Troubleshooting Cisco Nexus

7000 Series Switches
BRKDCT-3144
Dipl.-Ing. Andreas la Quiante
alaquian@cisco.com
Nexus Product Management
Cisco Data Center Group
Level 3
11:30
Chapter 0:
Housekeeping
Our ASICs are
starting with zero,
so do we today ;-)
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Housekeeping
Contribution & Great Help from:
Matt
Martin
Ron
Roland
Dmitry Ronald
Adam
Need help like me?
Terri
They provided feedback, answers to my questions.
Also I borrowed some content…Danke!
Anver
Q&A Moderator
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Housekeeping
Icons
N7K
Switch
Router
PC
Layer 3
Layer 2
Focus
Notes
N7004-Berlin#
sh int e 3/12
CLI
my notes
Geek
content
Error/Failure/Challenge
Cisco TAC
Partner request:
Include „real cases/examples“
Reference Slide Hidden Slides
148 in total [28-JAN-14]
Interface
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8
Housekeeping
The Rides
1
2
3
4
5
6
Strategy
Tools & System
Data-Plane
Layer 2
Backup
Data-Plane
Layer 3
Cisco Live 2014: 90 min
Control-Plane
Inband
Control-Plane
ARP
1
Layout of each chapter, like a train/subway line with a color code
25
20
12
12
8
1 1
WebEx 120 min for YOU
12-FEB-14 10:00 CET opt-in:
alaquian@cisco.com
“subject BRKDCT-3144”
11:35
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9
Housekeeping
Adjacent Sessions
Breakouts
Avoiding any content overlap since we have only 90 minutes today
please consider the following sessions to complement your skills:
BRKDCT-2049 Overlay Transport Virtualization
BRKDCT-2048 Deploying Virtual Port Channel in NX-OS (vPC)
BRKDCT-3144 Troubleshooting Cisco Nexus 7000 Series Switches
BRKDCT-2121 VDC Design and Implementation Considerations with Nexus 7000
BRKNMS-2695 Admin.and Mon.of the Cisco DataCenter with Cisco Prime DCNM
BRKDCT-3346 End-to-End QoS Implementation and Operation with Cisco Nexus
BRKDCT-3445 Building scalable data center networks with NX-OS and Nexus 7000
BRKDCT-3145 Adv - Troubleshooting Cisco Nexus 5000 / 2000 Series Switches
BRKARC-3470 Advanced - Cisco Nexus 7000/7700 Switch Architecture
BRKDCT-2081 Cisco FabricPath Technology and Design
BRKDCT-3103 Advanced OTV – Config/Troubleshooting OTV in the network
0
Chapter 1:
Strategy,
Tools and
System
Strategy
CLI
Ethanalyzer
ELAM
ELAME
System
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Strategy
Three areas
Direction
System Troubleshooting
- Core, CPU, Memory, Interface/Vlan behaving odd,
hardware challenges
1
Data Plane Troubleshooting
- Packets are lost
- your primary questions is “where”
- 100% loss or partial loss
- consistent or periodically
Control Plane Troubleshooting
- Something is flapping
- Convergence challenges
- start at the process (log)
ELAM(E)
“Anything better
than checking
everything is an
improvement”
ALQ 2014
L2
Inband ARP
TCAM L3
L3
ELAM(E) Ethanaylzer
ELAM: Embedded Logic Analyzer
Memory leaks not common on NX-OS
Each process has an max-mem limit
N7K# sh sys internal memory-alert-log
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12
Strategy
System, Data-Plane, or Control-Plane
I/O Module
(Forwarding
Engine)
I/O Module
(Forwarding
Engine)
System
Control-
Plane
Data-
Plane
1
2 3 6
4 5
Reference Point 2
Reference Point 1
Supervisor
(Control-Plane)
Tools
13
11:40
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Tools
NX-OS Logging and a Powerful CLI
NX-OS Value
NX-OS is build up
with most extensive,
fine granular logging
capabilities
NX-OS
CLI, SNMP
XML, Python
GUI, OF
OnePK
Chef, Puppet
High Performance
Feature Rich Switching
Logging
Switching
Logging
Configuration
1
NX-OS:
Build in
Flight Recorder
Standard CLI
Engineering CLI
Internal keyword
output is not
documented
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Tools
Show Tech
Show tech ABC
Always try to use the detailed version show tech detail










Feature
Event history

States (PSS,...)

HW states
Always redirect to a file
Always use a separate file per show tech
1
Suggestion for VDC: BRKDCT-2121
VDC Design and Implementation Considerations
Global Service
VDC-1 Default
Feature
“project binary logger”
Significan time saver
Show tech all-binary
Avoiding also
“we need show tech A”
after a while doing RCA
“we need show tech B”
For use by
TAC/BU/ENG
t0 t2 t3 t1
t0 to t2
trigger failure
Immediately
collect data!
Then start
troubleshooting
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17
Tools
Custom ASICs provide detaild counters via CLI
ASICs
Some „error“ counters are part of a normal operation
(e.g. dropping packets at ingress trunk if the marked VLAN is not
known (CBL drops), diag packets, extra flooded packets)
One of TAC‘s favourite commands. Use „all“ to look for all
modules / ASICs
1
N7004-Berlin# show hardware internal errors module 3
|------------------------------------------------------------------------|
| Device:Clipper MAC Role:MAC Mod: 3 |
| Last cleared @ Mon Nov 25 21:41:37 2013
| Device Statistics Category :: ERROR
|------------------------------------------------------------------------|

Instance:2
Cntr Name Value Ports
----- ---- ----- -----
0 GD GMAC bad character interrupt 0000000000000002 12 -
1 GD GMAC sequence error interrupt 0000000000000002 12 -
2 GD GMAC transition from nosync to sync int 0000000000000002 12 -
3 GD GMAC transition from sync to nosync int 0000000000000001 12 -
4 PL ingress_cbl_drop 0000000000003426 12 -
GD GMAC Build in MAC Controller
Our innovative ASICs
provide many counters
ASICs are a great
source of information
(esp. for the Data Path)
e.g.
F1/F2/F3
Non-Zero Counter
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Tools
CLI-Tools: How can I select what I need?
Tips & Tricks
N7004-Berlin# show system internal pktmgr interface
<SNIP>
Vlan1, ordinal: 38 Hash_type: 1
SUP-traffic statistics: (sent/received)
Packets: 2769 / 1896
Bytes: 1619370 / 241310
Instant packet rate: 1 pps / 0 pps
Packet rate limiter (Out/In): 0 pps / 0 pps
Average packet rates(1min/5min/15min/EWMA):
Packet statistics:
Tx: Unicast 1123, Multicast 1641
Broadcast 5
Rx: Unicast 163, Multicast 1730
Broadcast 3

N7004-Berlin# show system internal pktmgr interface |i or|I
<SNIP>
Vlan1, ordinal: 38 Hash_type: 1
Instant packet rate: 0 pps / 0 pps
Packet rate limiter (Out/In): 0 pps / 0 pps
port-channel100, ordinal: 72 Hash_type: 1
Instant packet rate: 1 pps / 1 pps
Packet rate limiter (Out/In): 0 pps / 0 pps
If I am only interested in
parts of the output I can ask
for just those items
You save time by having to
read less
Nexus# sh ver | ?
egrep Egrep -
grep Grep -
head Displ 1
st
ln
last Displ last
less Filter
no-more
sed
wc Count
begin Begin with
count Count
exclude Exclude ln
include Include ln
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Tools
Log Window (upcoming)
1
N7K# source logw.py 15/01/2014 12:24:55 100
starting with empty stats stats init done Logw system check port version
0.060813
Time range 2014-01-15 12:24:55 ... 2014-01-15 12:26:35 Got 343 show
... event-history clis
244 clis left after pre-filtering
collecting outputs...done, collected 2602 events in 96.197735 seconds sorted

<snip>
Trigger
logw.py [-h] [-v] [-f FILTERS] [-t TRUNCATE] [-n
MAX_EVENTS] [-s] start_date start_time duration
Logfile
10MB
logfile
NVRAM
On-board
Event
History
Tip:
show log log immediately displays the logfile output, and is
faster than show log which has to read the logging severity settings
On-Board:
Major state changes, MTS transactions, useful for module troubleshooting

It is a good idea to synchronize all devices in
your network to one time source
11:45
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Tools
Accounting Log or who did it?
Audit Recording
N7004-Berlin# show accounting log | last 3
Mon Dec 2 03:33:05 2013:type=update:id=console0:user=admin:cmd=switchto ;
configure terminal ; interface port-channel110 ; shutdown (SUCCESS)
Mon Dec 2 03:33:08 2013:type=update:id=console0:user=admin:cmd=switchto ;
configure terminal ; interface port-channel110 ; no shutdown (REDIRECT)
Mon Dec 2 03:33:08 2013:type=update:id=console0:user=admin:cmd=switchto ;
configure terminal ; interface port-channel110 ; no shutdown (SUCCESS)

