05
18 0.96 1.27 1.25 1.86 3.08 2.67 2.60 2.24 0.98 1.42 1.84 1.04
19 1.03 2.11 1.37 2.55 2.30 3.63 2.03 1.94 1.09 1.06 1.73 1.19
20 1.23 1.24 2.04 2.39 2.48 2.66 3.35 2.79 0.99 1.13 1.79 0.96
21 0.91 1.33 1.27 2.08 2.95 2.19 3.45 2.34 1.07 1.34 1.50 1.02
22 0.81 1.32 1.05 2.49 2.48 3.83 3.16 3.40 0.97 1.46 1.20 0.85
23 1.27 0.75 2.16 1.76 2.74 2.30 2.61 2.84 1.03 0.94 1.68 1.14
24 0.78 1.04 1.41 2.31 2.13 2.47 3.47 2.77 0.96 1.30 1.05 1.18
25 0.93 1.16 1.53 2.52 3.46 1.88 2.27 3.28 0.98 1.34 1.12 0.84
26 0.82 1.14 1.58 1.79 2.41 2.47 2.61 3.41 1.00 1.27 1.25 1.38
27 1.01 0.83 1.26 1.80 2.67 2.22 1.91 3.00 0.89 0.86 0.84 1.23
28 1.14 1.18 2.22 1.76 1.79 1.88 2.97 1.76 0.88 1.60 1.19 1.33
29 0.82 1.28 1.93 2.46 3.15 3.43 3.22 0.88 1.08 0.87 1.25
30 0.81 1.28 1.50 2.13 2.62 3.00 3.36 0.94 1.62 2.14 1.07
31 0.92 1.38 2.11 3.26 2.60 1.54 0.73
Total 29 31 46 62 79 83 85 88 32 47 39 34
Average 0.9 1.1 1.5 2.1 2.6 2.8 2.7 2.8 1.1 1.5 1.3 1.1
(Source: TERI analysis using TRNSYS software and METEONORM Database)

T E R I Report No. 2009RT03


Annexures

Table 4A. Daily total values of direct solar radiation (kWh/m2) on horizontal surface at Bap, Jodhpur
Days Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
1 3.24 4.04 4.13 4.56 4.64 4.73 5.46 5.11 6.20 3.29 4.15 2.47
2 3.49 3.97 4.93 1.82 2.76 5.31 5.31 1.94 6.19 3.08 3.75 3.44
3 3.47 4.08 5.51 5.61 5.84 5.73 3.19 0.61 6.17 2.44 3.61 3.41
4 3.45 3.92 4.96 4.68 4.16 2.61 0.01 0.26 6.11 3.65 3.90 2.78
5 3.01 3.82 5.12 5.74 5.41 4.75 0.01 0.63 6.06 5.04 3.91 3.60
6 2.94 3.96 4.77 4.18 3.20 5.21 2.55 1.17 6.16 4.71 3.83 3.44
7 3.08 4.32 5.41 5.20 1.85 5.86 2.47 1.91 6.16 4.79 3.92 1.89
8 3.64 4.39 5.19 4.39 4.24 4.29 1.21 2.09 6.15 1.83 3.33 1.85
9 3.79 4.20 4.80 4.29 4.76 4.83 0.12 4.63 6.08 4.08 3.35 2.99
10 3.35 4.74 4.13 4.52 4.50 1.01 0.96 0.76 6.02 4.13 3.74 2.93
11 3.70 4.19 4.52 5.49 5.35 2.98 0.38 0.05 5.98 4.43 3.01 3.11
12 3.83 4.53 5.07 5.61 4.40 0.57 5.52 0.39 6.12 2.94 3.75 3.15
13 3.91 4.75 4.32 5.13 6.04 1.62 5.94 0.37 6.11 4.38 3.13 3.15
14 3.89 4.32 4.36 4.41 5.61 0.59 5.05 2.66 5.90 4.91 3.74 3.64
15 3.41 4.17 4.01 5.19 5.55 0.34 0.03 4.51 6.08 4.54 3.13 3.59
16 3.43 4.54 5.17 5.09 4.64 2.16 1.89 0.78 5.90 4.15 2.45 2.54
17 3.86 5.25 3.65 6.01 4.64 3.48 0.98 0.22 6.05 4.12 3.49 3.07
18 3.58 4.24 5.53 5.56 3.80 4.78 0.25 0.17 6.04 4.14 2.13 3.13
19 3.55 2.63 5.29 4.41 5.27 2.65 0.04 0.08 5.87 4.72 2.20 2.75
20 3.17 4.38 4.24 4.73 4.99 0.84 3.07 0.31 5.97 4.61 1.89 3.19
21 3.92 4.27 5.60 5.27 4.28 5.68 0.59 0.63 5.81 4.15 2.57 3.10
22 4.06 4.31 6.02 4.57 5.14 1.76 3.38 2.08 5.91 3.87 3.11 3.40
23 3.29 5.41 4.10 5.77 4.69 5.49 4.68 0.18 5.77 4.68 2.26 2.88
24 4.12 4.98 5.58 4.93 5.57 0.23 2.78 0.64 5.87 4.05 3.44 2.73
25 3.91 4.77 5.40 4.59 2.91 6.17 0.36 1.13 5.80 3.86 3.29 3.40
26 4.21 4.82 5.30 5.78 5.08 5.14 1.13 0.61 5.74 3.96 3.05 2.49
27 3.77 5.49 5.87 5.84 4.82 5.60 0.03 0.52 5.85 4.73 3.79 2.70
28 3.62 4.77 4.26 5.91 6.28 6.15 0.29 5.49 5.84 3.35 3.14 2.43
29 4.29 5.86 5.71 5.16 0.76 1.28 0.90 5.81 4.23 3.61 2.73
30 4.33 5.88 6.42 5.83 4.84 0.75 2.21 5.69 3.29 0.65 3.12
31 4.13 5.72 5.77 1.48 3.93 3.38 3.62
Total 113 123 155 151 147 106 61 47 179 124 95 93
Average 3.7 4.4 5.0 5.0 4.7 3.5 2.0 1.5 6.0 4.0 3.2 3.0
(Source: TERI analysis using TRNSYS software and METEONORM Database)

