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GEA Luftkhler

GmbH
Energy Technology
Division
Air-Cooled
Heat Exchangers
cool engineering
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A
Air for Cooling
Air cooling is a process of choice in many applications. Modern utility facilities are, of
course, among the installations that are usually air cooled.
Air is hardly corrosive, does not cost a price, is an unlimited resource, is a clean cooling
fluid, does not need to be treated and is not subject to strict disposal standards.
The size of air cooling systems is essentially a function of the maximum air inlet temper-
ature and the desired product outlet temperature of the heat exchanger. For this reason,
the surplus capacity of an air cooler is substantial when the outdoor temperature is low.
The reduction of air flow under these conditions optimizes cooler performance, lowers
energy consumption and reduces noise levels.
Wherever water is costly, but product temperatures must be very low, GEALuftkhler
offers evaporative coolers which can be changed over from wet to dry operation.
GEA Luftkhler supplies customized coolers designed to GEA standards, recognized
international standards and codes of practice and all applicable rules and regulations.
Coolers and heat exchangers made by GEALuftkhler feature a wide range of different
fin shapes and headers in any material or combination of materials desired.
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Air-Cooled Heat Exchangers
Horizontal type air cooler at Shell Per+, Rotterdam / The Netherlands
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S
Sectors and Applications Served
GEALuftkhlers air-cooled heat exchang-
ers serve a wide range of sectors and appli-
cations including refineries, the chemical in-
dustry, the petrochemical industry, oil and
gas production operations, pipeline com-
pressor stations, steel mills, mining, power
stations, water recooling systems and large
air-conditioning plants.
GEALuftkhler offers a complete range of
services including:
feasibility and viability studies,
conceptual design,
basic engineering design,
detailed engineering design,
procurement and production,
assembly and installation and
commissioning including operator
training.
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Air-cooled condenser in a chemical plant
Central water chilling plant
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L
L Tubes
Applications: The Ltube is a finned tube for low temperature applications
where a certain degree of protection of the tube wall against corrosion is
required. The broad contact surface between the tube and the finning en-
hances heat transfer.
Manufacture: The foot of the fin is shaped first and the fin is then tension-
wound around the tube. Each fin is in contact with an adjacent fin and pro-
vides a certain degree of protection in atmospheres which are not highly
corrosive. The manufacturing technology allows the use of relatively thin-
walled tubes.
X
XE Tubes
Applications: XE tubes are mainly used for high pressure applications where
space is limited. The tube combines the excellent properties of galvanized
steel tubes featuring steal finning with the geometry of round tubes. The de-
sign (two tubes with one fin) minimizes the size of the exchanger. As the fins
are very stiff, they can be cleaned easily by high-pressure water without dam-
age to the finning.
Manufacture: The process for the manufacture of the XE tube is similar to
the FE tube production process.
F
FE Tube
Applications: The FE tube is a finned tube with an optimized shape which
features excellent thermodynamic properties. The airside pressure drop
across an elliptical finned tube is lower than the pressure loss in a round-
tube exchanger, as less downstream turbulence is developed. Turbulators
on the finning which have a negligible impact on pressure loss achieve ex-
cellent heat transfer rates. Rectangular fins keep the face area limited and
allow a compact design.
Galvanization and the wide fin collar enhance heat transfer between the
tube and the fin and make the finned tube insensitive to thermal and mech-
anical stress. The fin collar and the metal-to-metal joint strengthen the tube.
Complete external galvanization provides outstanding protection against
corrosion. Cleaning by high-pressure water lancing presents no risk.
Manufacture: Fins are punched and then lined up on the tube by an auto-
matic process. The galvanization that follows achieves excellent heat
transfer and corrosion resistance properties.
Fin material: Steel
Tube material: Steel/stainless steel
Working temperature: 360C
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Finned Tube Details
Air-Cooled Heat Exchangers
Fin material: Steel
Tube material: Steel/stainless steel
Working temperature: 360C
Fin material: Aluminum
Tube material: Any metal
Working temperature: 130C
The cost efficiency of air-cooled heat exchangers depends essentially on the heat transfer
capabilities of the finned tube used. Important factors to be considered include the heat
transfer rate, the size of the heat exchanger and the airside pressure drop.
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B
Bimetal Finned Tubes
Applications: Bimetal finned tubes are designed for increased tempera-
ture service and protect the tube fully against atmospheric corrosion. The
extruded fins feature 40 % more aluminum than comparable fins. They
are very sturdy and resistant to mechanical stress and can therefore be
cleaned easily by steam or water. The tube material can be adapted to the
fluid handled. The tube is for this reason fit for nearly all aggressive chem-
icals.