N7004-Berlin(config)# terminal log-all

N7004-Berlin(config)# show accounting log all | last 2
Mon Dec 2 03:53:28 2013:type=update:id=console0:user=admin:cmd=switchto ;
show accounting log all | last 2 (SUCCESS)
Mon Dec 2 03:52:11 2013:type=update:id=console0:user=admin:cmd=switchto ;
show hardware internal errors all (SUCCESS)
Only configuration commands are captured by default.
Enable all commands to be captured with terminal log-all
(feature requires 5.x NX-OS or higher)
1
Trigger
With the log informaton you see what happend
With the accounting-log you see who triggered it and more
importantly which action triggered it
logw.py
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Tools
Ethanalyzer
Guidance
In production networks usable (low risk)
1
Use “display” mode so simply verify packet is present
Use pcap-file for detail analysis outside the device at a later time
Ethanalyzer Kernel
N7004# ethanalyzer local interface inband decode-internal limit-frame-size 150
display
Capturing on inband
2013-12-07 16:04:07.855965 Cisco_b5:26:49 -> PVST+ STP 96 RST. Root = 327
68/1/00:0c:30:8b:a0:40 Cost = 2 Port = 0x9063
<SNIP>
Allows quickly to
narrow the
failure domain
Ethanalyzer captures traffic to/from the control plane and not the data plane
Inband
Reference Point 1
Reference Point 2
ELAM(E)
Ethanaylzer
Ethanalyzer captures traffic
for Control-Plane Troubleshooting
The second reference point serves
traffic for both Control- and Data-
plane Troubleshooting
Ingress
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Tools
ELAM & ELAME
ELAM & ELAME
Embedded Logic
Analyzer Module
1
It is widely used by engineering, QA, TAC and escalation teams
ELAM is an unsupported and internal tool
ELAM requires a great deal of platform architecture and ASIC
knowledge to use. This limits the audience of the raw tool.
Identifying the appropriate FE, creating triggers, and interpreting
ELAM data for complex flows requires full architectural and
forwarding knowledge

Good news: ELAME makes ELAM easy to use

skill
ELAME
F-Series
M-Series
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Tools
ELAM/ELAME Motivation
workflow
1
Determin the FE
Configure Trigger
Start ELAM
Analyze
ELAM allows you to verify if a packet is present and/or to analyze
ELAME allows you to verify quickly if a packet is present,
especially in a complicated setup it saves you TIME!
Use cases:

1) Determining the failure
domain
2) Analyze the System
behaviour
IP 42.42.42.1
MAC aaaa.bbbb.cccc
IP 42.42.42.2
MAC aaaa.bbbb.dddd
You MUST know the source and destination
MAC/IP pairs involved for troubleshooting.
Is the source and/or destination dual-homed?
Is the source and/or destination real or virtual?
Êureka, Lamira
Orion, Clipper, Flanker
11:50
Attach to the module
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34
Tools
ELAME, Part 1
ELAME
1
N7004-Paris# source sys/elame 10.0.2.2 224.0.0.5
elam helper, version 1.015
... source 10.0.2.2, destination 224.0.0.5
... getting current vdc ... 4
... ingress interface derived from source address
... ingress interface list is Ethernet4/1
... expanded ingress interface list is Ethernet4/1
... FE instance list is 4/1/1
... setting trigger...
... elam trigger set
... starting capture...
... elam capture started
... no packet captured so far
press [enter] when packets in question are known to have been sent…
... packet captured at FE: 4/1/1
... capture instance 4/1/1 (slot/type/instance)
Since NX-OS 6.2(2) we include „elame.tcl“ in the
distribution:
Berlin
10.0.2.2/24
Paris
10.0.2.4/24
Do we receive OSPF
packets from our
neighbor on E 4/1?
E 4/1
M-Series line card
skill
ELAME
F-Series
M-Series
Because ELAM especially on M-Series is complicated
this example show how easy it is to use ELAME
ELAME works on F2 and M-Series line cards with IPv4
You just specify source and destination address
the tool determines the correct FE to programm
even on M-Series Modules
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36
Tools
ELAME, Part 3
ELAME
1
N7004-Paris# source sys/elame 10.0.2.2 224.0.0.5
<SNIP>
... packet captured at FE: 4/1/1
... capture instance 4/1/1 (slot/type/instance)
+++ IPv4 packet: 86 bytes from MAC 4055.390f.5642 / IP 10.0.2.2 to MAC
0100.5e00.0005 / IP 224.0.0.5 TTL 1
+++ protocol OSPF
+++ packet received on interface Eth4/1 vlan 0 (source index 0x00030)
... rbus: ccc 0x0 cap1 0x1 cap2 0x1 flood 0x1 dest_vlan 0 dest_index
0x00032 l2_fwd 0x0
+++ packet is flooded to BD 50 / vlan 0
... destination index is NOT from L2 table lookup
+++ copy of the packet is sent to CPU
... lamira OFE: rdt 0x0 dest_index 0x010c7 flood 0x0 l2fwd 0x0 ofe_drop 0x0
+++ lamira OFE exception(s): CPP_LIF (0x200000000)
... FE instance 4/1/1 context after analysis: pb2 retried
... done
DBUS and RBUS captured,
easy tool even on M-Series line cards (here N7K-M224)
skill
ELAME
F-Series
M-Series
E 4/1
LTL 0x30
SUP
LTL 0x10C7
Paris
Berlin
Lamira
Eureka
The lines beginning with +++ are the important once
ELAM(E)
Ethanaylzer
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Tools
ELAM
ELAM F2
Embedded Logic
Analyzer Module
1
F2 no PB for ELAM (:= more simple but the recommendation is
to still use ELAME like the pros)
Clipper: Layer 2 ELAM and/or Layer 3 ELAM
module-3# elam asic clipper instance 2
Module-3(clipper-elam)# layer 3
module-3(clipper-l3-elam)# trigger dbus ipv4 if source-ipv4-address
42.42.42.142
module-3(clipper-l3-elam)# trigger rbus ofe if trig
module-3(clipper-l3-elam)# start
module-3(clipper-l3-elam)# status
<SNIP>
L2
L3
Clipper FE2
E3/12
OFE
IFE
OFE := Outgoing „Pipeline“
IFE := Incomming „Pipeline“
Status: Armed := waiting for the packet
Status: Triggered := we have captured
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Tools
ELAM, DBUS
ELAM F2
Embedded Logic
Analyzer Module
1
42.42.42.142
E 3/12
F-Series line card
module-3(clipper-l3-elam)# show dbus
--------------------------------------------------------------------
Clipper Instance 02 - Capture Buffer On L3 DBUS:
<SNIP>
--------------------------------------------------------------------
L3 DBUS CONTENT - IPV4 PACKET
--------------------------------------------------------------------
<SNIP>
l2-packet-length : 0x52 ingress-lif : 0xfca
vlan-id : 0x2a ilm-addr : 0x32
source-index : 0x402 destination-index : 0x0
frame-type : 0x5 sequence-number : 0x94
l2-frame-type : 0x0 l4-protocol : 0x59
recirc-preserve-acos: 0x0
recirc-multicast-bridge-disable: 0x0
ipv4_l4_info_elsewhere_1: 0x0
ipv4_l4_info_elsewhere_2: 0x0
destination-mac-address: 0100.5e00.0005
source-mac-address: 0010.7be8.53b0
source-ipv4-address: 42.42.42.142
Destination-ipv4-address: 224.0.0.5
Berlin
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Tools
ELAM, RBUS
ELAM F2
Embedded Logic
Analyzer Module
1
42.42.42.142
E 3/12
F-Series line card
module-3(clipper-l3-elam)# show rbus
--------------------------------------------------------------------
Clipper Instance 02 - Capture Buffer On L3 RBUS:
<SNIP>
--------------------------------------------------------------------
L3 RBUS OFE CONTENT
--------------------------------------------------------------------
OFE valid: 0x1
trig : 0x1 l2-l3-acos : 0x0
<SNIP>
dvif : 0x0 vlan : 0x2a
md-di-valid : 0x0 redirect : 0x0
ccc : 0x4 l2-forward : 0x1
routed : 0x0 eid-select : 0x0
lif-status-enable : 0x1 bcn-compatible : 0x0
VID 42:= 0x2a
Berlin
11:55
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Tools
ELAM
ELAM F2
Embedded Logic
Analyzer Module
1
module-3# elam asic clipper instance 2
Module-3(clipper-elam)# layer 2
Module-3(clipper-l3-elam)# trigger dbus ipv4 if destination-ipv4-address
42.42.42.142
Module-3(clipper-l3-elam)# trigger rbus ingress if trig
L2
L3
Clipper FE2
E1/12
egr
ingr
Since the former example indicated no Layer 3 rewrite
we look now into Layer 2 ELAM (still looking for Layer 3
information)
module-3(clipper-l2-elam)# show rbus
<SNIP>
inner-cos : 0x0 acos : 0x0
di-ltl-index : 0x8015 l3-multicast-di : 0x0
source-index : 0x402 vlan-id : 0x2a
index-direct : 0x0 eid-sel : 0x0
vqi : 0xfa v5-fpoe-idx : 0xf9
l3-fpoe-idx : 0x0 l3-multicast-v5 : 0x0
dft : 0x0 dfst : 0x0
System Troubleshooting
42
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44
System Troubleshooting
Is my Interface operational and who owns my Interface?
Ethernet IF
E 3/12
1
N7004-Berlin# show int eth 3/13
Ethernet3/13 is down (SFP not inserted)
N7004-Berlin# show int eth 3/12
Ethernet3/12 is up
The Interface could be described as the Port-ASIC including the
MAC Controller