T E R I Report No. 2009RT03


46 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur,
Rajasthan

Table 5A. Daily total values of direct normal incidence (DNI) at Bap, Jodhpur
Days Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
1 6.86 7.72 6.99 7.40 6.40 6.40 6.86 7.56 9.05 5.23 7.55 4.99
2 7.09 7.32 7.47 2.52 3.83 6.86 7.24 2.49 9.07 4.81 6.91 6.68
3 6.84 7.05 9.31 8.58 7.78 7.38 4.51 0.95 9.00 3.85 6.84 6.87
4 7.07 7.07 8.34 6.80 5.38 3.47 0.01 0.57 8.90 6.10 7.24 6.01
5 6.05 6.40 8.75 8.21 6.91 6.59 0.02 0.82 8.86 7.50 7.50 6.88
6 5.97 7.38 7.55 6.30 4.56 7.54 3.03 1.47 9.09 7.60 7.33 6.89
7 5.86 7.71 8.27 7.43 2.81 7.53 3.27 2.87 9.08 7.53 7.46 4.09
8 7.25 8.11 8.45 6.59 6.33 5.55 1.51 2.57 9.09 3.36 5.74 3.78
9 7.58 7.44 7.66 5.88 6.59 6.85 0.14 5.89 8.98 6.66 6.13 5.59
10 7.10 8.52 6.84 6.40 6.45 1.65 1.10 1.00 8.85 6.69 7.35 5.71
11 7.34 7.65 6.65 7.96 7.45 4.26 0.74 0.06 8.79 7.76 5.42 6.16
12 7.76 8.13 8.08 7.90 6.14 0.65 7.34 0.53 9.15 5.36 7.31 6.28
13 7.99 8.59 6.41 7.54 8.16 3.15 8.35 0.55 9.16 7.05 5.70 6.60
14 7.73 7.46 6.95 6.37 7.82 0.83 6.72 3.48 8.70 8.22 7.26 7.34
15 6.91 7.76 6.29 7.03 8.00 0.53 0.03 5.82 9.16 7.41 6.13 7.29
16 6.77 7.60 7.78 7.43 6.27 2.69 2.89 0.87 8.75 6.83 4.55 5.10
17 7.68 9.32 6.01 8.43 6.66 5.31 1.45 0.40 9.18 6.96 6.80 5.93
18 7.08 7.18 8.35 7.94 5.34 6.07 0.41 0.48 9.20 7.05 4.42 6.49
19 6.78 4.25 7.85 6.31 7.05 3.52 0.05 0.10 8.69 8.05 4.16 5.48
20 6.61 7.34 6.97 6.86 7.25 1.81 4.35 0.38 9.12 8.03 3.28 6.44
21 7.32 7.19 8.80 7.96 5.92 8.15 0.87 1.11 8.77 7.54 5.01 6.39
22 7.82 7.59 9.40 6.35 7.04 2.83 4.55 3.68 9.17 6.42 5.78 6.82
23 6.33 9.41 6.24 8.06 6.64 7.26 6.70 0.22 8.79 7.78 4.68 5.68
24 7.70 8.48 8.22 6.83 7.78 0.51 3.75 0.85 9.18 6.95 6.95 5.65
25 7.09 7.41 8.38 6.06 4.28 8.66 0.43 1.35 8.99 6.44 6.19 6.78
26 8.04 8.17 7.70 8.09 6.45 6.56 1.37 0.96 8.85 6.97 5.76 4.93
27 7.13 9.43 8.36 8.06 6.83 7.78 0.03 0.69 9.25 8.42 7.30 5.50
28 6.94 7.29 6.15 8.42 8.66 8.03 0.48 7.79 9.27 5.99 6.40 4.90
29 8.02 9.02 7.87 6.93 1.52 2.00 1.28 9.26 7.28 7.20 5.68
30 8.28 8.73 9.28 8.44 6.99 1.07 3.02 8.99 5.77 1.45 6.44
31 7.33 8.19 8.25 1.80 5.57 6.21 7.47
Total 222 215 240 217 204 147 83 65 270 208 182 187
Average 7.2 7.7 7.7 7.2 6.6 4.9 2.7 2.1 9.0 6.7 6.1 6.0
(Source: TERI analysis using TRNSYS software and METEONORM Database)

