ISSN: 1693-6930 185

Dynamic Modelling of A Flexible Link Manipulator Robot Using …… (Moh. Khoirudin)
DYNAMIC MODELLING OF A FLEXIBLE LINK
MANIPULATOR ROBOT USING AMM


Moh. Khairudi n
Electrical Eng. Dept. Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
e-mail: moh_khairudin@uny.ac.id


Abstrak
Paper ini menyajikan pemodelan dari sebuah manipulator link fleksibel menggunakan
teknik Lagrangian dalam hubungannya dengan metode modus diasumsikan (AMM). Link-link
dimodelkan sebagai Euler-Bernoulli beams yang memenuhi kondisi batas massa. Sebuah
beban yang terhubung (payload) ditambahkan ke ujung luar link, sedangkan hub inertias
disertakan pada aktuator sendi. Pendekatan Lagrangian digunakan untuk mendapatkan model
dinamis dari struktur. Model dinamis dari sebuah manipulator link fleksibel pada penlitian ini
diverifikasi menggunakan simulasi Matlab/Simulink. Perumusan model yang diusulkan telah
lengkap dengan turut mempertimbankan pengaruh beban yang terhubung (payload) dan
redaman yang berada dalam kerangka kopling (structural link). Penekanan dari perumusan
model ini telah di diatur untuk mendapatkan persamaan gerakan yang akurat yang
menunjukkan aspek-aspek yang paling berpengaruh dalam kopling, khususnya untuk kasus
kopling untuk tenaga gerak yang kaku (rigid) maupun yang selalu berubah serta lentur.

Kata kunci : assumed method, dynamic model, Lagrangian.


Abstract
This paper presents modeling of a flexible link manipulator using Lagrangian technique
in conjunction with the assumed mode method (AMM). The links are modeled as Euler-Bernoulli
beams satisfying proper mass boundary conditions. A payload is added to the tip of the outer
link, while hub inertias are included at the actuator joints. The Lagrangian approach is used to
derive the dynamic model of the structure. In this research, the dynamic model of a flexible link
manipulator verified using Matlab/Simulink simulation. The model formulation proposed in this
work is complete in the sense that it considers the effects of payload and damping structural of
the link. The emphasis has been set on obtaining accurate equations of motion that display the
most relevant aspects of the coupling between rigid and flexible dynamics.

Keywords: assumed method, dynamic model, Lagrangian.


1. INTRODUCTION
The first step of design procedure is to acknowledge the information of constructing the
dynamic model of flexible manipulators using the combination of Euler-Lagrange and Assumed
mode method (AMM). In order to have a successful modeling design, prior knowledge of AMM
and Euler Lagrange equation are needed by integrating with Simulink. Simulation results are
analyzed in both the time and frequency domains to assess the accuracy of the model i n
representing the actual system.
Partial differential equations (PDE) and boundary equations of a flexible link
manipulator system are obtained by matching the shear force and bending moment at the elbow
joint, allowing the eigenvalues to be computed without recourse to dynamic formulations [1]. On
the other hand, the vibration modes of a generic flexible link manipulator are studied as a
function of the link, rotor and tip mass distribution. Necessary and sufficient conditions are
developed for all vibration modes to exhibit a node at the manipulator. Various approaches have
been developed which can mainly be divided into two categories: the numerical analysis
approach and the AMM. The numerical analysis methods that are utilized include finite
difference (FD) and finite element (FE) methods. The FD and FE approaches have been used i n
ISSN: 1693-6930

TELKOMNIKA Vol. 6, No. 3, Desember 2008 : 185 - 190
186
obtaining the dynamic characterization of a single-link flexible manipulator system incorporating
damping, hub inertia and payload [2,3].
Subudhi and Morries [4] have used a combined Euler-Lagrange formulation and AMM
approach to model the planar motion of a manipulator consisting of flexible links and joints. The
conventional Lagrangian modeling of flexible link robots does not fully incorporate the bending
mechanism of flexible link as it allows free link elongation in addition to link deflection. The
equations of motion which can be arranged in a computationally efficient closed form that is also
linear with respect to a suitable set of constant mechanical parameters have been obtained [5].
This paper presents modeling of a flexible link manipulator using Lagrangian technique
in conjunction with the AMM. The links are modeled as Euler-Bernoulli beams satisfying proper
mass boundary conditions. A payload is added to the tip of the outer link, while hub inertias are
included at the actuator joints.