Another view would be the Software Process in
the Control Plane Ethpm (:= Ethernet Port Manager)
An up-to-date
network drawing helps
Ethpm
VID 1
VID 42
STP
Vlan Mgr
show system internal vpcm event interaction
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45
System Troubleshooting
Interface shutdown timeout
Ethernet IF
E 1/27
1
Ethpm
Phy_off
802.1X
PIXM
ACL
QOS
L2FM
STP
N7K(config)#
interface e1/27
N7K(config-if)# shut
N7K# show inter e1/27
Ethernet1/27 is down
(Internal-Fail
errDisable,
libeventseq:
sequence timeout)
Processes and Services are
depending on each other
Collect information about
the whole environment:
(e.g. Show tech )
As you likely don‘t know all
dependent processes
Ethpm is interacting with each
service sequencially
(Request and Response)
OK, how about shutting
down a port (e.g. e1/27)?
N7K(config-if)# shut
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48
System
Reducing MTTR
Core Files
1
Collect cores form „all“ locations on the active (don‘t forget your
standby SUP) and attach them to a TAC case right away
N7004# show cores vdc-all
VDC Module Instance Process-name PID Date(Year-Month-Day Time)
--- ------ -------- --------------- -------- -------------------------
VDC Module Instance Process-name PID Date(Year-Month-Day Time)
--- ------ -------- --------------- -------- -------------------------
1 17 1 pixmc 2134 2013-10-28 16:52:48
1 8 1 pixmc 2134 2013-10-28 16:52:50
1 16 1 pixmc 2134 2013-10-28 16:52:50
If you find a file, be prepared to send it (a selection)
or attach them right away to the case to save time
SR 123
2010 Jul 17 00:30:18 vrt001 %$ VDC-1 %$ %SYSMGR-SLOT8-2-SERVICE_CRASHED:
Service "mtm" (PID 1600) hasn't caught signal 6 (core will be saved). SUP-A
active
SUP-B
stdby
VDC-1 VDC-1
VDC-2
VDC-2
Here you see „slot 8“ := you know the line card and MTM is a line
card process
look in dir bootflash:core (of both SUPs) to make sure...and clean up...
12:00
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52
Strategy Tools and System Troubleshooting
Summary & Take Away
Flight Recorder
Strategy CLI
Ethanalyzer
ELAM
Baseline your network, know your counters and have a
show tech in a good state, have an up-to-date drawing
Right after the „challenge“ collect a show tech detail
if feasible
Traffic to/from the control plane: Wireshark
DataPlane capture with Nexus 7000: ELAME
Look at „normal“ counters, logs and if you need more:
remember show hardware internal errors all
1
ELAME
System
Chapter 2:
Data- Plane
Layer 2
2 MAC Table
PIXM
L2FM
STP
© 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. BRKDCT-3144 Cisco Public
Data-Plane
Failure Domain
Failure Domain
I am loosing packets between A and B?
How can I determine „where“
2
Determine Failure Domain Quickly
100% traffic loss:
• Table not
progammed
• Wrongly
programmed
• Inconsistency
100% traffic loss?
X % traffic loss?
ELAME
X % traffic loss:
• Congestion?
• Periodically?
Timer/Aging event
(e.g. MAC Table)
A
B
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55
Architecture
Three Stage Fabric,
Troubleshooting
At the ingress
forwarding engine
for unicast

multicast replication
occures at the
egress line card

Congestion
F-Series (Ingress)
M-Series (Egress)
Ingress Module
First Stage
Egress Module
Third/Last Stage
EALR 8
SoC
Xbar
Xbar
Xbar
EALR 8
SoC
Suggestion for QoS & Queueing: BRKDCT-3346
End-to-End QoS Implementation and Operation
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56
Data-Plane
Congestion: X % packet drops
Troubleshooting

N7009-Lagos# show hardware internal errors all
|------------------------------------------------------------------------|
| Device:Sacramento Xbar ASIC Role:FABRIC Mod: 9 |
| Last cleared @ Fri Nov 15 02:19:12 2013
| Device Statistics Category :: ERROR
|------------------------------------------------------------------------|
Instance:0
ID Name Value Ports
-- ---- ----- -----
2129 FB09-P21 LOW_BP_CNT_IN 0000000000000099 1-48 I1-2
|------------------------------------------------------------------------|
| Device:Clipper XBAR Role:QUE Mod: 9 |
| Last cleared @ Fri Nov 15 05:18:38 2013
| Device Statistics Category :: CONGESTION
|------------------------------------------------------------------------|
Instance:0
ID Name Value Ports
-- ---- ----- -----
132 VQ credited pkt replica VOQ tail drops 0000000000000189 1-4 -
137 VQ credited pkt replica drop count 0000000000000189 1-4 -
9602 VQ VQI 204 CCOS 3 drop count 0000000000000189 1-4 -
Clipper
Sacramento
BP :=
Backpressure
Not the first command to use
Displays non-zero error counters
CMD – test with x packets - CMD again
System
FPGA Version on
FAB2 needs to be
PM 0.007 for SUP-2/2E
Q
Verify our System status
before troubleshooting
12:05
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57
Data-Plane
Line Card Architecture
LC Families
EARL based Line
Cards
M-Series
(:= M1, M2)

SoC based Line
Cards
F-Series
(:= F1, F2, F3)
M2
2 x per LC
SoC
e.g. F2E
Clipper
up to 60 mpps
per SoC
Fabric
ASIC
Fabric
ASIC
EARL 8
Up to
60mpps
L2
L3
P
R
Q
Q:= Queuing Engine
R:= Replication Engine
P:= Port ASIC
FE .= Forwarding Engine
F1
16 x SoC
F2/F2E
12 x SoC
F3 N7K
(and all
1G/10G)
6 x SoC
F3 N77
12 x SoC
Q R P
FE
M-Series F-Series
Suggestion: BRKARC-3470
Advanced - Cisco Nexus 7000/7700 Switch Architecture
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Data-Plane

Forwarding
Similar: show
platform hardware
capacity
forwarding on C6K
N7004-Berlin# show hardware internal forwarding engine usage
slot 4
Forwarding Engine Usage
-----------------------
Module inst pps peak pps
4 1 0 4 @Tue Nov 26 20:17:33 2013