T E R I Report No. 2009RT03


Annexures

Table 6A. Daily total values of effective direct normal incidence (IB>150W/m2) at Bap, Jodhpur
Days Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
1 6.76 7.70 6.99 7.30 6.39 6.33 6.59 7.43 8.91 5.23 7.38 4.80
2 7.02 7.31 7.47 2.38 3.57 6.82 7.13 2.19 8.93 4.68 6.76 6.62
3 6.69 6.93 9.31 8.53 7.78 7.21 4.51 0.41 8.96 3.75 6.84 6.69
4 7.04 6.95 8.34 6.71 5.23 3.17 0.00 0.28 8.85 6.10 7.24 5.88
5 5.94 6.27 8.75 8.11 6.76 6.59 0.00 0.31 8.75 7.34 7.45 6.83
6 5.97 7.34 7.53 6.30 4.44 7.52 2.78 1.07 8.99 7.52 7.28 6.88
7 5.79 7.67 8.27 7.36 2.35 7.50 3.27 2.56 9.04 7.53 7.40 4.04
8 7.25 7.95 8.45 6.53 6.20 5.55 1.24 2.17 9.05 3.13 5.59 3.59
9 7.44 7.40 7.66 5.88 6.45 6.58 0.00 5.85 8.91 6.66 5.97 5.50
10 7.10 8.34 6.84 6.38 6.22 1.53 0.83 0.56 8.82 6.69 7.33 5.69
11 7.30 7.59 6.64 7.92 7.45 4.12 0.57 0.00 8.77 7.76 5.40 6.09
12 7.76 8.08 8.08 7.87 6.14 0.21 7.23 0.00 9.13 5.27 7.28 6.23
13 7.99 8.55 6.40 7.39 8.07 2.66 8.35 0.22 9.13 7.05 5.64 6.50
14 7.63 7.37 6.95 6.30 7.75 0.23 6.59 3.22 8.63 8.22 7.25 7.31
15 6.91 7.66 6.29 6.82 8.00 0.17 0.00 5.79 9.16 7.37 6.13 7.24
16 6.65 7.53 7.69 7.38 6.11 2.29 2.57 0.73 8.60 6.83 4.45 5.07
17 7.66 9.21 6.01 8.36 6.59 5.11 1.12 0.18 9.18 6.96 6.63 5.80
18 6.93 7.05 8.20 7.90 5.20 5.89 0.15 0.34 9.20 7.05 4.25 6.41
19 6.64 4.18 7.85 6.16 6.95 3.41 0.00 0.00 8.69 7.94 4.00 5.46
20 6.61 7.24 6.97 6.76 7.25 1.57 4.15 0.00 9.12 7.97 2.89 6.37
21 7.24 7.09 8.80 7.84 5.79 8.15 0.15 0.69 8.77 7.40 4.91 6.33
22 7.74 7.46 9.40 6.26 6.99 2.18 4.55 3.18 9.17 6.29 5.78 6.73
23 6.27 9.41 6.24 7.91 6.64 7.17 6.43 0.00 8.67 7.66 4.54 5.59
24 7.70 8.48 8.22 6.71 7.78 0.31 3.60 0.47 9.18 6.85 6.95 5.60
25 7.09 7.41 8.38 6.06 4.28 8.57 0.17 0.85 8.99 6.41 6.10 6.76
26 8.04 8.09 7.70 7.95 6.45 6.48 0.99 0.34 8.85 6.86 5.68 4.90
27 7.13 9.43 8.24 8.04 6.75 7.70 0.00 0.24 9.25 8.42 7.19 5.43
28 6.89 7.11 6.02 8.28 8.66 7.90 0.25 7.64 9.27 5.96 6.25 4.87
29 8.02 9.02 7.76 6.83 0.95 1.72 0.62 9.26 7.16 7.10 5.68
30 8.28 8.60 9.17 8.44 6.99 0.84 2.84 8.87 5.68 0.98 6.35
31 7.28 8.19 8.15 1.30 5.33 5.99 7.39
Total 221 213 239 214 202 141 77 56 269 206 179 185
Average 7.12 7.60 7.73 7.14 6.50 4.69 2.49 1.79 8.97 6.64 5.95 5.96
(Source: TERI analysis using TRNSYS software and METEONORM Database)

