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Principles of hybrid ventilation

Department of Building Energetics and Building Service Engineering


Zoltn MAGYAR, PhD
Reasons for ventilation
Need for ventilation
Consequences of poor air quality
IAQ Strategy
Ventilation volume
Natural ventilation
Mechanical ventilation
Typical energy consumption for
different types of office
buildings
Hybrid ventilation
Mechanical and natural
ventilation
Ventilation strategy
Demand Controlled Hybrid
Ventilation


Flow versus time over the year
Flow stability
Ventilation for IAQ
Classification
Hybrid ventilation strategies
Components for hybrid ventilation
concepts
Natural ventilation concept based
on wind effect
Development stages for hybrid
systems
Detailed classes of hybrid ventilation
systems
Variability of Flow Pattern,
optimisation, control, BBBRI example

Summary
Reasons for ventilation
3

source
load
exposure

concentrations
dose

health effects
persons


Building
Emissions from:

materials

furniture

installations

crawlspace

Source: Technical Note AIVC 59, Air Infiltration and Ventilation Centre Operating Agent and Management, INIVE EEIG, Brussels, Belgium
4 4
AIR QUALITY
COMFORT
HEALTH
Required:
STUFFY
ODOUR
HOT
TOXIC
SICK BUILDING
COLD
DRAUGHTY
VENTILATION
A Solution:
CAN REMOVE POLLUTANTS
CAN REMOVE HEAT
ENERGY
A Problem:
LOSS OF CONDITIONED AIR
FAN ENERGY
Ventilation and Air Quality
5
Ventilation background
5
Before 1973
1973
Petroleum
crisis
1985
Thermal
Regulations
1996
Reinforced
thermal
regulations
Tomorrow
NOT insulated
NEITHER airtight
JUST insulated roof
Double glazing
Insulated
Airtight housing
Insulated
Airtight housing
Ventilation system
Man is a funny creature
When its hot he wants it cold
When its cold he wants it hot
Always wanting what is not
Man is a funny creature
ASHRAE Journal, unknown author
Need for ventilation
Windows cannot be a replacement for a proper
ventilation system!
supply oxygen we need
eliminate odors,
pollutants and allergens
eliminate the excess of
humidity in the air
provide a sense of well-
being.
Source: Natural Ventilation in the Urban Environment, Assessment and Design, Edited by Cristian Ghiaus and Francis Allard, ISBN: 1-84407-
129-4 hardback, 2005
Fig.1
Consequences of poor air quality
7
increase in airborne contamination
health hazards such as allergies, headaches,
rhinitis and asthma
reduction in air circulation
condensation and could growth
accumulation of radon
accumulation of carbon monoxide.
Source: Ventilation for acceptable indoor air quality, ASHRAE 62-1989
Fig. 2 a,b,c
IAQ Strategy
8
.
Source control
Elimination
Replacement
Insulation
Local exhaust
Only for
unavoidable
sources

Mixing
ventilation
For unavoidable
emissions of the
unavoidable sources
Displacement
ventilation
Source: Ventilation for acceptable indoor air quality, ASHRAE 62-1989
Ventilation volume
9

Ventilation purpose
IAQ Control
Temperature Control
Passive Cooling
Flow rates
5 10 l/s per person
Air Change Rate
5 10 h
-1

4 8 l/s per m
2
floorarea
Source: Technical Note AIVC 59 , Air Infiltration and Ventilation Centre Operating Agent and Management, INIVE EEIG, Brussels, Belgium
10
TWO ways of building
ventilation
10
Mechanical ventilation
Natural ventilation
Single sided ventilation
supply and extraction through the
same openings
openings ~4% of floor area
less efficient
internal door remain closed
Cross ventilation
supply and extraction at the same
level in the building
good result when wind exists
internal doors opened or equipped with
ventilation grilles
Stack ventilation
air supply through louvers and
extracted through chimneys
wind not needed
Mechanical supply ventilation
a fan supplies air to spaces
ventilation openings in buildings
envelope are used for extraction
usually used where high ventilation
rates are needed and air has to be
heated before entering the room
Mechanical extract ventilation
a fan draws air from spaces
fresh outdoor air enters into rooms
either through the leakage routes of
building envelope or through
ventilation openings in the building
envelope
Mechanical extract & supply ventilation
a balanced ventilation system
it must always include a supply and a
return air fan
an air heater is almost always
installed in the supply air side
Suitable for many types of buildings located in mild or moderate climates;
The 'open window' environment associated with natural ventilation is often
popular, especially in pleasant locations and mild climates;
Natural ventilation is usually inexpensive when compared to the capital,
operational and maintenance costs of mechanical systems;
High air flow rates for cooling and purging are possible if there are plenty of
openings;
Short periods of discomfort during periods of warm weather can usually be
tolerated;
No plant room space is needed;
Minimum maintenance;
Can be less expensive to install and operate than HVAC but this need not
always be true;
No fan or system noise.