N7004-Berlin# show hardware internal statistics module 3 rates
Hardware statistics on module 03:
+ =============================
+ Clipper MAC Instance 0
+ =============================
|-- Ingress IN
| |--- Packets/sec
| | |--- 2: 0
| | |--- 1: 0
| | |--- 3: 0
| | |--- 4: 0
| | |--- sum: 0
| |--- Bytes/sec
| | |--- 2: 3
| | |--- 1: 75
| | |--- 3: 91
| | |--- 4: 0
| | |--- sum: 169
|-- Egress OUT
| |--- Packets/sec
| | |--- 2: 0
| | |--- 1: 0
| | |--- 3: 0
| | |--- 4: 0
| | |--- sum: 0
| |--- Bytes/sec
| | |--- 2: 3
| | |--- 1: 76
| | |--- 3: 87
| | |--- 4: 73
| | |--- sum: 239
This command works for
M-Series line cards
This command works for
F-Series line cards
FE 0
E 3/1
vPC PKA
E 3/2 & 3/3
vPC PL
Module 3: F2
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60
Data-Plane
Line Card Components
LC Internals
module-1# show hardware internal dev-port-map
--------------------------------------------------------------
CARD_TYPE: 12 port 100G
>Front Panel ports:12
--------------------------------------------------------------
Device name Dev role Abbr num_inst:
--------------------------------------------------------------
> Flanker Eth Mac Driver DEV_ETHERNET_MAC MAC_0 12
> Flanker Fwd Driver DEV_LAYER_2_LOOKUP L2LKP 12
> Flanker Xbar Driver DEV_XBAR_INTF XBAR_INTF 12
> Flanker Queue Driver DEV_QUEUEING QUEUE 12
> Sacramento Xbar ASIC DEV_SWITCH_FABRIC SWICHF 2
> Flanker L3 Driver DEV_LAYER_3_LOOKUP L3LKP 12
> EDC DEV_UNDEFINED PHYS 12
+-----------------------------------------------------------------------+
+----------------+++FRONT PANEL PORT TO ASIC INSTANCE MAP+++------------+
+-----------------------------------------------------------------------+
FP port | PHYS | MAC_0 | L2LKP | L3LKP | QUEUE |SWICHF
1 0 0 0 0 0,1
2 1 1 1 1 0,1
3 2 2 2 2 0,1
4 3 3 3 3 0,1
5 4 4 4 4 0,1
<SNIP>
EDC0 EDC1
Flanker
0
Flanker
1
SAC0 SAC1
000c.308b.a040
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62
Layer 2
Hardware Learning
Layer 2
Berlin
PO 110
MAC Address Table (16K, 64K, or 128K)
2
N7004-Berlin# show mac address-table vlan 1
Legend:
* - primary entry, G - Gateway MAC, (R) - Routed MAC, O - Overlay MAC
age - seconds since last seen,+ - primary entry using vPC Peer-Link,
(T) - True, (F) - False
VLAN MAC Address Type age Secure NTFY Ports/SWID.SSID.LID
---------+-----------------+--------+---------+------+----+------------------
G 1 0000.0c9f.f001 static - F F sup-eth1(R)
G 1 4055.390f.5642 static - F F sup-eth1(R)
* 1 4055.390f.5643 static - F F vPC Peer-Link
* 1 000c.308b.a040 dynamic 0 F F Po110
MAC Address Table
000c.308b.a040
N7004-Berlin# show hardware internal forwarding f2 l2 table utilization
L2 entries: Module inst total used mcast ucast lines lines_full
3 0 16384 15 0 15 512 0
N7004-Berlin# show hardware internal forwarding l2 table utilization
L2 entries: Module inst total used mcast ucast lines lines_full
4 1 131072 22 8 14 8192 0
Sync via CFS
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Layer 2
Hardware Learning, Moves and Aging
Layer 2
MAC A
MAC Index Flag
A PO1 PI_E
C 3/3
MAC Index Flag
A PO1 PI_E
C 3/3
MAC Index Flag
A PO1
C 3/3 PI_E
MAC C
E 1/1 E 2/2
E 3/3
Line Card 1 Line Card 2 Line Card 3
PO1
2
L2FM
show mac address-table …
show hardware mac address-table …
Learning and Aging optimized for physical and logical ports
(:= PC Port Channel) with additional signaling via L2FM
L2FM
N7004-Berlin(config)# logging level l2fm 6
2013 Dec 17 02:52:46 N7004-London %$ VDC-3 %$ %L2FM-4-L2FM_MAC_MOVE: Mac
f0de.f1f2.c804 in vlan 42 has moved from Eth3/37 to Eth3/41
2013 Dec 17 02:53:00 N7004-London %$ VDC-3 %$ %L2FM-4-L2FM_MAC_MOVE: Mac
f0de.f1f2.c804 in vlan 42 has moved from Eth3/41 to Eth3/37
12:10
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Layer 2
Looking for the internal history of a MAC address
Layer 2
L2FM
Looking back in time for a specific MAC Address
2
65
N7004-London(config)# show system int l2fm l2dbg macdb address f0de.f1f2.c804
Legend
Db: 0-MACDB, 1-GWMACDB, 2-SMACDB, 3-RMDB, 4-SECMACDB
Src: 0-UNKNOWN, 1-L2FM, 2-PEER, 3-LC, 4-HSRP
5-GLBP, 6-VRRP, 7-STP, 8-DOTX, 9-PSEC 10-CLI 11-PVLAN
12-ETHPM, 13-ALW_LRN, 14-Non_PI_MOD, 15-MCT_DOWN, 16 - SDB
17-OTV, 18-Deounce Timer, 19-AM, 20-PCM_DOWN, 21-MCT_UP, 22-L2VPN
Slot:0 based for LCS 19-MCEC 20-OTV/ORIB
VLAN: 42 MAC: f0de.f1f2.c804
Time If/swid Db Op Src Slot FE
Sat Dec 14 22:18:20 2013 0x1a124000 0 INSERT 3 2 9
Sat Dec 14 22:18:20 2013 0x1a124000 0 RESET_LL_UNDERWAY 2 0 15
Sat Dec 14 22:18:51 2013 0x1a124000 0 NON_PI_MOD 3 2 15
Sat Dec 14 22:18:51 2013 0x1a124000 0 NON_PI_MOD 3 2 15
Sat Dec 14 22:18:51 2013 0x1a124000 0 NON_PI_MOD 3 2 15
Sat Dec 14 22:19:31 2013 0x1a124000 0 FLUSH 12 0 15
Sat Dec 14 22:19:31 2013 0x1a124000 0 DELETE 0 0 15
Sat Dec 14 22:19:36 2013 0x1a128000 0 INSERT 3 2 10
12
3
6
N7004-London#
show interface
snmp-ifindex
|i 1a124000

Eth3/37 !Port
437403648 !IFMIB
(0x1a124000) !IFINDEX
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66
Layer 2
Internal Header with Meta Data to make Forwarding Decision and steer Frame
Layer 2
LTL := Local Target Logic (e.g. Source Index (SI) and
Destination Index (DI) e.g. 0x00402)
BD := Bridge Domain
E 3/1
Internal Header added by
PORT ASIC or SoC
(FE)

Ingress L2 Logic learns
MAC Address in HW
(M & F-Series)
Header Packet
DI = 402h VLAN, ...
Internal Header contains
SI, DI, VLAN
SI = BAh
402h
Org Packet
We add an internal header to carry
needed information (e.g. Index, VLAN)
2
N7004-Berlin# show hardware mac address-table 3 address 000c.308b.a040
!reformatted!
FE | Valid| PI| BD | MAC | Index| Stat| SW | Modi| Age| Tmr| GM|
---+------+---+------+---------------+-------+-----+-----+-----+----+----+---
0 1 0 17 000c.308b.a040 0x00402 0 0x009 0 121 1 0
2 1 1 17 000c.308b.a040 0x00402 0 0x009 0 121 1 0
+
removed
Packet
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Layer 2
Internal Indices
Layer 2
0402h
8011h
BD – VLAN
VDC 2:17 := 1
DB
PO110
A interface is assigned
one or more indices
One port gets assigned one or more index values, internally we
use the concept of bridge domains (which map to VLAN ID)
2
67
N7004-Berlin# show system internal pixm info ltl 0x00402
PC_TYPE PORT LTL RES_ID LTL_FLAG CB_FLAG MEMB_CNT
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Normal Po110 0x0402 0x1600006d 0x00000000 0x00000002 1
Member rbh rbh_cnt
Eth3/12 0x000000ff 0x08
CBL Check States: Ingress: Enabled; Egress: Enabled
VLAN| BD| BD-St | CBL St & Direction:
--------------------------------------------------
1 | 0x11 | INCLUDE_IF_IN_BD | FORWARDING (Both)
Member info
------------------
Type LTL
----------------------
PORT_CHANNEL Po110
FLOOD_W_FPOE 0x8011
N7004-Berlin# show vlan internal bd-info
bd-to-vlan 17
VDC Id BD Id Vlan Id
------ ------- -------
2 17 1
How to convert a
BD (in dec)
to a VLAN ID
11h = 17
STP ingress/egress
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68
Layer 2
Internal Indices Table
PIXM
000bh
E 3/12
0402h
8011h PO110
10C7h
10C8h SUP
LTL setup (here) for SUP-2 and NX-OS 6.2(5.41)
2
N7004-London# show system internal pixm info ltl-region
===========================================================
PIXM VDC 1 LTL MAP Version: 2
Description: LTL Map for N7K SUP2 Silverstone (all flavors)
===========================================================
LTL_TYPE SIZE START END
========================================================================
LIBLTLMAP_LTL_TYPE_PHY_PORT 1024 0x0 0x3ff
LIBLTLMAP_LTL_TYPE_PC 3204 0x400 0x1083
LIBLTLMAP_LTL_TYPE_SUP_FUTURE 67 0x1084 0x10c6
LIBLTLMAP_LTL_TYPE_SUP_ETH_INBAND 64 0x10c7 0x1106
-------------------------------------------------------------------
SUB-TYPE LTL
-------------------------------------------------------------------
LIBLTLMAP_LTL_TYPE_SUP_INBAND_HQ 0x10c7
LIBLTLMAP_LTL_TYPE_SUP_INBAND_LQ 0x10c8
<SNIP>
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69
Layer 2
STP
STP
STP
STP
root
Config
BPDU
DP
DP := Designated Port
RP := Root Port
BPDU := Bridge Protocol
Data Unit
RP
TCN
BPDU
Know your port states in a stable condition
(:= before the troubleshooting, prepare yourself)
Two BPDU types: Configuration BPDU’s and TCN BPDU’s
2
Tracking Port Role Changes, Root Changes via SYSLOG
For vPC with peer switch
configuration both devices
are sending BPDUs as root.
NX-OS 4.2(6), 5.0(2a)
logging level spanning-tree 6