T E R I Report No. 2009RT03


48 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur,
Rajasthan

Table 7A. Daily total values of effective sunshine hours (IB>150W/m2) at Bap, Jodhpur
Days Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
1 9 10 11 11 12 11 10 12 11 11 9 8
2 9 10 10 8 9 12 12 8 11 10 9 9
3 9 9 11 11 12 11 13 2 11 9 10 8
4 9 9 11 11 11 9 0 1 11 11 10 9
5 9 9 11 11 11 13 0 1 11 9 10 9
6 9 10 10 11 12 12 8 3 11 10 10 9
7 9 10 10 11 7 12 10 8 11 11 10 9
8 9 9 11 11 12 12 5 6 11 8 9 7
9 9 10 11 11 11 11 0 11 11 11 9 8
10 10 9 11 11 10 5 3 2 11 11 10 9
11 9 10 10 11 13 11 2 0 11 11 9 9
12 10 10 11 11 13 1 11 0 11 10 10 9
13 10 10 10 11 11 6 13 1 11 10 9 9
14 9 9 11 11 12 1 11 9 10 11 10 9
15 10 10 11 10 13 1 0 11 11 10 10 9
16 9 10 10 11 11 7 7 3 10 11 9 9
17 9 10 11 11 12 11 3 1 11 11 9 8
18 9 9 10 11 11 11 1 1 11 11 9 9
19 9 9 11 11 11 12 0 0 11 10 8 9
20 10 10 11 11 13 3 10 0 11 10 5 9
21 9 10 11 12 12 13 1 2 11 10 9 9
22 9 10 11 11 12 7 12 8 11 10 9 9
23 9 11 11 11 12 12 11 0 10 10 9 9
24 9 11 11 11 12 1 11 2 11 10 10 9
25 10 10 11 11 12 12 1 3 11 10 9 9
26 10 10 11 11 12 11 3 2 11 10 9 9
27 10 11 10 12 12 12 0 1 11 10 9 9
28 9 9 10 12 13 12 1 11 11 10 9 9
29 10 11 11 12 4 7 2 11 10 9 9
30 10 10 12 13 13 3 10 10 10 4 9
31 9 11 12 0 4 10 9 0 9
Total 289 274 331 330 361 269 173 131 326 315 270 273
Average 9.3 9.8 10.7 11 11.6 8.7 5.6 4.2 10.9 10.2 8.7 8.8
(Source: TERI analysis using TRNSYS software and METEONORM Database)

T E R I Report No. 2009RT03


Annexures

Table 8A. Daily total values of effective sunshine hours (IB>850W/m2) at Bap, Jodhpur
Days Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
1 2 5 3 2 0 0 0 3 6 0 5 1
2 4 5 4 0 0 0 0 0 6 0 2 4
3 4 4 7 4 2 0 0 0 6 0 2 5
4 5 5 6 0 0 0 0 0 6 1 3 1
5 2 4 5 3 0 0 0 0 6 5 3 4
6 0 5 4 0 0 2 0 0 6 2 5 4
7 3 5 5 2 0 0 0 0 6 3 6 0
8 5 4 5 0 1 0 0 0 6 0 1 0
9 6 4 2 0 0 1 0 0 6 1 3 3
10 3 7 2 0 0 0 0 0 7 2 2 0
11 6 3 1 3 0 0 0 0 7 3 0 2
12 5 6 4 3 0 0 0 0 7 1 3 1
13 6 7 1 1 1 1 0 0 7 3 0 2
14 6 5 1 0 0 0 0 0 7 3 5 6
15 3 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 5 2 4
16 4 5 2 2 0 0 0 0 7 1 1 1
17 5 8 0 5 0 0 0 0 7 1 0 2
18 5 3 5 4 0 0 0 0 7 1 0 3
19 3 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 7 6 0 0
20 2 4 1 0 0 0 0 0 7 5 0 2
21 5 2 5 1 0 2 0 0 7 4 0 3
22 6 2 7 0 0 0 0 0 7 1 2 3
23 2 7 0 3 0 0 0 0 7 6 0 1
24 6 8 5 0 1 0 0 0 6 3 3 0
25 4 5 4 0 0 3 0 0 7 2 3 5
26 5 5 4 0 0 0 0 0 7 2 1 1
27 4 7 6 0 0 0 0 0 7 6 6 1
28 4 5 0 2 3 1 0 0 7 3 3 0
29 6 5 1 0 0 0 0 7 5 4 0
30 6 6 3 3 0 0 0 7 1 0 2
31 5 4 2 0 0 0 5
Total 132 133 109 39 13 10 0 3 200 76 65 66
Average 4.3 4.8 3.5 1.3 0.4 0.3 0.0 0.1 6.7 2.5 2.2 2.1
(Source: TERI analysis using TRNSYS software and METEONORM Database)