2. A FLEXIBLE LINK SYSTEM
In this section, the flexible link kinematics is described. The kinematics description is
developed for a chain of n serially connected flexible links as shown in Figure 1. The co-ordinate
systems of the link are assigned referring to the Denavit–Hartenberg (D–H) description. X
0
Y
0
is
the inertial co-ordinate frame (CF), X
i
Y
i
the rigid body CF associated with the ith link and
i i
Y X
) )
is
the flexible moving CF.

Figure 1. Structure of a flexible link manipulator system


Considering revolute joints and motion of the manipulator on a two-dimensional plane,
the rigid transformation matrix,
i
A , from X
i-1
Y
i-1
to X
i
Y
i
is written as






⎡ −
=
i i
i i
i
A
θ θ
θ θ
cos sin
sin cos
(1)

On using assumption (IV), the elastic homogenous transformation matrix, E
i
, due to the
deflection of the link i can be written as


















=
=
=
1
) , (
) , (
1
i i
i i
l x
i
i i
l x
i
i i
i
x
t x
x
t x
E
υ
υ
(2)

where ) , ( t x
i i
υ is the bending deflection of the ith link at a spatial point x
i
(0 ≤ x
i
≤ l
i
) and l
i
is
the length of the ith link. The global transformation matrix T
i
transforming co-ordinates from X
0
Y
0

to X
i
Y
i
follows a recursion as below

i i i i
A E T T
1 1 − −
=
(3)

TELKOMNIKA ISSN: 1693-6930 ■

Dynamic Modelling of A Flexible Link Manipulator Robot Using …… (Moh. Khoirudin)
187
Let









=
) , (
) (
t x
x
x r
i i
i
i i
i
υ


be the position vector that describes an arbitrary point along the ith deflected link with respect to
its local CF (X
i
Y
i
) and
i
r
0
be the same point referring to X
0
Y
0
. The position of the origin of
X
i+1
Y
i+1
with respect to X
i
Y
i
is given by

) (
1 i i
i
i
i
l r p =
+
(4)

and
i
p
0
is its absolute position with respect to X
0
Y
0
.
Using the global transformation matrix,
i
r
0
and
i
p
0
can be written as

i
i
i i i
r T p r + =
0 0
,
1
0
1
0
+ +
+ =
i
i
i i i
p T p p (5)


3. THE DYNAMIC MODELLING OF A FLEXIBLE LINK SYSTEM
To derive the kinetic and potential energies associated with the manipulator, the
procedure adopted in previous section is followed. By substituting for links (i = 1) and for two
modes (j = 1, 2).
The solution of the partial differential equation describing the flexible motion of the
manipulator can be obtained following the general procedures. In this case, the effective
masses at the end of the individual links are set as

p L
M M =
1
, 0
1
=
L
J , 0
1
= MD (6)

Here, the co-ordinate vector consists of link positions, θ
1
, and modal displacements (q
11
, q
12
).
The force vector is F = {τ
1
, 0, 0}
T
, where τ is the torques applied by the rotor. Therefore, the
following Euler–Lagrange’s equations result, with i = 1 and j = 1 and 2:

i
i i
L L
t
τ
θ θ
=















&
(7)

0 =















ij ij
q
L
q
L
t
&
(8)

Assembling the mass and stiffness matrices and utilising the Euler-Lagrange equation
of motion, the dynamic equation of motion of the flexible manipulator system can be obtained as

) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
. ..
t F t KQ t Q D t Q M = + + (9)

where M, D and K are global mass, damping and stiffness matrices of the manipulator
respectively. The damping matrix is obtained by assuming the manipulator exhibit the
characteristic of Rayleigh damping. The global damping normally determined through
experimentation. The damping ratio typically ranges [6] from 0.007 to 0.01. For the flexible
manipulator under consideration, the global mass matrix can be represented as







=
ww w
w
M M
M M
M
θ
θ θθ

ISSN: 1693-6930

TELKOMNIKA Vol. 6, No. 3, Desember 2008 : 185 - 190
188
where
ww
M is associated with the elastic degrees of freedom (residual motion),
w
M
θ

represents the coupling between these elastic degrees of freedom and the hub angle θ and
θθ
M is associated with the inertia of the system about the motor axis. Similarly, the global
stiffness matrix can be written as







=
ww
K
K
0
0 0


where
ww
K is associated with the elastic degrees of freedom (residual motion). It can be shown
that the elastic degrees of freedom do not couple with the hub angle through the stiffness
matrix.