%STP-6-PORT_ROLE: Port Ethernet2/1 instance VLAN0001 role changed to designate
12:15
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70
Layer 2
Spanning Tree, Data Loop
STP
2
Symptoms for a Data Loop
High link utilization (100%)
High CPU and fabric traffic utilization
Constant MAC Address re-learning and flapping
Exessive output drops on an interface
N7004-Berlin# show interface e 3/7 | i rate
30 seconds input rate 24 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
30 seconds output rate 304 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
300 seconds input rate 104 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
300 seconds output rate 424 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
Verify each switch on the redundant path
Someone who is supposed to block is forwarding...
No loop in my lab
today…

In the real world
we see loops
created by blade
servers, teaming-
nic’s and
hypervisors
(:= virtual swiches)
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71
Layer 2
Spanning Tree, Data Loop
STP
2
Verifying systematically the path
N7004-Berlin# show spanning-tree interface ethernet 3/7 detail
Port 391 (Ethernet3/7) of VLAN0042 is designated forwarding
<SNIP>
BPDU: sent 1972, received 5
N7004-Paris# show spanning-tree interface ethernet 4/2 detail
Port 514 (Ethernet4/2) of VLAN0042 is root forwarding
<SNIP>
BPDU: sent 5, received 2007
N7004-Berlin# show system internal pktmgr interface ethernet 3/7
Ethernet3/7, ordinal: 80 Hash_type: 2
SUP-traffic statistics: (sent/received)
Packets: 2217 / 82
Bytes: 139163 / 17376
Instant packet rate: 0 pps / 0 pps
Packet rate limiter (Out/In): 0 pps / 0 pps
Average packet rates(1min/5min/15min/EWMA):
Packet statistics:
Tx: Unicast 0, Multicast 2217
<SNIP>
Paris
Berlin
VID 42
Moscow
London
E4/17
STP
STP
pktmgr
pktmgr
Ethanaylzer
Ethanaylzer
ELAME
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STP
75
Layer 2
Spanning Tree
STP
2
N7004-London(config-if)# spanning-tree port type edge
Warning: Edge port type (portfast) should only be enabled on ports
connected to a single
host. Connecting hubs, concentrators, switches, bridges, etc... to this
interface when edge port type (portfast) is enabled, can cause temporary
bridging loops. Use with CAUTION
N7004-London(config-if)# show spanning-tree vlan 1 detail
VLAN0001 is executing the rstp compatible Spanning Tree protocol
Bridge Identifier has priority 32768, sysid 1, address 4055.390f.5643
Configured hello time 2, max age 20, forward delay 15
Current root has priority 32769, address 000c.308b.a040
Root port is 4195 (port-channel100), cost of root path is 2
Topology change flag not set, detected flag not set
Number of topology changes 2 last change occurred 0:15:50 ago
from port-channel100
<SNIP>
What is our STP role? Are we stable? TCN send or received?
If yes through which Interface did we received last TCN?
In case of an access port enable port-fast
STP
DP
RP
TCN
BPDU
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Layer 2
STP event history
STP
STP
2
N7004-London(config-if)# sh spanning-tree internal event-history tree 1 interface
port-channel 110
VDC03 VLAN0001 <port-channel110>
0) Transition at 795697 usecs after Sat Dec 14 21:20:53 2013
State: DIS Role: Unkw Age: 0 Inc: no [STP_PORT_EV_UP]
<SNIP>
5) Transition at 800886 usecs after Sat Dec 14 21:20:53 2013
State: FWD Role: Root Age: 0 Inc: no [STP_PORT_ROLE_CHANGE]
Looking back in time for STP: Event-History
800886 us – 795697 us
= 5189 us ~ 5.2 ms
12
3
6
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77
Layer 2
Summary
Flight Recorder
Show tech vlan
Show tech stp
Show tech lacp
Show tech l2fm
Show tech forwarding l2 unicast
2 MAC Table
PIXM
L2FM
STP
Always look for
the detail option
and use it
12:20
Chapter 3
Data-Plane
Layer 3
3
uRIB
Ex SPAN
LC
Control-Plane
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79
Layer 3
Unicast Routing Architecture
3 Areas to verify
FIB
Manager
uFDM
uRIB
OSPF
route adj
IS-IS RIP IP
BGP
mRIB
• RIB fully resolved and used for
packets originated by the control
plane
Is control plane state
as expected
(route exists, points to
expected next hop)?

Is control plane stable?

Is control plane
consistent with data
plane
(route programmed in
forwarding plane,
consistent with control
plane)?
Data-Plane
Control-Plane
Forwarding Hardware
• Neighbor management
• Protocol database
• Add/Delete prefixes
• Translate routes to
hardware format
• Program hardware
forwarding engine
• Push routes to platform
• Route download
Control-Plane
Data-Plane
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Layer 3
Unicast
L3
Paris
42.42.42.4
Ip ospf-42
42.42.42.142
11.0.0.1/32
VID = 42
3
N7004-Paris# show ip ospf 42 internal txlist urib
ospf 42
ospf process tag 42
ospf process instance number 1
ospf process uuid 1090519321
ospf process linux pid 7746
<SNIP>




OSPFv2->URIB transmit list: version 0x10
85
N7004-Paris# show processes cpu sort |i PID|7746
PID Runtime(ms) Invoked uSecs 5Sec 1Min 5Min TTY Process
7746 10450 502752 0 0.00% 0.01% 0.01% - ospf
uRIB route adj
ARP 5
13: 42.42.42.0/24
14: 11.0.0.1/32
15: 10.0.2.0/24
16: 10.0.4.0/24
16: RIB marker
OSPF-42
SAP 320
Assumption: Control-Plane is stable, OSPF receives LSAs
we look at the flow of information from OSFP to HW,
if not good check
a) configuration
(hidden slides
before this one)
b) look for Control Plane
Control-Plane
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86
Layer 3
Unicast
L3
uRIB
OSFP
route adj
N7004-Paris# show ip route ospf-42 detail
<SNIP
255.255.255.255/32, ubest/mbest: 1/0
*via sup-eth1, [0/0], 01:59:22, broadcast
11.0.0.1/32, ubest/mbest: 1/0
*via 42.42.42.142, Vlan42, [110/41], 01:57:18, ospf-42, inter

N7004-Paris# sh ip arp 42.42.42.142
<SNIP>
IP ARP Table
Total number of entries: 1
Address Age MAC Address Interface
42.42.42.142 00:03:39 0010.7be8.53b0 Vlan42

OSPF Routes in URIB
Administrative
distance assigned
Is there a route to the destination ?
Do we have a resolved
Layer 2 address?
N7004-Paris# sh ip ospf 42 route
<SNIP>
11.0.0.1/32 (inter)(R) area 0.0.0.0
via 42.42.42.142/Vlan42 , cost 41 distance 110
(D) route is directly attached
(R) route is in RIB
Control-Plane
© 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. BRKDCT-3144 Cisco Public
uFDM
uRIB
client
route adj
87
Layer 3
Unicast
L3
Forwarding Hardware
FIB
Manager
3
N7004-Paris# show forwarding ipv4 route 11.0.0.1 module 4
IPv4 routes for table default/base
------------------+------------------+----------------------+-----------------
Prefix | Next-hop | Interface | Labels
------------------+------------------+----------------------+-----------------
11.0.0.1/32 42.42.42.142 Vlan42

N7004-Paris# show forwarding adjacency 42.42.42.142 module 4
IPv4 adjacency information
next-hop rewrite info interface
-------------- --------------- -------------
42.42.42.142 0010.7be8.53b0 Vlan42

N7004-Paris# show ip arp 42.42.42.142
Address Age MAC Address Interface
42.42.42.142 00:08:56 0010.7be8.53b0 Vlan42

Is adjacency
consistent with ARP
In the control plane?
Verifying on the ingress line card
Hardware forwarding (FIB)
information on per-module basis
Displays hardware adjacency
table information
Data-Plane
12:25
© 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. BRKDCT-3144 Cisco Public
uFDM
uRIB
client
route adj
Layer 3
Unicast
L3
Forwarding Hardware
FIB
Manager
Verifying on the ingress line card
3
N7004-Paris# show system internal forwarding route 11.0.0.1 module 4 detail

RPF Flags legend:
S - Directly attached route (S_Star)
V - RPF valid
M - SMAC IP check enabled
G - SGT valid
E - RPF External table valid

11.0.0.1/32 , Vlan42 , No of paths: 1
Dev: 1 , Idx: 0x2603 , RPF Flags: V , DGT: 0 , VPN: 7
RPF_Intf_5: Vlan42 (0x35 )
AdjIdx: 0xa038 , LIFB: 0 , LIF: Vlan42 (0x35 ), DI: 0x0
DMAC: 0010.7be8.53b0 SMAC: 4055.390f.5644