Manufacture: The fins are extruded from a sleeve around the tube. In this
process, the inside diameter of the sleeve is reduced and the sleeve is
pressed on the tube. The process produces a strong joint with excellent
heat transfer capabilities.
G
G-Fin Tube
Applications: The G-fin tube was designed for high thermal or mechan-
ical stress.
Manufacture: The finning is tension-wound into a helical tube groove and
embedded in the groove by high-pressure expansion. The material dis-
placed is then pressed against the fin sides.
K
K Tube
Applications: The K tube was developed from the L tube for increased
temperature levels and provides enhanced corrosion protection to the out-
side wall of the tube.
Manufacture: The foot of the fin is shaped first and the fin is then tension-
wound around the tube. Knurling tools both precede and follow the fin
and lock the fin material in the pre-knurled tube. The process increases
the area available for heat transfer. The joint between the fin and the tube
is air tight and improves corrosion protection.
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Fin material: Aluminum
Tube material: Any metal
Working temperature: 250C
Fin material: Aluminum
Tube material: Any metal suitable for
easy mechanical processing
Working temperature: 400C
Fin material: Aluminum.
Tube material: Any metal
Working temperature: 220C
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Studded Header with Cover
The studded header features top or bottom nozzles to allow cover removal
without disassembly of the piping. Nozzles may alternatively be integrated
in the cover.
The header is fit for a maximum pressure of 60 bar depending on fluid tem-
perature and the type of sealing. Anon-standard header design is required
for higher pressures.
Tubes may be weld connected or expanded.
S
Screw-Bolted Header with Cover
The screw-bolted header features a removable cover for easy inspection
and tube cleaning. It is normally sufficient to remove a pipe bend for
inspection, since the removal of the bend allows the examination of part
of the tube array.
Tubes may be weld connected or expanded.
W
Welded Header
The low-cost welded header is mainly used for clean products or vacuum
pressure conditions. The tubes are welded into tube sheets to which the
bonnet-type header with the necessary nozzles is welded.
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Air-Cooled Heat Exchangers
Tube-to-header joints are either welded or expanded depending on header design. Arange of header designs has been
developed for different applications and requirements. Standard header configurations are presented below.
Header Details
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P
Plug-Type Header
Tubing is usually connected to plug-type headers by expansion, but may
also be weld-connected to the tube sheet. Athreaded plug with a soft iron
gasket is provided opposite each tube and may be removed for further
tube expansion or tube cleaning. As nozzles are top or bottom mounted, pip-
ing does not need to be disassembled for inspection or cleaning.
The plug-type header is normally used for high-pressure applications.
H
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H
High-Pressure Header
with Plugged Reversing
Segments
Athreaded plug with a soft
iron gasket is located oppo-
site each tube. The plug may
be removed for further tube
expansion or for tube clean-
ing.
High-Pressure Header
with Welded Reversing
Bends
The two high-pressure
headers are ideal for high
temperature differences,
since each tube can expand
and contract indepen-
dently.
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Air-Cooled Heat Exchangers
Configurations
GEAoffers a range of air-cooled heat exchanger configu-
rations to accommodate different process and site require-
ments. Unrestricted air access and discharge is vital for each
of these configurations: Roof-mounted structures are often
selected where space is limited.
vertical configuration
roof-mounted configuration
in-line configuration
horizontal configuration
induced draft
forced draft
forced draft induced draft
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F
Fan, motor and reduction gearing selection
Fan blading is manufactured from aluminum or fiber-re-
inforced plastic. The air flow rate and noise emission speci-
fications determine the number of blades, the blade shape
and the fan speed. All fans are balanced in accordance with
applicable standards and codes.
Belts and pulleys are normally used for all motor ratings.
Dynamic balancing is provided for pulleys. V-belt, toothed
belt and power band drives are available. Gear drives are
limited to large motors.
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Fan Details
increased noise emission requirements
v: 40-45 m/s n:>6 blades d/D:=0.30
The following systems are employed to control air flow,
either single or in combination:
louvers (manual or automatic)
pole reversing motors
automatically adjustable fan blades
frequency converters
standard noise emission requirements
v: 50-60 m/s n:>4 blades d/D:=0.23
model currently used to satisfy strictest
noise emission requirements
strict noise emission requirements
v: 28-32 m/s n:>8 blades d/D:=0.37
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G
Geared Drive
The motor shaft is coupled directly to the
input shaft of the gearing.