11
Source: F. ALLARD, Natural ventilation in buildings, James & James, London, 1998
Natural ventilation
Review of its advantages:
The two natural mechanisms of ventilation
Wind
Negative
pressure
region
Wind driven flow
1. Wind Driven Ventilation
Cross Flow Wind
Wind Tower


Badgir (WindCatcher)


Wind tower
2 /
2
v C p
p w

F. ALLARD- CHAMPS Seminar Nanjing 20-22/03/2011
Natural ventilation system
single sided type
tropical climate
Yazd, Iran
Natural ventilation cross
tropical climate
IUT building La Runion Island
Fig.1 (a,b,c)
Fig.2
Fig.3
Fig.4
Fig.5
Neutral
pressure plane
Temperature driven flow
Stack (Flue)
Stack (Atrium)
(Courtesy M. Liddament)
Air Pressure
Pressure of air
increases closer
to the ground due
to the extra amount
of air above.

The pressure
gradient of air
increases indoors
because warmer
air is less dense.
A
'Stack' pressure
between openings
is given by A + B
'Neutral' Pressure
Plane
B
2. Stack Driven Ventilation
The two natural mechanisms of ventilation
13
F. ALLARD- CHAMPS Seminar Nanjing 20-22/03/2011
Stack height
Fig.6
14
Summer Example
time
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

(
d
e
g

C
)

30
20
10
6pm 6am 6am midnight 12noon
day night
Outside
temperature
Source: Natural Ventilation capabilities and limitations (comfort and energy efficiency in domestic dwellings), ATA Melbourne Branch
presentation, April 2008, Jim Lambert
N
a
t
u
r
a
l

v
e
n
t
i
l
a
t
i
o
n

p
r
i
n
c
i
p
l
e
s

15
Summer Example
time
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

(
d
e
g

C
)

30
20
10
6pm 6am 6am midnight 12noon
day night
Outside
temperature
Source: Natural Ventilation capabilities and limitations (comfort and energy efficiency in domestic dwellings), ATA Melbourne Branch
presentation, April 2008, Jim Lambert
N
a
t
u
r
a
l

v
e
n
t
i
l
a
t
i
o
n

p
r
i
n
c
i
p
l
e
s

Inside
temperature
16
Summer Example
time
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

(
d
e
g

C
)

30
20
10
6pm 6am 6am midnight 12noon
day night
Outside
temperature
Source: Natural Ventilation capabilities and limitations (comfort and energy efficiency in domestic dwellings), ATA Melbourne Branch
presentation, April 2008, Jim Lambert
N
a
t
u
r
a
l

v
e
n
t
i
l
a
t
i
o
n

p
r
i
n
c
i
p
l
e
s

Inside
temperature
Normal
comfort
range
Comfort
range with
moving air
17
Summer Example
time
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

(
d
e
g

C
)

30
20
10
6pm 6am 6am midnight 12noon
day night
Outside
temperature
Source: Natural Ventilation capabilities and limitations (comfort and energy efficiency in domestic dwellings), ATA Melbourne Branch
presentation, April 2008, Jim Lambert
N
a
t
u
r
a
l

v
e
n
t
i
l
a
t
i
o
n

p
r
i
n
c
i
p
l
e
s

Inside
temperature
Normal
comfort
range
Comfort
range with
moving air
Open all
windows
18
Summer Example
time
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

(
d
e
g

C
)