N7004-Paris# show system internal forwarding adjacency entry 0xa038 module 4
Device: 1 Index: 0xa038 dmac: 0010.7be8.53b0 smac: 0055.390f.5644 e-vpn: 7
e-lif: 0x35 packets: 0 bytes: 0
88
Data-Plane
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89
Layer 3
Unicast
Verificaton Location
L2/L3 reachability for multicast and max. unicast
3
N7004-Paris# ping multicast 224.0.0.5 interface vlan 42
PING 224.0.0.5 (224.0.0.5): 56 data bytes
64 bytes from 42.42.42.5: icmp_seq=0 ttl=254 time=0.836 ms
64 bytes from 42.42.42.5: icmp_seq=1 ttl=254 time=0.685 ms
64 bytes from 42.42.42.5: icmp_seq=2 ttl=254 time=0.613 ms
<SNIP>
64 bytes from 42.42.42.142: icmp_seq=0 ttl=254 time=4.461 ms
64 bytes from 42.42.42.142: icmp_seq=1 ttl=254 time=5.007 ms
64 bytes from 42.42.42.142: icmp_seq=2 ttl=254 time=5.771 ms
<SNIP>

N7004-Paris# ping 42.42.42.142 packet-size 1472
PING 42.42.42.142 (42.42.42.142): 1472 data bytes
1480 bytes from 42.42.42.142: icmp_seq=0 ttl=254 time=5.493 ms
1480 bytes from 42.42.42.142: icmp_seq=1 ttl=254 time=5.37 ms
1480 bytes from 42.42.42.142: icmp_seq=2 ttl=254 time=5.337 ms
<SNIP>
Why not 1500?
1500 – 20 (IP) -8 (ICMP) = 1472
Ethanalyzer ELAME Debug
Better
alternatives
OSFP
Debug
Ethanalyzer
ELAME
CoPP
RL
ICMP
Data-Plane
Q
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90
Layer 3
Inconsistency
Example
3
N7K# test forwarding inconsistency
N7K# show forwarding inconsistency
IPV4 Consistency check : table_id(0x13) Execution time : 14327 ms ()
No inconsistent adjacencies.
Inconsistent routes:
1. slot(1), vrf(default), prefix (172.31.38.6/32), Route extra in FIB Software
2. slot(1), vrf(default), prefix (172.31.38.2/32), Route extra in FIB Software
Test for inconsistency
Data-Plane
N7K# show ip route 172.18.144.2 IP Route Table for VRF "default"
<SNIP>
172.18.144.0/24, ubest/mbest: 1/0
*via 172.31.38.2, [200/0], 1d22h, bgp-65000, internal, tag 64949

N7K# show ip fib route 172.18.144.2
<SNIP>
------------------+------------------+----------------------+--------
Prefix | Next-hop | Interface | Labels
------------------+------------------+----------------------+---------
*172.18.144.0/24 0.0.0.0 Null0
How can we recover?
(show forwarding ipv4
route 172.18.144.2
module 1)
FIB
Manager
uRIB route
12:30
IDS
91
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92
Layer 3
Internal Security Check
Security Check
This checking drops
various ‘illegal’ packets
These drops can be
also seen in show
hardware internal
errors but there they
might look a bit more
cryptic
The checks can be
disabled via ‘hardware
ip verify …’ – in
default VDC (for all
VDCs)

3
N7004-Paris# show hardware forwarding ip verify module 4
IPv4 IDS Checks Status Packets Failed
-----------------------------+---------+------------------
address source broadcast Enabled 0
address source multicast Enabled 0
address destination zero Enabled 0
address identical Disabled --
address reserved Disabled --
address class-e Disabled --
checksum Enabled 0
protocol Enabled 0
fragment Disabled --
length minimum Enabled 0
length consistent Enabled 0
length maximum max-frag Enabled 0
length maximum udp Disabled --
length maximum max-tcp Enabled 0
tcp flags Disabled --
tcp tiny-frag Enabled 0
version Enabled 0
<SNIP>
IDS and how do we identify the source or sender?
Data-Plane
© 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. BRKDCT-3144 Cisco Public
Layer 3 & Tools
Exception SPAN
Examples
1
Forwarding Engine
Line Card
DI := SUP
DI := drop
Exception
Redirect
Table
SPAN Engine
ERSPAN
SPAN
E 3/37
DI := SUP
DI := drop
Use inband SPAN
- MTU failures
- TTL errors
- ICMP redirect
Use exception SPAN
- IP Option fail
- IP check
- RPF
- Unsupported RW
3
N7004-Berlin(config)# monitor session 1
N7004-Berlin(config-monitor)# source interface sup-eth 0 both
or
N7004-Berlin(config-monitor)# source exception [layer 3|fabricp | other | all]
Destination Index
:= Drop can be
changed to SPAN
Engine
Data-Plane
© 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. BRKDCT-3144 Cisco Public
Data-Plane
Layer 3
Flight Recorder
show tech-support routing ip unicast
show tech-support ip
Show tech-support ospf
show tech forwarding l3 unicast mod 4
Show tech eltm
Show tech ethpm

3
uRIB
Ex SPAN
LC Data-Path
L2|L3|OVT|MPLS Unicast|Multicast
Chapter 4:
Control Plane

4
Inband Concept
Trigger
CoPP
Netstack RL
Inband
12:35
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Architecture
Inband Path
Two Tasks
Looking for dropped
packets which are
targeted for the
Control Plane
Management
Port
1G
10G
PID
Multiple
CPU
Cores
Inband
Forwarding
Engine
CoPP
RL
OSPF
SUP
Line Card
System
Controller
High CPU due to:
Punted traffic
ACL processing
Control Plane tasks
Indentifying from
where/what is being
send from/to the
CPU
Ethanalyzer
Kernel
ELAME
Reference Point 2
Reference Point 1
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Control-Plane
High Inband traffic (CoPP customizing slides hidden for reference)
OSPF
192.251.19.22
Syslog messages report
OSPF neighbor failures
4
40.9.0.0
2011 Mar 26 15:38:56.395 N7K-1-VDC2 %OSPF-5-NBRSTATE: ospf-6467 [3981]
Process 6467, Nbr 192.251.19.22 on Vlan19 from INIT to DOWN, DEADTIME
2011 Mar 26 15:38:56.584 N7K-1-VDC2 %OSPF-5-NBRSTATE: ospf-6467 [3981]
Process 6467, Nbr 192.251.19.22 on Vlan19 from DOWN to INIT, HELLORCVD
2011 Mar 26 15:39:33.865 N7K-1-VDC2 %OSPF-5-NBRSTATE: ospf-6467 [3981]
Process 6467, Nbr 192.251.19.22 on Vlan19 from INIT to DOWN, DEADTIME
2011 Mar 26 15:39:35.754 N7K-1-VDC2 %OSPF-5-NBRSTATE: ospf-6467 [3981]
Process 6467, Nbr 192.251.19.22 on Vlan19 from DOWN to INIT, HELLORCVD
The trigger or why you start looking:
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99
Control-Plane
Stable environment?
L3 Resources
How long since the
route was added?
How long since ARP
has been updated?

How long have
adjacency stayed up?

Can we find previous
incarnations of
adjacency here?

Log of recent routing
changes (can filter out
prefix in question)?
4
N7004-Paris# show ip route 11.0.0.1
<SNIP>
11.0.0.1/32, ubest/mbest: 1/0
*via 42.42.42.142, Vlan42, [110/41], 02:50:20, ospf-42, inter

N7004-Paris# show ip arp 42.42.42.142
Address Age MAC Address Interface
Address Age MAC Address Interface
42.42.42.142 00:01:29 0010.7be8.53b0 Vlan42

N7004-Paris# show ip ospf neighbors
OSPF Process ID 42 VRF default
Total number of neighbors: 2
Neighbor ID Pri State Up Time Address Interface
42.0.0.5 1 FULL/BDR 02:52:48 42.42.42.5 Vlan42
200.0.0.10 1 FULL/DR 02:51:44 42.42.42.142 Vlan42
Are we stable?
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Control-Plane
Protocol Flapping
Failure Domain
Determine with
Etheranalzer the
failure domain

From Prozess point
of view:
Do I get enough?
Do I get too much?
Ingress MAC Drops?
Ethanalyzer
HWRL Drops?
CoPP Drops?
Inband Drops or FC?
Packet Manager?
IPv4/IPv6
ARP/AM
uRIB
Line Card
ELAME
OSFP
Do we receive the
packet?
Do we receive the
packet (e.g. BPDU
or LSA at the CPU?
CPU?
MEM?
We verified on the other
side we are sending
LDP, BGP, OSPF, …
One real world example
in session 5 (ARP)
12:40
© 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. BRKDCT-3144 Cisco Public
Control-Plane
Too much inband traffic
OSPF
192.251.19.22
Syslog messages report
OSPF neighbor failures
CPU states high utilization
caused by OSPF and
Netstack process
4
40.9.0.0
Here two processes OSPF and NETSTACK
are using most resources.
How much do they use usually?
How does my base line look like?