I
Induced-Draft Belt Drive
If the discharge air temperature is low, the
motor may alternatively be mounted above
the heat exchanger.
F
Forced-Draft Belt Drive
The speed of the motor is reduced to the de-
sired fan speed by means of pulleys.
D
Direct Drive
The fan is mounted directly on the motor
shaft. The fan and the motor operate at the
same speed.
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Air-Cooled Heat Exchangers
Fan Drive Details
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F
Finned-Tube Bundle
The finned-tube bundle consists of the finned tubing (or unfinned tubes in certain cases), the headers (manifolds)
and a frame.
A
Air Cooler Bank
The air cooler bank consists essentially of finned-tube bundles, fan rings, axial-flow fans with their motors, a support
structure as well as any maintenance platforms, louvers and other equipment required by the client.
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Luftkhlers Design Details
heating coil
louver
finned-tube bundle
fan
fan ring
air plenum
support structure
belt
pulley
motor
vent/drain
inlet
header
outlet
header
tube sheet
(floating side)
guide bolt
cover
gasket
tube sheet
(fixed side)
bracket
finned tubes
lug
side wall
cover plate
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Quality Management System and Quality Assurance
Air-Cooled Heat Exchangers
GEA Luftkhlers quality management system has been
certified to ISO 9001 since 1992.
The quality management manual contains written in-
structions for each single operation of a project from de-
sign to delivery to assure that each product fully satisfies
all requirements of the customer specification or the rele-
vant standards and codes.
Qualified staff such as design engineers, welding engineers,
non-destructive test examiners and quality inspectors re-
sponsible for receiving inspections, interim tests and final
tests ensure compliance with all engineering design, pro-
duction and test quality standards.
Pressure vessels can be designed, manufactured, tested and
marked in accordance with all relevant international codes
including AD-M 2000, Stoomwezen requirements, British
standards, ASME codes and standards, API 661 or the
European Pressure Equipment Directive 97/23/EC.
Advanced computer-aided quality and weld
scheduling to eliminate interface risks and to
optimize quality
Quality Management System and Other Certifications
ISO 9001
AD Merkblatt HP0
EN 729-2
ASME Pressure Vessel Code, Sec. VIII, Div. 1 and 2
Lloyds Register, class 2/2
-NORM 7812-1
UDT Poland requirements
Notified Bodies for the Verification of
Designs and Tests
Supervising organizations of the chemical and
petrochemical industries
RWTV
Stoomwezen
Lloyds Register
Bureau Veritas
and others
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GEAtest bench for fans
Research and Development
Flow simulation using the PHOENICS CFD software Wind tunnel model testing / R&D centre in Bochum / Germany
The headquarters Research and Development Center of
GEA Luftkhler develops new and improved products
with a highly customer-focused approach.
Both advanced mathematical modeling techniques and
wind tunnel tests visualizing air flows are used. These re-
sources allow GEALuftkhler to optimize large-scale fa-
cilities for local site conditions during the design phase.
Finned tubes for air-cooled heat exchangers are also im-
proved continuously using a wind tunnel built specifical-
ly for this purpose.
Fan design is a function of the fan performance required
and applicable noise emission standards. GEALuftkhler
operates its own fan test bay to test the efficiency and the
noise emissions of full-scale fans nearly under field condi-
tions and to optimize fan units.