T E R I Report No. 2009RT03


50 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur,
Rajasthan

Table 9A. Average day time daily values of ambient air temperature (oC) at Bap, Jodhpur
Days Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
1 23.3 21.6 25.4 25.9 34.2 34.4 33.7 29.6 31.7 28.1 21.0 21.9
2 19.8 20.7 25.4 27.2 35.1 35.3 33.7 29.2 32.0 27.4 21.8 18.7
3 20.5 19.4 23.1 25.7 35.4 34.9 34.5 28.2 32.6 28.5 22.2 23.1
4 18.9 15.0 22.3 27.5 35.0 31.6 32.4 26.3 34.1 29.5 22.3 23.1
5 18.7 18.9 23.5 31.2 35.8 33.7 32.3 28.2 33.3 30.0 24.3 21.0
6 17.7 18.2 24.6 29.2 36.0 33.4 31.1 28.6 32.2 30.8 23.8 20.3
7 18.5 19.8 24.4 33.7 34.3 33.3 32.0 27.4 30.6 31.2 24.3 20.5
8 17.2 17.9 20.9 33.4 32.8 28.9 32.8 28.8 30.1 29.7 26.9 21.3
9 16.6 16.0 21.8 31.4 31.7 30.4 39.0 28.3 29.0 31.2 27.2 19.7
10 17.1 19.2 23.9 34.2 30.4 32.1 33.0 29.7 28.9 33.2 28.1 20.8
11 17.7 20.5 25.0 34.4 33.5 33.9 33.4 30.6 27.5 33.4 28.6 18.3
12 14.3 20.0 24.5 32.7 29.3 34.2 33.4 30.8 28.4 32.8 26.1 21.5
13 16.4 22.5 25.8 31.2 32.3 38.0 33.0 29.7 27.5 32.5 25.6 19.1
14 16.6 16.8 26.0 31.6 31.4 32.8 29.8 30.9 30.9 32.0 24.7 22.4
15 15.6 17.6 26.6 30.1 34.7 35.0 28.8 29.4 29.4 31.7 23.2 22.3
16 16.5 21.3 26.8 30.0 33.6 35.1 30.1 30.0 28.6 29.4 22.7 24.7
17 18.1 23.0 31.5 29.2 33.4 33.5 31.1 31.7 27.4 30.4 24.2 21.8
18 19.1 21.5 28.1 28.9 32.9 35.1 32.7 33.4 29.8 30.1 23.2 24.4
19 19.8 22.3 27.9 28.3 34.3 38.9 33.5 33.9 28.7 28.8 28.0 23.4
20 19.5 23.5 26.4 29.2 39.2 38.6 30.7 32.7 28.4 31.4 26.4 23.6
21 21.2 25.1 27.0 29.5 37.6 37.9 37.2 30.9 29.2 30.7 22.9 17.9
22 21.7 26.8 29.5 31.2 36.7 37.6 35.5 29.3 29.2 28.8 23.5 22.3
23 20.0 23.7 28.2 30.0 37.0 37.4 34.3 28.8 29.0 27.2 25.2 18.6
24 17.0 24.6 28.9 30.8 35.9 36.1 32.6 30.1 31.8 28.5 22.2 17.4
25 18.4 24.2 29.1 33.3 36.3 36.9 30.5 31.7 30.6 26.0 24.4 15.7
26 21.2 23.1 27.6 32.1 36.6 32.1 27.7 30.4 29.8 24.8 22.8 16.8
27 20.8 26.0 30.7 34.3 37.4 34.6 30.0 32.2 29.7 25.1 22.7 17.6
28 19.3 27.4 31.1 30.6 38.5 33.8 30.8 30.3 28.3 23.7 20.4 17.7
29 20.3 29.6 30.6 36.3 32.6 33.4 30.5 28.0 26.4 18.9 19.6
30 20.5 30.1 29.5 35.5 34.1 29.3 30.7 30.8 27.1 19.6 21.6
31 22.7 32.1 36.5 30.3 31.2 26.6 18.5 21.0
Average 18.9 21.3 26.7 30.6 34.8 34.5 32.3 30.1 29.9 29.3 23.7 20.6
(Source: TERI analysis using TRNSYS software and METEONORM Database)

T E R I Report No. 2009RT03


Annexures

Table 10A. Average daily values of wind speed (m/s) at Bap, Jodhpur
Days Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
1 0.78 0.99 1.20 1.64 2.08 2.33 2.39 1.55 1.49 0.42 0.60 0.39
2 0.80 1.18 1.16 1.76 1.26 1.91 2.23 2.26 1.25 0.48 0.70 0.53
3 0.45 0.64 1.26 0.78 1.00 3.13 1.25 1.24 0.43 0.48 0.78 0.46
4 0.53 0.68 1.26 0.84 1.80 3.36 0.73 0.94 0.32 0.76 1.08 0.30
5 0.62 0.76 0.71 1.32 0.86 2.72 1.54 0.88 0.39 0.62 1.19 0.45
6 0.88 0.76 0.99 1.00 1.88 2.07 2.95 0.56 0.36 0.65 1.05 0.66
7 0.39 0.62 1.11 1.83 1.81 2.00 1.21 1.60 0.49 0.75 0.66 0.73
8 0.42 0.45 1.11 1.36 1.89 1.26 1.35 2.29 1.00 0.90 0.55 0.46
9 0.69 0.69 1.26 1.74 1.98 2.29 1.97 1.84 0.95 0.76 0.60 0.30
10 1.05 0.49 1.24 1.73 1.58 3.30 1.46 1.41 0.85 1.05 0.46 0.29
11 1.41 0.77 0.53 0.71 2.16 1.98 1.14 1.92 0.93 0.88 0.77 0.37
12 1.40 1.06 0.30 1.82 1.40 1.17 1.67 1.68 1.02 0.75 0.70 0.65
13 1.13 1.31 0.37 1.06 2.33 1.30 1.54 0.76 0.80 0.43 0.81 0.95
14 0.69 1.13 0.64 2.24 2.63 2.39 1.76 2.04 1.06 0.33 0.64 1.61
15 0.96 2.35 0.90 2.15 2.68 3.71 0.67 1.81 1.49 0.40 0.47 1.25
16 1.05 2.24 1.23 0.97 3.16 1.83 1.96 1.01 1.79 0.41 0.53 1.02
17 1.04 2.70 0.90 0.77 1.96 1.55 0.81 1.16 1.51 0.49 0.44 1.35
18 1.14 2.61 0.77 1.00 2.05 3.47 1.89 0.95 0.97 0.49 0.76 1.65
19 1.82 1.96 0.56 1.44 1.53 2.53 1.11 1.34 0.86 0.52 0.93 1.35
20 1.95 1.48 0.67 1.43 1.24 1.88 1.71 1.26 0.67 0.40 1.11 1.50
21 2.42 1.63 0.74 1.58 1.66 2.07 0.73 1.29 0.60 0.52 0.78 0.88
22 2.25 1.19 1.09 1.15 2.51 2.11 2.52 1.54 0.74 1.00 0.64 0.80
23 1.43 1.39 1.16 2.06 2.73 0.80 2.06 1.23 0.95 0.87 0.84 0.79
24 0.54 1.18 0.99 1.29 2.35 1.53 1.87 1.05 1.44 0.89 0.96 0.52
25 0.44 1.17 1.05 1.12 1.54 1.59 1.59 0.78 1.12 0.78 0.99 0.62
26 0.50 0.71 1.43 1.90 2.11 1.68 1.32 1.23 1.56 0.65 0.55 0.48
27 1.19 0.69 1.27 1.46 1.82 1.62 2.30 2.00 2.04 0.45 0.28 0.62
28 1.70 0.81 2.06 1.58 1.03 3.50 1.21 1.37 1.15 0.35 0.39 0.69
29 1.50 1.94 0.96 1.71 2.55 1.09 1.12 0.95 0.26 0.48 0.94
30 1.36 2.15 1.34 1.33 5.24 1.75 1.05 0.93 0.29 0.35 1.04
31 1.22 1.89 2.71 1.76 2.38 0.39 1.07
Average 1.09 1.20 1.10 1.40 1.90 2.30 1.60 1.40 1.00 0.59 0.70 0.80
(Source: TERI analysis using TRNSYS software and METEONORM Database)