N7K-1-VDC2# show system resources
Load average: 1 minute: 2.92 5 minutes: 2.38 15 minutes: 2.27
Processes : 1267 total, 4 running
CPU states : 34.0% user, 42.5% kernel, 23.5% idle
Memory usage: 4115232K total, 3638780K used, 476452K free

N7K-1-VDC2# show processes cpu sort
PID Runtime(ms) Invoked uSecs 1Sec Process
----- ----------- -------- ----- ------ -----------
3981 127 276 462 43.2% ospf
3841 267 78 3427 16.4% netstack
2941 34146488 7377876 4628 0.9% platform
3982 118 245 485 0.9% ospfv3
(CoPP customizing slides hidden for reference)
+ statistics per Core for SUP-
2/SUP-2E and with newer NX-
OS for SUP-1
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Environment
Control-Plane
You can Customize CoPP but don not turn it off
40.9.0.0/16
OSPFv2
224.0.0.5
224.0.0.6
Module 1
CoPP
N7K-1# show policy-map interface control-plane module 1
class copp-system-class-ospf-test
control Plane
service-policy input: copp-system-policy
class-map copp-system-class-ospf-test (match-any)
match access-grp name copp-system-acl-malicious
police cir 100 bps , bc 200 ms
module 1 :
conformed 0 bytes; action: drop
violated 0 bytes; action: drop
N7K-1# show policy-map interface control-plane module 2
class copp-system-class-ospf-test
control Plane
service-policy input: copp-system-policy
class-map copp-system-class-ospf-test (match-any)
match access-grp name copp-system-acl-ospf-test
police cir 100 bps , bc 200 ms
module 2 :
conformed 0 bytes; action: drop
violated 1799505072 bytes; action: drop

Module 2
CoPP
Generic: show policy-map interface control-plane you determine the
affected class, and with N7K# show class-map type control-plane
you determine what is classified for those classes.
4
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RL
Control-Plane
Next to CoPP we restrict some traffic via RL (AKA HWRL)
As with CoPP policers,
modifying the default rates
should be carefully planned
before any configuration
changes.
Rate-limiters can prevent overwhelming the control-plane
CoPP
RL
Multiple
CPU
Cores
4
N7004-Berlin# show hardware rate-limiter
Units for Config: packets per second
Allowed, Dropped & Total: aggregated since last clear counters
Module: 3
R-L Class Config Allowed Dropped Total
+----------------+--------+-------------+-------------+----------------+
L3 mtu 500 0 0 0
L3 ttl 500 0 0 0
L3 control 10000 0 0 0
L3 glean 100 0 0 0
<SNIP>
L2 storm-ctrl Disable
access-list-log 100 0 0 0
copy 30000 1423 0 1423
receive 30000 8540 0 8540
L2 port-sec 500 0 0 0
L2 mcast-snoop 10000 2 0 2
<SNIP>
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Inband
Control-Plane
Inband
SUP-2 / NX-OS 6.2 (5.41)
B
P
D
U
Q0 Q1
Clipper
R2D2
CPU
4
BDR-529-Berlin# show system inband queuing status
Weighted Round Robin Algorithm
Weights BPDU - 64, Q0 - 16, Q1 – 4

BDR-529-Berlin# show system inband queuing statistics
Inband packets unmapped to a queue: 0
Inband packets mapped to bpdu queue: 2078
Inband packets mapped to q0: 1339
Inband packets mapped to q1: 4
In KLM packets mapped to bpdu: 0
In KLM packets mapped to arp : 0
In KLM packets mapped to q0 : 0
In KLM packets mapped to q1 : 0
In KLM packets mapped to veobc : 0
Inband Queues:
bpdu: recv 2078, drop 0, congested 0 rcvbuf 2097152, sndbuf 4194304 no drop 1
(q0): recv 1339, drop 0, congested 0 rcvbuf 2097152, sndbuf 4194304 no drop 0
(q1): recv 4, drop 0, congested 0 rcvbuf 2097152, sndbuf 4194304 no drop 0
© 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. BRKDCT-3144 Cisco Public
Inband
Control-Plane
Inband
CPU
4
N7004# show hardware internal cpu-mac inband events
1) Event:TX_PPS_MAX, length:4, at 382147 usecs after Fri Jan 10 20:04:37
2014 new maximum = 191
2) Event:RX_PPS_MAX, length:4, at 382147 usecs after Fri Jan 10 20:04:37
2014 new maximum = 195
How to determine the max pps rate to/from the CPU, if we run out of
buffer and it’s occurrence
How to determine the time of the max pps rate to correlate against
your logs?
N7004-Berlin# show hardware internal cpu-mac inband stats | in rate|buffer
Rx no buffers .................. 0
Packet rate limit ........... 64000 pps
Rx packet rate (current/max) 85 / 195 pps
Tx packet rate (current/max) 85 / 191 pps
Goal: Compare against logs
Possible next step: logw.py
α
t
α
α
12:45
© 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. BRKDCT-3144 Cisco Public
Control-Plane
Software Architecture
NX-OS
Packet
Manager
NetStack
IP
Clients
NetStack VDC -1
L3
L2
„ip input“
ARP
OSPF
System
manager
OSPF ARP
System Manager starts
and controls / monitors
If the heatbeat fails
core sig6 -> system
troubleshooting
N7004-Berlin# debug pktmgr frame
2014 Jan 10 20:14:40.061027 pktmgr: In 0x0800 82
7 4055.390f.5645 -> 0100.5e00.0005 Eth3/6
STP
BGP
Clients
Ethanalyzer ELAME Debug
Packet
Manager
NetStack
IP
NetStack VDC-2
L3
L2
„ip input“
System
© 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. BRKDCT-3144 Cisco Public
Control-Plane
Flight Recorder
Data Collection
show tech-support sysmgr (depreciated)
Show tech-support ha
show tech-support netstack detail
show tech-support pktmgr
show tech-support <service>
4
Inband Concept
Trigger
CoPP
Netstack RL
Inband
Chapter 5
Control Plane ARP
5 ARP glean
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116
Control-Plane
Address Resolution Protocol and Adjacency Manager
Layer 2/3
ARP Incomplete...

5
N7004-Berlin# show ip arp
Flags: * - Adjacencies learnt on non-active FHRP router
+ - Adjacencies synced via CFSoE
# - Adjacencies Throttled for Glean
D - Static Adjacencies attached to down interface
IP ARP Table for context default
Total number of entries: 3
Address Age MAC Address Interface
IP ARP Table for context default
Total number of entries: 5
Address Age MAC Address Interface
192.168.0.3 00:04:41 4055.390f.5643 Vlan1
10.0.3.5 00:06:35 4055.390f.5645 Ethernet3/6
10.0.2.4 00:07:14 4055.390f.5644 Ethernet3/8
20.0.0.13 00:00:14 INCOMPLETE Ethernet3/14
192.168.0.254 - 0000.0c9f.f001 Vlan1

E 3/13
E 3/14
20.0.0.0/24
.13
.14
VRF
uRIB
(253)
route adj AM
ARP
© 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. BRKDCT-3144 Cisco Public
Control-Plane
Address Resolution Protocol and Adjacency Manager
5
N7004-Berlin# show ip arp statistics ethernet 3/14
ARP packet statistics for interface: Ethernet3/14
Sent:
Total 10, Requests 9, Replies 0, Requests on L2 0, Replies on L2 0,
Gratuitous 1, Tunneled 0, Dropped 0
Send packet drops details:
MBUF operation failed : 0
Context not yet created : 0
Invalid context : 0
Invalid ifindex : 0
Invalid SRC IP : 0
Invalid DEST IP : 0
Destination is our own IP : 0
Unattached IP : 0
<SNIP>
E 3/13
20.0.0.0/24
.13
.14
VRF
ARP
E 3/14
N7004-Berlin# debug ip arp packet
2014 Jan 5 21:51:40.477507 arp: (context 1) Sending packet on interface Ethernet3/14, (prty 0) Hrd
type 1 Prot type 800 Hrd len 6 Prot len 4 OP 1, Pkt size 28
2014 Jan 5 21:51:40.477629 arp: Src 4055.390f.5642/20.0.0.14 Dst ffff.ffff.ffff/20.0.0.13
2014 Jan 5 21:51:40.481061 arp: (context 4) Receiving packet from interface Ethernet3/13, (prty 6)
Hrd type 1 Prot type 800 Hrd len 6 Prot len 4 OP 1, Pkt size 46
2014 Jan 5 21:51:40.481131 arp: Src 4055.390f.5642/20.0.0.14 Dst ffff.ffff.ffff/20.0.0.13
Consider the use of Debug-Filter and send to a file
12:50
© 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. BRKDCT-3144 Cisco Public
Control-Plane
Address Resolution Protocol and Adjacency Manager
5
Received:
Total 1, Requests 0, Replies 0, Requests on L2 0, Replies on L2 0
Proxy arp 0, Local-Proxy arp 0, Tunneled 0, Fastpath 0, Snooped 0, Dropped 1
Received packet drops details:
Appeared on a wrong interface : 0
Incorrect length : 0
Invalid protocol packet : 0
Invalid context : 0
Context not yet created : 0
Invalid layer 2 address length : 0
Invalid layer 3 address length : 0
Invalid source IP address : 0
Source IP address is our own : 0
No mem to create per intf structure : 0
Source address mismatch with subnet : 0
Directed broadcast source : 0
<SMIP>
E 3/13
20.0.0.0/24
.13
.14
VRF
ARP