30
20
10
6pm 6am 6am midnight 12noon
day night
Outside
temperature
Source: Natural Ventilation capabilities and limitations (comfort and energy efficiency in domestic dwellings), ATA Melbourne Branch
presentation, April 2008, Jim Lambert
N
a
t
u
r
a
l

v
e
n
t
i
l
a
t
i
o
n

p
r
i
n
c
i
p
l
e
s

Inside
temperature
Normal
comfort
range
Comfort
range with
moving air
Open all
windows
Close all
windows
19
Summer Example
time
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

(
d
e
g

C
)

30
20
10
6pm 6am 6am midnight 12noon
day night
Outside
temperature
Source: Natural Ventilation capabilities and limitations (comfort and energy efficiency in domestic dwellings), ATA Melbourne Branch
presentation, April 2008, Jim Lambert
N
a
t
u
r
a
l

v
e
n
t
i
l
a
t
i
o
n

p
r
i
n
c
i
p
l
e
s

Inside
temperature
Normal
comfort
range
Comfort
range with
moving air
Open all
windows
Close all
windows
Start
internal
fan
20
Summer Example
time
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

(
d
e
g

C
)

30
20
10
6pm 6am 6am midnight 12noon
day night
Outside
temperature
Source: Natural Ventilation capabilities and limitations (comfort and energy efficiency in domestic dwellings), ATA Melbourne Branch
presentation, April 2008, Jim Lambert
N
a
t
u
r
a
l

v
e
n
t
i
l
a
t
i
o
n

p
r
i
n
c
i
p
l
e
s

Inside
temperature
Normal
comfort
range
Comfort
range with
moving air
Open all
windows
Close all
windows
Start
internal
fan
Open all
windows
21
Summer Example
time
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

(
d
e
g

C
)

30
20
10
6pm 6am 6am midnight 12noon
day night
Outside
temperature
Source: Natural Ventilation capabilities and limitations (comfort and energy efficiency in domestic dwellings), ATA Melbourne Branch
presentation, April 2008, Jim Lambert
N
a
t
u
r
a
l

v
e
n
t
i
l
a
t
i
o
n

p
r
i
n
c
i
p
l
e
s

Inside
temperature
Normal
comfort
range
Comfort
range with
moving air
Open all
windows
Close all
windows
Start
internal
fan
Open all
windows
Gentle forced
ventilation
overnight
22

Mechanical ventilation
Source: Technical Note AIVC 59 , Air Infiltration and Ventilation Centre Operating Agent and Management, INIVE EEIG, Brussels, Belgium
Review of its advantages:
Quantity of ventilation can be controlled;

Exhaust moisture/odors out of sanitary rooms;

Less ducts compared to balanced ventilation;

Simple system and widely known;

Possibility of individual control per room.
23
Typical energy consumption for
different types of office buildings
Source: Technical Note AIVC 59 , Air Infiltration and Ventilation Centre Operating Agent and Management, INIVE EEIG, Brussels, Belgium
Fig. 3
24
Hybrid ventilation ???
GENERAL DESCRIPTION
A hybrid ventilation system allows the controlled introduction of outdoor air
ventilation into a building by both mechanical and passive means;
it is sometimes called mixed-mode ventilation;
it has built-in strategies to allow the mechanical and passive portions to work in
conjunction with one another so as to not cause additional ventilation loads
compared to what would occur using mechanical ventilation alone;
it thus differs from a passive ventilation system, consisting of operable
windows alone, which has no automatic way of controlling the amount of outdoor
air load;
two variants of hybrid ventilation are:
the changeover (or complementary) type: spaces are ventilated either
mechanically or passively, but not both simultaneously;
the concurrent (or zoned) type: both methods provide ventilation
simultaneously, though usually to zones discrete from one another.
control of hybrid ventilation is obviously an important feature;
with the changeover variant, controls could switch between mechanical and
passive ventilation seasonally, diurnally, or based on a measured parameter;
in the case of the concurrent variant, appropriate controls are needed to
prevent fighting between the two ventilation methods.
Source: ASHRAE Green Guide, The Design, Construction, and Operation of Sustainable Buildings, 2006
25
Hybrid ventilation ???
WHEN/WHERE ITS APPLICABLE
when the owner and design team are willing to explore employing a
nonconventional building ventilation technique that has the promise of reducing
ongoing operating costs as well as providing a healthier, stimulating environment;

when it is determined that the building occupants would accept the concept of
using the outdoor environment to determine (at least, in part) the indoor
environment, which may mean greater variation in conditions than with a strictly
controlled environment;

