You are on page 1of 10

Department of Electrical Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Patna
Experiment No: 4
Study of Transmission Line
Objectives:
1. To determine the A, B, C, D parameters for long transmission line.
2. Study of erranti effect for long transmission line and compensation for it.
!. To determine the performance of the transmission line.
a" #fficiency for different loading condition $ithout compensation and $ith
compensation.
%" &oltage profile across the length of line on loading condition $ith and $ithout
compensation.
It is necessary that you should brush up your concepts regarding transmission line so that you
can get insight of those concepts while performing the experiments. And please follow the
precautions carefully to avoid any accident.
Brief details about the Transmission line simulator.
The transmission line demo panel comprises a line model on per phase %asis ha'ing the length
()) *+ , 'oltage of 22)&. The lumped parameter line model $ith fi'e cascaded net$or-s each
of them is designed for .) *+ parameters.
General Information
1. Transmission line simulator is di'ided into si/ sections.
 Section 1 consists of po$er analy0er, one ammeter, one 'oltmeter and connection for
CTs.
 Section 2 consists of e1ui'alent circuit for transmission line. 2ne pi 34" section
represents .) -ilometer 3-m" of the line and T$o 56C load units.
 Section ! consists of s$itches for circuit %rea-er, connections for PTs and fault
simulator s$itch.
1
 Section ( consist of impedance relay, o'ercurrent relay, selector s$itch for 56C load
unit 1 ,2.
 Section 7 consists of t$o 'ariacs, selector s$itches for inductance of the transmission
line.
 Section 8 consists of +CB and selector s$itch for capacitance of the transmission
line and tap changer for tap changing transformer.
2. Po$er analy0er 1 is internally connected at the sending end of the transmission line.
!. Po$er analy0er 2, ! and ( can %e used independently.
(. Po$er analy0er should %e used together $ith CTs and PTs. It should %e ensure that phase
and neutral of meter should %e connected to the secondary of the PTs. S1 , S2 of Po$er
analy0er should %e connected $ith the S1 , S2 of the CTs.
7. Po$er Analy0er 2 3PA2" should %e connected to PT2, PA! to PT! and PA( to PT(
respecti'ely. 3As the po$er analy0ers ha'e %een cali%rated $ith their respecti'e PTs."
8. Sending end 'ariac 3'ariac 1" is internally connected. &ariac 2 should %e gi'en %y the
e/citation at primary side $hen used in the circuit.
Specifications
Sending End Transformer:
Primary9 ) :11) :22)&, Secondary9 22)&, !9 127)
"eceiving End Transformer:
Primary9 ):22)&, Secondary9 1;),1.),1<),2)),21),22),2!),2()&, 27), 28), 2;),2.) &A91)))
=o of > sections9 7 #AC? S#CTI2=9 .)*+S.
#ach section 9 6 @ !7.)m?A1;.) m?A!.7m? 37A ma/"
5esistance 9 5 @ 2.8B
Capacitance 9 1.(A)..A).8Cf
L#NE $!"!%ETE"S:
5 @ ).)!27DA*+, 6@).(!;7mhA-m, C@).)17CfdA-m, ).)2Cfd and ))!7ufd 3selecta%le"
or ())-ms9
5 @ 1!B, 6@1;7.)m?, C@).8Cfd, )..Cfd , 1.(Cfd.3selecta%le"
&Note: Do not ma'e s(ort circuit )(en inductance selection is belo) *+m,-
2
Capacitor selector s$itch E 7 nos.1 for each section.
P2S19 C @ ).8CD,
P2S29 C @ )..CD,
P2S!9 C @ 1.(CD
LO!D#N. /N#TS:
"L0 /N#T12
!"#!3LE $OTENT#O%ETE"9 1*, 1))F
"ES#ST!N0E 3!N4: 5 667
SF19 7*A1)F , 1)*A 7F, SF29 2*(A2)F, SF!9 1*2A()F, SF(9 8)7BA.)F,
SF79 !)2 B A18)F
#ND/0TO" 3!N4: 5 6678 9:+! TO 226:+!
SF19 ;.7&A, SF29 17&A, SF!9 17&A, SF(9 !)&A, SF79 (7&A
0!$!0#TO" 3!N4:
SF19 )..CD, SF29 1.2CD, SF!9 !.17CD, SF(9 8CD, SF79 .CD
"L0 /N#T16
!"#!3LE $OTENT#O%ETE": 1*, 1))F
"ES#ST!N0E 3!N4:
SF192*A2)F, SF29 <8< B A7)F, SF!9 (.( B A1))F, SF(9 2(2 B A2))F,
SF79 1(1 B A())F
#ND/0TO" 3!N4: 2+! TO 2;+!
SF19 17&A, SF29 !)&A, SF!9 8)&A, SF(9 8)&A, SF79 1)m? E unity pf
0!$!0#TO" 3!N4:
SF19 1.2CD, SF29 !.17CD, SF!9 8CD, SF(9 .CD, SF79 12.7CD
!