N7004-Berlin# show ip arp statistics vrf ALQ
<SNIP>
Received:
Total 13, Requests 0, Replies 0, Requests on L2 0, Replies on L2 0
Proxy arp 0, Local-Proxy arp 0, Tunneled 0, Fastpath 0, Snooped 0, Dropped 13
<SNIP>
Invalid source MAC address : 0
Source MAC address is our own : 13
<SMIP>
N7004-Berlin# show ip arp statistics ethernet 3/14
© 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. BRKDCT-3144 Cisco Public
Control-Plane
Address Resolution Protocol and Adjacency Manager
5
Check CoPP and/or HWRL:

Customer# show class-map type control-plane copp-system-p-class-normal
class-map type control-plane match-any copp-system-p-class-normal
match access-group name copp-system-p-acl-mac-dot1x
match exception ip multicast directly-connected-sources
match exception ipv6 multicast directly-connected-sources
match protocol arp
class-map copp-system-p-class-normal (match-any)
violate action: drop
module 5: violated 20557632224 bytes,
5-min violate rate 4154397 bytes/sec
module 9: violated 0 bytes,
5-min violate rate 0 bytes/sec
Customer# show hardware rate-limiter | i Module|R-L|glean
Module: 5
R-L Class Config Allowed Dropped Total
+------------------+--------+---------------+-------------+-----------------+
L3 glean 100 4904 2935 7839
L3 glean-fast 100 863401 1539316 2402717
SWT-1 SWT-2
ARP INCOMPLETE
It worked before
no new deployment
Ethanalyzer verifies ARP
packets are being send
by SWT-1 but not
received
On SWT-2 ARP is being
Received and Send
customer# show vpc brief
vPC keep-alive status : peer is not reachable through peer-keepalive
© 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. BRKDCT-3144 Cisco Public
Control-Plane
Flight Recorder
Data Collection
show tech-support arp
show tech-support adjmgr
show tech-support hsrp

5 ARP glean
Summary
© 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. BRKDCT-3144 Cisco Public
Inband
127
Nexus 7000 Troubleshooting
N7K offers complete visibility, excessive logging and integrates great testing tools
Supervisor
(Control-Plane)
Fabric
I/O Module
(Forwarding
Engine)
Data
Plane
Data Center OS
NX-OS
I/O Module
(Forwarding
Engine)
ELAME
Control Plane
Management Plane ethanalyzer
PI := Platform Independent
PD := Platform Dependent
RL CoPP
Netstack
ASIC counters
ASIC counters
show
debug/filter
logging
ASIC counters
12:55
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128
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129
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130
Offering
The Rides via WebEx
1
2
3
4
5
6
Strategy
Tools & System
Data-Plane
Layer 2
[TCAM]
Optional
Data-Plane
Layer 3
Control-Plane
Inband
Control-Plane
ARP
1 25
20
12
12
8
1
st
WebEx 120 min for YOU
12-FEB-14 10:00 CET opt-in:
alaquian@cisco.com
“subject BRKDCT-3144”
11:35
Chapter 6:
ACL’s
Optional
6
TCAM
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134
TCAM
Ternary Content Addressable Memory
Result Types
6
N7004-London# show system internal access-list feature bank map vlan ingress
<SNIP>
slot 3
=======
_________________________________________________________________________
Feature Rslt Type T0B0 T0B1 T1B0 T1B1
_________________________________________________________________________
QoS Qos X
RACL Acl X
PBR Acl X
VACL Acl X
DHCP Acl X
ARP Acl X
Netflow Acl X X
Netflow (SVI) Acl X X
Netflow Sampler Acc X
Netflow Sampler (SVI) Acc X
SPM WCCP Acl X X
BFD Acl X
SPM OTV Acl X
ACLMGR ERSPAN (source) Acl X
Per bank only one
result type can be
used:
for “VLAN” & “Ingress”
either QoS or NF
Sampler
“I can’t configure QoS…the system
rejects my configuration…”
T0B0
T0B1
T1B0
T1B1
© 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. BRKDCT-3144 Cisco Public
141
6
TCAM
TCAM
Statistics per Entry & Logging
N7K# sh ip access example
IP access list example
statistics per-entry
10 permit ip any 10.1.2.100/32 [match=3452]
20 deny ip any 10.1.68.101/32 [match=49920]
30 deny ip any 10.33.2.25/32 [match=232324]
40 permit tcp any any eq 22 [match=9881]
50 deny tcp any any eq telnet [match=442]
60 deny udp any any eq syslog [match=87112]
70 permit tcp any any eq www [match=4345667]
80 permit udp any any eq snmp [match=234222]
ACL logging is enabled by including the log
keyword in an ACL rule (show log log).
The Sup receives a copy of the packet. The
original packet is forwarded/dropped in
hardware with no performance penalty.

Statistics per Entry
The CPU is protected by
using one of the available
rate limiters. Forwarding
engine hardware enforces
rate to avoid saturating
inband interface CPU.
hardware rate-limit
access-list-log command
adjusts rate (def 100 pps)
ACL Logging can be a
useful tool during
troubleshooting. Use ACL
logging to sample specific
packets from data
plane.Use onboard
ethanalyzer (wireshark) to
analyze sampled packets
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142
Statistics per entry results in no optimization and no merge
activity. Instead a 1:1 mapping of configured ACE to CL
TCAM will be seen

6
TCAM Space
„...when using ACL stats per entry on the 7K the TCAM
utilization goes up to 47%, when removed, it dropped to 7%...“
object groups do NOT offer ANY optimization in terms of
CL (:= Classification) TCAM utilization
Statistics per entry are often used for troubleshooting with
„host ACEs“

TCAM
Utilization
ACLs Statistics are
NOT enabled by default
(fundamental difference
vs. IOS) because they
require the ACEs NOT
to be merged and this
affects the TCAM
utilization.
© 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. BRKDCT-3144 Cisco Public
TCAM
Utilization
ACL’s
6
N7004(config)# show hardware access-list vdc 3 input statistics module 3
VDC-3 Ethernet3/30 :
====================
INSTANCE 0x7 / Tcam 1 resource usage:
----------------------
Label_b = 0x2
Bank 0
------
IPv4 Class
Policies: BFD() [Merged]
Netflow profile: 0
Netflow deny profile: 0
Entries:
[Index] Entry [Stats]
---------------------
[0058:000e:000e] prec 1 redirect(0x64)-routed udp 0.0.0.0/0 0.0.0.0/0 eq 3784
ttl eq 255 flow-label 3784 [1891]
[0059:000f:000f] prec 1 redirect(0x64)-routed udp 0.0.0.0/0 0.0.0.0/0 eq 3785
ttl eq 254 flow-label 3785 [63895]
[005a:0010:0010] prec 1 permit-routed ip 0.0.0.0/0 0.0.0.0/0 [128276]
<SNIP>
Specific applications
(dhcp, bfd) may install
their own ACLs which
must merge with user
configured
racl,vacl,pacl
3/30
L3
BFD
London FE7
© 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. BRKDCT-3144 Cisco Public
TCAM
Bank Management
TCAM
6
N7004(config)# hardware access-list resource feature bank-mapping
N7004(config)# show system internal access-list feature bank-class map ingress
slot 3
=======
Feature Class Definition:
0. CLASS_QOS :
QoS,
1. CLASS_INBAND :
Tunnel Decap, SPM LISP,
2. CLASS_PACL :
PACL, Netflow,
3. CLASS_DHCP :
DHCP, Netflow, Netflow (vlan), ARP,
4. CLASS_RACL :
RACL, RACL_STAT, Netflow (SVI), ARP,
<SNIP>
Feature Class Combination (Ingress)
0. CLASS_PACL, CLASS_QOS_INTF, CLASS_EMPTY, CLASS_EMPTY
1. CLASS_PACL, CLASS_NF_SMPL_INTF, CLASS_EMPTY, CLASS_EMPTY
<SNIP>
33. CLASS_EMPTY, CLASS_EMPTY, CLASS_NF_SMPL, CLASS_QOS
“now I can configure
QoS and NF Sampler”
© 2014 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. BRKDCT-3144 Cisco Public
TCAM
Utilization
Flight Recorder
show tech-support aclmgr
show tech-support aclqos
6
TCAM