when the design team has the expertise and willingnessand has the charge from
the ownerto spend the extra effort to create the integrated design needed to
make such a technique work successfully;

where extreme outside conditionsor a specialized type of building usedo not
preclude the likelihood of the successful application of such a technique;

buildings with atriums are particularly good candidates.
Source: ASHRAE Green Guide, The Design, Construction, and Operation of Sustainable Buildings, 2006
26
Hybrid ventilation ???
PROS AND CONS
PRO
HV is an innovative and potentially energy-efficient way to provide outdoor air
ventilation to buildings and, in some conditions, to cool them, thus reducing energy
otherwise required from conventional sources (power plant);

could lead to a lower building life-cycle cost;

could create a healthier environment for building occupants;

offers a greater sense of occupant satisfaction due to the increased ability to
exercise some control over the ventilation provided;

there is more flexibility in the means of providing ventilation; the passive variant
can act as backup to the mechanical system and vice versa;

could extend the life of the equipment involved in providing mechanical ventilation
since it would be expected to run less.
Source: ASHRAE Green Guide, The Design, Construction, and Operation of Sustainable Buildings, 2006
27
Hybrid ventilation ???
CONS
failure to integrate the mechanical aspects of a HV system with the
architectural design could result in a poorly functioning system;

additional first costs could be incurred since two systems are being provided
where only a single one would be provided otherwise, and controls for the passive
system could be a major portion of the added cost;

if automatic operable window openers are utilized, these could result in security
breaches if appropriate safeguards and overrides are not provided;

building operators may have to have special training to understand and learn how
best to operate the system;

occupants would probably need at least some orientation so that they would
understand and be tolerant of the differences in conditions that may prevail with
such a system;

special attention would need to be given to certain safety issues, such as fire and
smoke propagation in case of a fire;

difficult to predict conditions under all possible circumstances;
Source: ASHRAE Green Guide, The Design, Construction, and Operation of Sustainable Buildings, 2006
28
natural
mechanical
use as much as possible
natural forces:
wind
temperature difference
2 mode system
apply fans in case
natural forces can not fulfil
the required ventilation level
Hybrid ventilation
Source: Technical Note AIVC 59 , Air Infiltration and Ventilation Centre Operating Agent and Management, INIVE EEIG, Brussels, Belgium
29
Mechanical and Natural Ventilation
windspeed
ventilation
mechanical ventilation
natural ventilation
Req.
level
Source: Technical Note AIVC 59 , Air Infiltration and Ventilation Centre Operating Agent and Management, INIVE EEIG, Brussels, Belgium
.
30
Ventilation Strategy
natural mechanical
alternate mode

mixed mode
IAQ
thermal
comfort
Source: Technical Note AIVC 59 , Air Infiltration and Ventilation Centre Operating Agent and Management, INIVE EEIG, Brussels, Belgium
31

fan energy
or
transport
energy
energy
for
heating
ventilation
air
demand
hybrid
Demand Controlled Hybrid Ventilation
Source: Technical Note AIVC 59 , Air Infiltration and Ventilation Centre Operating Agent and Management, INIVE EEIG, Brussels, Belgium
Fig. 4 a,b
32

0
0,1
0,2
0,3
0,4
0,5
0,6
0,7
0,8
0,9
1
0 20 40 60 80
volume flow rate l/s
t
i
m
e

f
r
a
c
t
i
o
n
natural
mechanical
hybrid
Flow versus time over the year
Classification
Alternate use of natural and mechanical
Fan assisted natural
Stack and wind supported mechanical



Non of them are optimal hybrid
34
.
Hybrid ventilation strategies for
IAQ control
Approaches:
Mechanical air extraction with natural supply inlets
Mechanical air supply with natural extraction
Mechanical cooling or heating combined with natural
ventilation.

HYBRID VENTILATION system should be designed with
three factors being considered:
1 Provision of sufficient air leakage rate at different
environmental conditions.
2 Ability to control or throttle back the leakage rate under
severe weather conditions, e.g. during high winds.
3 Prevention of back-draught or over-extraction through
the extract openings, such as stacks, during high winds.