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Refineries
Facility Customer
1. Lingen, Germany Lurgi
2. Nanking, China Lurgi
3. Shell Cressier, Switzerland Comprimo
4. Shell Per+, The Netherlands Fluor/Lummus/Comprimo
5. Samara, Russia Salzgitter Anlagenbau
6. PCK Schwedt, Germany Edeleanu Leipzig
7. Slovnaft, Slovakia Raytheon Engineers
8. Kaucuk, Czech Republic ABB, Lummus Global
9. MSPO-2, Moerdijk, The Netherlands ABB/Shell
10. DEAHeide, Germany Lurgi
11. DEAWesseling, Germany Edeleanu Alzenau
12. Tar
Petrochemical Plants
Facility Customer
1. Methanol plant, Sabameth, Malaysia Lurgi
2. Styrene plant, BASF, Germany Krupp Koppers
3. Urethane plant, China Hanyang Chemical
4. Methanol plant, Trinidad Ferrostaal
5. Propylen glycol and ether plant, The Netherlands John Brown
6. Styrene expansion project, Antwerp, Belgium BASF Antwerpen N.V.
7. Cracker, EC, Dormagen, Germany Bayer
8. Methanol plant, Khag Island, Iran Centrigrade, Shiraz
9. EOAplant, BASF, The Netherlands Kraftanlagen Energie- und
Umwelttechnik GmbH
Steel Mills
Facility Customer
1. Kursk steel mill, Russia DSD, Dsseldorf
2. Posco steel mill, Korea Mannesmann Demag
3. ICDAS steel mill, Turkey ICDAS, Istanbul
4. Water recooler, Germany Dillinger Htte
5. Water recooler, Germany Stahlwerke Bremen
6. Water recooler, Russia VAI, Linz
7. Evaporative air cooler, Germany Salzgitter Anlagenbau
8. Water recooler, Belgium Sidmar, Belgien
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Air-Cooled Heat Exchangers
Major Reference Plants
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Gas Facilities and Compressor Stations
Facility Customer
1. Orenburg pipeline, Russia Mannesmann Anlagenbau
2. Yamal pipeline, Russia AEG Kanis
3. Gas coolers, Germany PLE/Ruhrgas
4. Berlin gas plant, Germany Babcock Borsig
5. Grijpskerk II, The Netherlands NAM B.V.
6. Gas coolers, Czech Republic CKD, Prag
7. Gas coolers, TAG II OMV, Wien
8. Gas coolers, ARAK, Iran PLE, Essen
Other Installations
Facility Customer
1. Cabora Bassa, Apollo, Mozambique AEG, Frankfurt
2. Aramco gas program, Saudi Arabia Aramco, Dhahran
3. Sasolburg coal gasification plant, South Africa Lurgi/Linde/Fluor
4. Medina air conditioning plant, Saudi Arabia York Intl, USA
5. Condenser, Saudi Arabia ABB/SADAF
6. Evaporative cooler, Schwarzheide, Germany BASF Schwarzheide
7. Condenser, Al-Jubail, Saudi Arabia ABB Lummus B.V.
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Erection of an air-cooled heat exchanger High-Pressure, plug type, alloy steel header
Roof type condensers, BASF Antwerp / Belgium Air cooler, LGN plant Woodside / Australia
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GEA Luftkhler GmbH Dorstener Strasse 18-29 D-44651 Herne, Germany Tel. ++49/234/980-0 Fax ++49/234/980-1974
www.gea-luftkuehler.com
Energy Technology
Division
GEA Luftkhler
GmbH
A company of mg technologies group
Castrop-Rauxel, Dortmund
Mnster, Recklinghausen
Ab.-Kreuz/motorway
intersection HERNE
Ausfahrt/exit
HERNE-CRANGE
Ausfahrt/exit
HERNE-ZENTRUM
Ausfahrt/exit
BOCHUM-RIEMKE
Dortmund
Ausfahrt/exit
BOCHUM-ZENTRUM
Ab.-Kreuz/
motorway
intersection
BOCHUM
Ausfahrt/exit
BOCHUM-HAMME
Essen
Bochum
(Zentrum/city
centre)
Bochum
(Zentrum/city
centre)
Duisburg,
Oberhausen,
Gelsenkirchen
Wuppertal, Kln
A42
A42
A43
A43
A40
A40
A40
HERNE
BOCHUM HERNE
BOCHUM
Herzogstrae
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B 226
B 226 B 51
GEA Luftkhler GmbH
Dorstener Strae 18-29
44651 Herne
20
14
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38
33
A45
A2
A1
A45
A40
A43
A43
A42
A1
A3
A3
A40
A42
A3
A2
A52
A52
A2
A46
A1
A46
A1
A44
A1
AB.-Kr. =Autobahnkreuz/motorway intersection
Dortmund
Recklinghausen
Gelsenkirchen
Wuppertal
Leverkusen
Bochum
Essen
Oberhausen
Bottrop
Duisburg
Dsseldorf
Kln
Hannover
Kassel
Bremen Emmerich/Arnheim
Venlo
Frankfurt
Ab.-Kr.
Dortmund/Unna
Westhofener Kreuz
Ab.-Kr.
Bochum
Ab.-Kr.
Herne
Ab.-Kr. Recklinghausen
Ab.-Kr.
Wuppertal-Nord
Ab.-Kr.
Breitscheid
Ab.-Kr.
Hilden
Frankfurt
Mnchen-
gladbach
Hagen
Mnster
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