T E R I Report No. 2009RT03


52 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur,
Rajasthan

Table 11A. Average daily values of Relative Humidity (%) values at Bap, Jodhpur
Days Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
1 60 46 29 46 28 24 61 81 67 31 37 33
2 67 51 32 71 23 26 58 79 68 24 38 33
3 51 58 47 63 24 27 64 81 70 29 40 32
4 51 49 52 47 37 28 73 80 67 46 38 33
5 54 45 51 38 48 31 74 78 64 63 35 32
6 59 47 41 34 42 36 73 67 67 69 50 46
7 74 41 34 36 33 41 71 58 64 61 70 24
8 59 42 24 49 40 45 67 59 60 43 69 26
9 54 42 36 43 38 49 64 60 59 46 61 31
10 41 44 34 36 34 57 64 60 55 42 59 29
11 44 43 24 28 31 56 66 61 62 38 52 52
12 30 44 23 27 29 55 69 62 60 38 57 56
13 43 60 28 38 36 58 72 77 55 27 62 58
14 42 69 25 27 36 55 65 79 59 21 59 47
15 46 76 20 23 39 52 63 71 57 22 59 41
16 56 64 25 20 35 51 63 84 60 27 55 39
17 50 59 28 22 33 52 63 81 59 23 65 34
18 54 45 39 29 42 54 67 84 59 23 62 29
19 42 46 34 32 44 56 66 78 56 33 49 27
20 40 52 41 32 39 55 63 82 49 33 51 26
21 44 56 47 26 21 52 61 84 45 34 48 24
22 46 55 51 20 14 53 60 77 50 31 44 26
23 52 50 40 20 20 51 59 74 56 27 40 26
24 49 49 43 26 30 48 60 78 53 38 36 36
25 46 41 30 32 54 53 59 74 50 34 36 60
26 65 44 30 25 58 48 58 72 49 32 40 37
27 65 37 33 30 58 56 73 71 43 32 40 50
28 52 40 25 36 64 55 78 67 47 32 38 45
29 52 30 36 62 55 78 65 38 34 53 43
30 50 37 34 65 56 72 63 44 35 47 37
31 57 33 65 69 73 28 40
Average 51 50 34 34 39 48 66 73 56 35 50 37
(Source: TERI analysis using TRNSYS software and METEONORM Database)