35
.
Hybrid ventilation strategies for
IAQ control
Alternate use of natural
and mechanical
ventilation
Commerzbank
Frankfurt

Norman Foster
Source: Technical Note AIVC 59 , Air Infiltration and Ventilation Centre Operating Agent and Management, INIVE EEIG, Brussels, Belgium
Fig. 5 a,b
36

Typical 2 mode system
Natural
In case weather
conditions allow
Mechanical
In case weather conditions
require
Source: Technical Note AIVC 59 , Air Infiltration and Ventilation Centre Operating Agent and Management, INIVE EEIG, Brussels, Belgium
Fig. 6 a,b
37

Hybrid ventilation strategies for IAQ
control
Fan assisted natural ventilation
Media school Grong Norway
Source: Technical Note AIVC 59 , Air Infiltration and Ventilation Centre Operating Agent and Management, INIVE EEIG, Brussels, Belgium
Fig. 7 a,b
38
Source: Technical Note AIVC 59 , Air Infiltration and Ventilation Centre Operating Agent and Management, INIVE EEIG, Brussels, Belgium
Hybrid ventilation strategies for
IAQ control
Fig. 8
39
COMPONENTS FOR HYBRID
VENTILATION CONCEPTS
Low pressure fans with advanced control mechanism
Low pressure static heat exchanger
Low pressure ductwork
Wind towers, solar chimneys or atria for exhaust. Underground
ducts, culverts or plenums to pre-condition supply air
Source: Technical Note AIVC 59 , Air Infiltration and Ventilation Centre Operating Agent and Management, INIVE EEIG, Brussels, Belgium
Fig. 10
40
Solar assisted ventilation
40
T
e
c
h
n
i
c
a
l

s
o
l
u
t
i
o
n
s

f
o
r

N
a
t
u
r
a
l

V
e
n
t
i
l
a
t
i
o
n

Source: C. Ghiaus, F. Allard, J. Axley, C-A. Roulet, Natural ventilation: principles, solutions and tools
T
w1
h
1
T
w2
h
2
T
i
T
e
T
i
Glass
Wall
Outdoor
air
T
o
<T
i
T
e
T
i
(a) (b)
i
p
d
p
e
p
Solar collector
(Trombe wall)
(Awbi,1998)
Source: Awbi, H. (1998). Ventilation. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 2: 157-188.
ventilator heater
Source: Rakesh Khanal, Chengwang Lei, Solar chimneyA passive strategy for natural ventilation, Volume 43, Issue 8, 2011, Pg 18111819
Cross section of
Victoria Barracks,
Sydney, showing air
flow
path of cross flow
natural ventilation
incorporating a
solar chimney
41
41
Single sided, cross flow and stack
ventilation for air quality and cooling;
Key Features:
C
a
s
e

s
t
u
d
i
e
s

BRE Office Building, Watford, UK
Year of completion:1996
Type of building: Office
Site: Urban
Project Manager: Bernard Williams and Associates
Architect : Feilden Clegg Bradley Architects
Services Engineers: Max Fordham and Partners
Optional occupant controlled openable windows;
Solar heated fan assisted stack and wind driven design for first two floors;
Good internal air contact with thermal mass through hollow sinusoidal
concrete
ceiling elements;
BEMs controlled openings of stack vents to control cooling and air quality;
Cellular and open plan offices;
Daylighting and low energy lighting;
Active external solar shading;
Some groundwater cooling;
BEMS system controls air quality and night cooling ventilation;
Air change rates as high as 30 h
-1
could be achieved to meet cooling needs;
The top floor of the building was separately ventilated by cross flow.
Source: http://www.feildenclegg.com
Source: The Environmental Building, Case Study by Clayton Harrison, Spring 2006
Fig.18
42
42
C
a
s
e

s
t
u
d
i
e
s

BRE Office Building, Watford, UK
Ventilation & Cooling
five cooling stacks towering over the south side of the building which hint at
the building's complex ventilation system that takes advantage of the buildings
narrow layout for cross-ventilation purposes;
the curved, hollow, concrete floor slabs also aid in the buildings ventilation by
drawing air in through the passages in the floor/ceiling on hot, windy days;
cooling can be managed also by circulating water through the passages in the
curving slab;
this cold water is supplied by a 70-meter-deep bore hole where the
temperature is a constant 10 Celsius.
this cold water is used in heat exchangers to chill circulatory water;
the floor can also then use the water to store coolness from
the night for the next day. In the winter time, the water is
heated by condensing gas boilers that are 30% more efficient than
traditional boilers by recovering heat lost in flue gases. All heating
and cooling systems are managed by the Trend building
management system (BMS).
Source: http://www.feildenclegg.com
Source: The Environmental Building, Case Study by Clayton Harrison, Spring 2006
43 43
C
a
s
e