E<TE"N!L $OTENT#!L T"!NS=O"%E"S:
P5I9 (()&, S#C9 22)&, &A9 27&A E ! =2S. E #/ternal for meters9
E<TE"N!L 0/""ENT T"!NS=O"%E"S:
P5I9 1)A, S#C9 7A, &A9 7, C6.).7 E !=2S. : e/ternal for meters
INTE"N!L 0T =O" #%$ED!N0E "EL!>:
P5I9 ! A A S#C9 1A, &A9 7, C69).7 E 31)A primary ma/" 1=2.
=O" O0 ? "EL!>:
P5I9 7A A S#C9 1A, 7&A, C6 ).7
=O" SEND#N. END $O@E" !N!>AE": SE2
PT9 =I6 3=2T#9 +AG 5+S IS !))&ac"
CT9 P5I 1)A, S#C9 7A, &A9 7, C69 ).7
%03BS
+AI=S +CB 9 2)A, 2P26#,
C2=T526 +CB 9 2A.
&A5IAC E S#=DI=H #=D 9 8A
&A5IAC E 5#C#I&I=H #=D9 8A
O/T$/T OT!.E SELE0TO" S@#T0,: 1 P26# 12FAI, 8A
!LL TO..LE S@#T0,9 17A
!LL 0ONNE0TO"S9 BTI:17, #6C2+ +A*#
#%$ED!N0E "E!L>: ?IH? &26TAH# +A*#, AJG9 2!)&AC 3:17K,L1)K"
OE" 0/""ENT "EL!>: 6,T, CT S#C. 1A, AJG. <):2()& ACADC.
%ETE"S:
OLT%ETE" 1 2
):;7&AC, +#C2: S+P(7S

(
!%%ETE" 1 2
):2)A, +#C2: S+P!7S E 1.
T#%E #NTE"!L %ETE" ? 2
).)))1 S#C T2 <<<< S#C, TI1)!C: S#6#CT52=.
$o)er !nalyCer: 1 4NOS:
Circutor E model9 C&+:=5H:<8:IT:5S(.7C, AJG9 2!)&AC
3(.2&A, :17K, L1)K", IAP 9 2() 3 +AG:!))&5+S, CJ55#=T9 ):7A 3+AG.7.7A"
=!/LT S@#T0, E 2 P26#, 2FAI, F2A2, !2A: SA6M#5.
$/S, 3/TTON: S0,NED#E"
1. CB:1 2=A2 E S#=DI=H #=D
2. CB:2 2=A2 : 5#C#&I=H #=D.
!. CB:! 2=A2 E 62AD
(. ACC#PT 25 AC*=2F6#DH# 25 AJ6T A 5#S#T9
Precautions
1. This e/periment should %e not %e performed if you are not $ith your shoes on.
2. Before doing any connections ma-e sure that main +CB in section 8 should %e in off
position.
!. All the load selector s$itches should %e in off position.
(. CTNs should not %e e/cited unless secondary is shorted using an ammeter.
7. =e'er touch any li'e part 3ta-e care e'en for the %anana pins", $hen the supply is
s$itched on.
8. =e'er change the capacitance 'alue of the 4 section of the transmission line $hen the
po$er is flo$ing through it ie. irst s$itch off the CB1 and then change the capacitance
'alue if re1uired %y the e/periment.
;. If anything unusual happens Oust s$itch off the +CB and inform us.
7
b!ective ": To determine t(e !8 38 08 D parameters for long transmission line:
To determine the ABCD parameter of the transmission line $e need to perform the open
circuit test and short circuit test on the transmission line for $hich the procedures are
gi'en %elo$.
Procedures#
1. #nsure that the main +CB is s$itched 2 %efore doing any connections. Also
ensure that relay s$itches are in Jnhealthy position.
2. Connect all the fi'e 4 sections for ()) *m of line using connectors.
!. Select the 'alue of !7m? for inductance and 1.(Cd of capacitance for each 4
sections.
(. Connect the output of the sending end 'ariac using connector at 22) 'olt le'el of the
transformer.
7. Open 0ircuit Test:
a. *eep the recei'ing end open circuited and then s$itch on the main +CB.
%. S$itch on the CB1 3circuit %rea-er 1" and then &ary the -no% of the 'ariac 1 and
ma-e the sending end 'oltage 22) 'olt.
c. =o$ from the po$er analy0er meter o%ser'e the sending end 'oltage, Sending
#nd current and sending end po$er 3*F". Also o%ser'e the recei'ing end 'oltage
using a 'oltmeter.
d. =o$ s$itch off the main +CB and ma-e the 'ariac 1 in 0ero position.
8. S(ort 0ircuit Test:
a. =o$ short circuit the recei'ing end using the digital ammeter gi'en.