T E R I Report No. 2009RT03


Annexures

Table 12A. Average daily values of visibility (km) values at Bap, Jodhpur
Days Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
1 1.9 2.8 3.7 4.0 4.0 2.9 2.5 3.5 4.0 4.0 2.0 4.0
2 1.9 2.9 4.0 3.6 4.0 2.5 3.1 3.7 4.0 4.0 3.0 4.0
3 2.0 2.8 3.5 4.0 3.8 3.8 3.4 4.0 4.0 4.0 2.2 4.0
4 2.0 2.7 3.5 4.0 3.1 3.1 6.0 4.0 3.4 4.0 3.2 4.0
5 2.0 2.4 2.8 4.0 4.0 2.5 5.6 5.5 3.3 4.0 2.2 4.0
6 2.0 3.0 4.0 4.0 2.5 2.3 3.9 3.7 3.4 4.0 2.8 4.0
7 1.7 2.9 4.0 4.0 3.5 1.9 3.3 4.0 3.7 4.0 2.0 4.0
8 1.9 4.0 6.2 3.4 1.3 2.2 3.6 2.3 4.0 4.0 2.2 4.0
9 2.2 3.1 4.0 1.5 4.9 2.3 2.2 6.2 4.0 4.0 1.6 4.0
10 2.3 3.2 4.0 1.8 5.5 2.7 2.5 3.8 4.0 4.0 3.5 4.0
11 2.2 4.2 6.2 2.4 6.2 3.2 2.6 4.0 4.0 4.0 3.0 3.4
12 2.3 3.5 4.7 1.9 4.2 2.5 3.5 4.0 4.0 4.0 3.7 3.0
13 2.0 3.0 4.0 1.9 3.2 2.5 4.3 3.7 3.7 4.0 2.9 4.0
14 2.0 3.0 4.0 3.0 2.4 2.1 2.5 3.3 3.9 4.0 5.1 4.0
15 1.9 3.3 4.8 3.7 3.2 2.1 2.9 3.8 4.0 3.8 4.4 4.0
16 2.0 3.7 5.5 4.0 3.0 2.7 2.8 3.5 3.6 4.0 4.5 4.0
17 2.0 3.0 4.0 3.8 2.7 2.1 2.3 3.0 3.2 4.0 4.3 4.0
18 2.0 4.1 6.2 3.9 2.1 2.6 2.8 3.6 3.7 4.0 3.7 4.0
19 2.0 3.8 5.5 3.8 5.0 3.5 3.0 3.7 4.0 4.0 3.2 4.0
20 2.0 3.4 4.7 3.7 3.4 2.5 2.8 4.0 4.0 4.0 5.0 4.0
21 2.0 3.0 4.0 4.0 4.8 2.3 2.4 3.8 4.0 4.0 2.7 4.0
22 2.0 3.0 4.0 3.8 6.2 2.2 2.8 4.0 4.0 4.0 3.8 4.0
23 2.0 4.1 6.2 2.5 3.3 2.0 3.9 4.0 4.0 4.0 3.5 4.0
24 2.0 2.4 2.8 3.2 2.2 2.7 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 2.5 4.0
25 2.0 4.2 6.4 3.7 2.4 1.9 4.0 3.2 4.0 4.0 3.3 4.0
26 2.0 4.1 6.2 3.8 2.6 1.9 3.8 4.0 4.0 4.0 3.8 3.0
27 1.7 3.9 6.2 3.5 2.2 1.0 8.2 4.0 4.0 4.0 2.6 3.9
28 1.9 3.2 4.5 3.4 2.4 0.6 3.2 4.0 4.0 4.0 3.5 3.7
29 2.0 2.6 3.8 2.8 0.7 6.9 4.0 4.0 4.0 2.8 4.0
30 2.0 5.7 2.1 2.7 1.8 4.6 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.5 4.0
31 2.0 6.7 3.9 4.8 4.0 4.0 4.0
Average 2 3 5 3 3 2 4 4 4 4 3 4
(Source: TERI analysis using TRNSYS software and METEONORM Database)

T E R I Report No. 2009RT03


54 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur,
Rajasthan

Annexure II: Product brochures

Please refer the attached file Product_Specification.pdf

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56 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur,
Rajasthan

Annexure III: MOU letters between Dalmia group and INIFINA

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Annexures

T E R I Report No. 2009RT03


58 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur,
Rajasthan

Annexure IV(a): Layout of 10 MW power plant

20 mt.
250 mt.
HT Substation
and
1 MW solar Transmission
200 mt. power plant Station

350 mt.
20 mt.
30 mt.
General
facility Zone

11 kV internal Transmission Line

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60 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur,
Rajasthan

Annexure IV (b): Estimation of cost of


electrical & civil works
Sr. No. Particulars Hardware Cost EPC Charges Remarks
INR (INR)
1 Power Distribution Cables 44052500 4184988
2 Power Distribution Panels 75425000 5656875
3 Power Transformers 42500000 2337500 1.6 MVA/0.208/11 kV 10 Nos
& 16 MVA/11/33 kV 02 Nos
4 Transmission Line (11 kV) 819000 102375 Total length of the internal
transmission line is
approximate 2.3 km.
5 EMIS 36850000 1289750 Individual generator level
and data communication line
6 Other Electrical Work 2500000 Include the panel earthling of
generation and transmission
facility, ground mat and
trenches.
7 Civil Works (Electrical 5500000 Substation rooms and
System) generation station along
with the basic equipments
like area lighting, safety and
security system, power
backup to the facility etc.
8 Civil Works (Generator) 35000000 Generators and Invertors
foundation
9 Land Planning and Civil 1500000 Land planning, contour
Work survey, leveling, soil testing,
area fencing
10 Misc. expenses 12275000 Included the and necessary
facilities for the operation
and maintenance team like
accommodation, main
control station and other
necessary civil work. land
acquisition, other necessary
construction for the project.
Total, INR 199646500 70346488
Grand Total, Cr 27.0
Rupees twenty seven crore only

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62 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur,
Rajasthan

Annexure-IV (c) Single line diagram of


proposed interfacing scheme

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64 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur,
Rajasthan