s
t
u
d
i
e
s

BRE Office Building, Watford, UK
Solar Control and Daylighting
the buildings glazing is optimized by a louvered exterior shading
system that is designed to allow maximum daylighting while
minimizing glare;
the louvers in the shading system have a translucent ceramic
coating on their underside to filter direct sunlight as it reflects
off it;
the louvers change position corresponding to the time of day and
season; they are controlled by the automated functions of the
BMS, but can be overridden by occupants via a remote control;
the louvers are oriented so the views of the occupants are not
obstructed while either seated at desks or standing in circulation
spaces.
Source: The Environmental Building, Case Study by Clayton Harrison, Spring 2006
Fig. 19 a,b
44
Monitoring in winter and
summer showed that design
conditions were fully
satisfied;

During hot weather the
inside air temperature
remained at between
approximately 3-5 K below
the outdoor peak
temperature;

The inside peak design
temperature of 28C was not
exceeded. 44
C
a
s
e

s
t
u
d
i
e
s

BRE Office Building, Watford, UK
Statistics and Studies
Source: The Environmental Building, Case Study by Clayton Harrison, Spring 2006
Building Area: 2,200 m
2
Site Area: 6,400 m
2

Density: 100 people @ 12 m
2
/person
Energy Use Predicted Total:
83 KWhr/ m
2
/annum
(0.3GJ/m
2
/annum)
Heating: 47 kW/h/ m
2
/annum
Artificial lighting: 9 kW/h/ m
2
/annum
Cooling: 2-3.5 kW/h/ m
2
/annum
Mech Vent: 0.5 kW/h/ m
2
/annum
General elec: 23 kW/h/ m
2
/annum
45
Development stages for hybrid systems
local exhaust versus central exhaust
balancing supply and exhaust
controlled supply
low pressure systems supported by wind and
buoyancy
demand control
optimisation
sizing
demand
control
l
o
g
i
c
a
l


c
o
m
b
i
n
a
t
i
o
n
s

46
Detailed classes of hybrid ventilation
systems
Overview of different types
Hybrid ventilation
based on mechanical
exhaust
(Heinonen and
Kosonen, 2000)
Concept 1
Source: Hybrid ventilation, Guidelines 2007
Fig. 13
47
Detailed classes of hybrid ventilation
systems
Overview of different types
Hybrid ventilation
with supply air duct
(Heinonen and
Kosonen, 2000).
Concept 2
Source: Hybrid ventilation, Guidelines 2007
Fig. 14
48
Detailed classes of hybrid ventilation
systems
Overview of different types
Hybrid ventilation
based on balanced
ventilation
(Heinonen and
Kosonen, 2000).
Concept 3
Source: Hybrid ventilation, Guidelines 2007
Fig. 15
49
.
Optimisation
energy
IAQ
thermal
comfort
life cycle analysis
hybrid
ventilation system
50
IAQ
demand control
time
occupancy
sensor
what indicator
CO
2
mixed gas

Thermal comfort
Temperature
Air temperature
Operative temperature
Air velocity
RH

Control algorithm's
Control Strategy
ASHRAE
Summer
Winter
Source: Technical Note AIVC 59 , Air Infiltration and Ventilation Centre Operating Agent and Management, INIVE EEIG, Brussels, Belgium
Fig. 16
51
.
Final Remark
Many ventilation systems may called hybrid

Many ventilation systems may called demand controlled

Hybrid ventilation systems are available in several stages of
technical development

Comparisons in terms of objective performances is the only
correct one!!

Optimization of hybrid ventilation systems is still a difficult
task

52
References
Technical Note AIVC 59 , Air Infiltration and Ventilation Centre Operating Agent
and Management, INIVE EEIG, Brussels, Belgium
Chapter 8 : Thermal Comfort. In: ASHRAE handbook of fundementals. SI
Edition. Atlanta: ASHRAE, 1997, p. 8.1-8.28.
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Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers, Inc., 1989 ASHRAE 62-1989
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