%. Then s$itch 2= the main +CB and CB1 and 'ary the sending end 'oltage
gradually till the sending end 'oltage is a%out 22) &olts and the recei'ing end
current is around !.7 A.
c. =o$ from the po$er analy0er meter o%ser'e the sending end 'oltage, Sending
#nd current and sending end po$er 3*F". Also o%ser'e the recei'ing end
current from the ammeter used for short circuit the recei'ing end.
;. Ta%ulate the readings properly.
$ab %eport#
1. Calculate the ABCD parameters from the reading and comment.
2. &erify the results $ith the follo$ing e1uation AD:BC@1.
b!ective &: Study of =erranti effect for long transmission line and compensation for it:
Procedures#
8
1. ollo$ the same procedures from 1
st
to 7
th
step as e/plained in the o%Oecti'e 1 to perform
the open circuit test. Along $ith po$er, 'alue of cosP should also %e o%ser'ed.
2. Perform the open circuit test for follo$ing inductance and capacitance 'alue of the 4
sections 3say 6@!7m? and C@1.(Cd". =ote the 'oltage along the length of the line i.e. at
the end of each 4 section 3.)*m".
!. Do the appropriate compensation for the transmission line so that recei'ing end 'oltage is
near to 22)&olts. =ote the 'oltage along the length of the line i.e. at the end of each 4
section 3.)*m".
(. Ta%ulate the readings properly.
$ab %eport#
1. #/plain the erranti effect and causes for it.
2. Plot 'oltage profile across the length of line $ith and $ithout compensation.
b!ective'# To determine t(e performance of t(e transmission line:
a. #fficiency for different loading conditions $ithout compensation and $ith
compensation.
%. &oltage profile across the length of line on loading condition $ith and $ithout
compensation.
Procedures#
1. #nsure the necessary precautions stated earlier.
2. Connect all the fi'e 4 sections for ()) *m of line using connectors.
!. Select the 'alue of 1;m? for inductance and 1.(Cd of capacitance for each 4 sections.
(. Connect the output of the sending end 'ariac using connector at 22) 'olt le'el of the
transformer.
7. Then connect the transmission line part $ith the 6C compensation part using $ire leads.
=o$ at the 6C compensation part connect the 'aria%le inductor from 56C unit 1 in shunt
$ith the line, through the po$er analy0er, to compensate the erranti effect and ma-e the
recei'ing end 'oltage to a%out 22)&. =ote the shunt compensation current, and *&A5
from the po$er analy0er.
8. 2nce the line is compensated, s$itch off the CB1 and CB2 and connect the transmission
line to the recei'ing end Transformer and connect the load to the output of the recei'ing
end transformer through the po$er analy0er.
;. =o$ s$itch on the CB1, CB2 and CB! and 'ary the loads in steps till the load is a%out
8)) $att. 3#nsure $hile 'arying the load the sending end 'oltage should %e -ept constant
at 22) &."
.. 2%ser'e the sending end and recei'ing end 'oltage, current, po$er and po$er factor for
each loading condition.
<. Also o%ser'e the 'oltage along the length of line for ma/imum loading condition
o%tained.
;
1). =o$ s$itch off the CB1, CB2 and CB! and connect the 'aria%le capacitor from 56C unit
2 across the load at the recei'ing end through another po$er analy0er.
11. =o$ 'ary the capacitor and try to maintain the recei'ing end 'oltage at its rated 'oltage
for earlier loading conditions.
12. =o$ after compensation at each loading steps again ta-e the sending end and recei'ing
end 'oltage, current, po$er and po$er factor for each loading condition.
1!. Also note the 'oltage along the length of line for ma/imum loading condition o%tained
after compensation.
1(. Ta%ulate the readings properly.
$ab %eport#
1. Calculate the efficiency for each loading condition $ithout and $ith compensation and
plot the efficiency 's load current for %oth the cases.
2. Calculate the 'oltage regulation for each loading condition $ithout and $ith
compensation and plot the 'oltage regulation 's. load current for %oth the cases.
!. Plot the 'oltage profile along the length of line $ithout compensation, $ith compensation
$hen done at the load end and $hen compensation $as done in %et$een the line together
$ith $hen done at recei'ing end condition for ma/imum loading condition.
(. Dra$ the phasor diagram for ma/imum loading condition $ithout and $ith
compensation.
7.
.
$o)er !nalyCers
0T 0onnector
Transmission line
eDuivalent circuit
ariable "L0 Load
units
(onnection to use the power analy)er together with current transformer and potential
transformer
<
$T 0onnector
Load selector S)itc(es
0ircuit brea'er s)itc(es
Eart( =aultEover1current
"elay
#mpedance "elay
ariacs
%ain 0ontrol %03
Tap c(anging
TransformerBs selector
Transmission lineBs capacitance
c(anger s)itc(es
Transmission lineBs
inductance c(anger
s)itc(es
If you $ant to measure the current $hich the load is dra$ing, together $ith the 'oltage across
AB, po$er, po$er factor etc, and for that you use the po$er analy0er, and do the connection as
sho$n in the a%o'e figure, $hich is self e/planatory.
1)