Annexure V: Financial sheets

Assumptions
Table 1: Assumptions and Financials of the Project

1 Project Specifications
Solar Dish
1.1 Name of the project Unit Stirling
1.2 Country where the project is situated India
1.3 Project Capacity KW 10,000
MW 10
2 Generation and sale of energy
2.1 Annual power generation from the Lacs kWhr 222.7
2.2 Plant Load Factor Percent 25.42%
2.3 Maximum field Losses Percent 4.0%
2.3 Net power generated Lacs kWhr 213.79
2.4 Net power sold 213.79
2.5 Tariff Required (levelised for 25 Rs/kWhr 19.0
Escalation in selling rate from 20th to
2.6 25th year Rs/kWhr 10.00
2.7 Annual Degration in efficiency (%) % 0.5%
Operation and maintenance(incl
3 insurance) Rs lacs/Year 287.50
O& M Per year per centage of
3.1 Project cost % 1.25%
3.2 Annual Escalation percentage 5.00%
4 Long term loan
4.1 The interest rate Percent 12.50%
7 Depreciation
7.1 Plant life assumed for working of Year 25
7.2 Salvage value % 10
7.3 Rate of Depreciation (1st 12 years) % 5.28%
7.4 Rate of Depreciation (From 13th years) % 2.05%
8 Financial Parameters
8.1 Debt / equity ratio Debt 70% Equity 30%
8.2 Equity Rs. Lacs 6,900.00
8.3 Long Term loan Rs. Lacs 16,100.00
8.4 Total cost Rs. Lacs 23,000.00
8.5 Cost Per MW Rs. Lacs 2,300.000
8.6 Income tax holiday Years 10.00
8.7 Minimum Alternate Tax (MAT) 10.00% Surcharge 10.00% Edu. Cess 3%Percent 11.33%
8.8 Income tax rate after 11th year 30% Surcharge 10.00% Edu.Cess 3% Percent 33.99%
8.9 Project Cost Rs in Lacs 23,000
9 Results Financial Parameters
9.1 ROE Percent 16.0%
9.2 Discounting Rate % 10.50
Levelized cost of generation
9.3 (Tariff)(25 years basis) Rs per kWhr 19.03
month of commissioning ph-2 in
Financial Year 5
month of commissioning ph-1 in
Financial Year 6

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66 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur, Rajasthan

Tariff calculation for 10 MW plant


Tariff Calculation for 10 MW plant:
Financial Year ----> FY-10 FY-11 FY-12 FY-13 FY-14 FY-15 FY-16 FY-17 FY-18 FY-19 FY-20 FY-21 FY-22
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
Generation Phase-1 10.69 21.27 21.17 21.06 20.95 20.85 20.75 20.64 20.54 20.44 20.33 20.23 20.13
Generation Phase-2 112.24 191.45 190.49 189.54 188.59 187.65 186.71 185.78 184.85 183.93 183.01 182.09
Total Generation 10.69 133.51 212.62 211.55 210.50 209.44 208.40 207.35 206.32 205.29 204.26 203.24 202.22
Annual Expences Phase-1 240.34 470.63 456.79 443.04 429.37 415.79 402.29 388.90 375.61 362.42 392.76 379.81 296.20
Annual Expences Phase-2 2,520.20 4,224.08 4,099.58 3,975.79 3,852.75 3,730.51 3,609.09 3,488.53 3,368.89 3,250.21 3,523.31 3,406.68
Total Annual Expences 240.34 2,990.83 4,680.87 4,542.62 4,405.16 4,268.54 4,132.80 3,997.99 3,864.14 3,731.31 3,642.98 3,903.11 3,702.89
Cost of Generation 22.48 22.40 22.02 21.47 20.93 20.38 19.83 19.28 18.73 18.18 17.84 19.20 18.31
Discounting factor 0.905 0.819 0.741 0.671 0.607 0.549 0.497 0.450 0.407 0.368 0.333 0.302 0.273
Discounted Tariff 20.35 18.35 16.32 14.40 12.70 11.20 9.86 8.67 7.63 6.70 5.95 5.80 5.00
Levellised Tariff 19.03

Net Annual expences in case CDM Benefit availed 237.13 2,950.77 4,617.08 4,479.15 4,342.01 4,205.71 4,070.28 3,935.78 3,802.25 3,669.73 3,581.70 3,842.14 3,642.22
Levelised Tariff with CDM Benefit availed 18.73

FY-23 FY-24 FY-25 FY-26 FY-27 FY-28 FY-29 FY-30 FY-31 FY-32 FY-33 FY-34 FY-35
14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26
20.03 19.93 19.83 19.73 19.63 19.53 19.44 19.34 19.24 19.15 19.05 18.96
181.18 180.27 179.37 178.48 177.58 176.70 175.81 174.93 174.06 173.19 172.32 171.46 170.60
201.21 200.20 199.20 198.21 197.22 196.23 195.25 194.27 193.30 192.34 191.37 190.42 170.60
292.93 289.80 286.81 285.38 287.09 290.56 294.20 298.02 302.03 306.24 310.67 315.31
2,654.25 2,624.82 2,596.62 2,569.69 2,562.60 2,583.85 2,615.04 2,647.79 2,682.18 2,718.29 2,756.20 2,796.01 2,837.81
2,947.18 2,914.62 2,883.42 2,855.07 2,849.70 2,874.41 2,909.24 2,945.81 2,984.21 3,024.53 3,066.87 3,111.32 2,837.81
14.65 14.56 14.47 14.40 14.45 14.65 14.90 15.16 15.44 15.73 16.03 16.34 16.63
0.247 0.224 0.202 0.183 0.166 0.150 0.136 0.123 0.111 0.101 0.091 0.082 0.075
3.62 3.26 2.93 2.64 2.40 2.20 2.02 1.86 1.72 1.58 1.46 1.35 1.24

2,886.82 2,854.56 2,823.66 2,795.61 2,790.53 2,815.55 2,850.67 2,887.53 2,926.22 2,966.83 3,009.46 3,054.20 2,786.63

T E R I Report No. 2009RT03