The global damping matrix D in equation (9) can be represented as








=
ww
D
D
0
0 0


where
ww
D denotes the sub-matrix associated with the structural damping. This proportional
damping model has been assumed because it allows experimentally determined damping ratios
of individual modes to be used directly in forming the global matrix. It also allows assignment of
individual damping ratios to individual modes, such that the total manipulator damping is
constituted with the sum of the damping associated with the modes. Using this assumption, the
damping can be obtained as

ww ww ww
K M D β α + = (10)

where

2
1
2
2
1 2 2 1 2 1
) ( 2
f f
f f f f


=
ξ ξ
α ;
2
1
2
2
1 1 2 2
) ( 2
f f
f f


=
ξ ξ
β

with
1
ξ ,
2
ξ ,
1
f and
2
f represent the damping ratios and natural frequencies of modes 1 and 2
respectively.


4. RESULT AND DISCUSSION
The dynamic model of a flexible link manipulator has been presented. The physical
parameters of the manipulator are given in Table 1. In this study, the damping ratios were
assumed as 0.0086 and 0.01 for vibration modes 1 and 2 respectively. The manipulator was
excited with symmetric bang-bang torque inputs as shown in Figure 2. A bang-bang torque has
a positive (acceleration) and negative (deceleration) period allowing the manipulator to, initially,
accelerate and then decelerate and eventually stop at target location. The output responses of
the manipulator are taken from both angle rotation and modal displacement.


Table 1. Parameters of the flexible link manipulator
Symbol Parameter Value Unit
ρ Mass density 0.1648 kgm
-1

EI Flexural rigidity 3.73 Nm
2

l Length 0.9 m
I
r
Rotor and hub inertia 5.8598x10
-4
kgm
2

I
b
Beam inertia 0.04 kgm
2

TELKOMNIKA ISSN: 1693-6930 ■

Dynamic Modelling of A Flexible Link Manipulator Robot Using …… (Moh. Khoirudin)
189
0 0. 5 1 1. 5 2 2.5 3
-0. 4
-0. 3
-0. 2
-0. 1
0
0. 1
0. 2
0. 3
0. 4
Time ( s)
T
o
r
q
u
e

(
N
m
)
B ang- bang i nput command


Figure 2. The bang-bang input torque




0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
Time (s)
H
u
b

a
n
g
l
e

(
d
e
g
)
Hub-angle
(a) Hub-angle.

0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000
-150
-100
-50
0
50
150
200
250
300
Time (s)
H
u
b

v
e
l
o
c
i
t
y

(
d
e
g
/
s
e
c
)
Hub-veloci ty

(b) Hub-velocity.
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
-150
-100
-50
0
50
100
150
200
Time (s)
E
n
d

p
o
i
n
t

a
c
c
e
l
e
r
a
t
i
o
n

(
m
/
s
e
c
/
s
e
c
)
End-poi nt accelerati on
(c) End-point acceleration.
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
10
-7
10
-6
10
-5
10
-4
10
-3
10
-2
10
-1
10
0
Frequency (Hz)
M
a
g
n
i
t
u
d
e

(
m
/
H
z
)
(d) Spectral density of end-point
acceleration.

Figure 3. Response of the simulation of one-link flexible manipulator
ISSN: 1693-6930

TELKOMNIKA Vol. 6, No. 3, Desember 2008 : 185 - 190
190
However, a slightly different response was obtained in the frequency domain where only
two modes of vibration can be obtained within simulation compared to three modes of vibration
from experimental results. This is because only two modes of vibration are considered i n
deriving the mathematical model of the system. It is noted that the first two modes of vibration of
the system converged to 13.94 Hz and 55.78 Hz for the simulation results. The experimental
results, however, gave 11.72 Hz, 35.15 Hz and 65.60 Hz. The corresponding errors between
the simulation and experimental results by taking the first two modes are accordingly 18.9% and
58.4 % respectively, which are considered a big difference. This is due to the limitation of
number of modes (two modes) using in the simulation model.


5. CONCLUSSION
A generalized modeling framework has been described to obtain the closed-form finite
dimensional dynamic model for a flexible link manipulators by using the Euler-Lagrange
approach combined with the AMM. The model formulation proposed in this work is complete in
the sense that it considers the effects of payload and damping structural of the link. The
emphasis has been set on obtaining accurate equations of motion that display the most relevant
aspects of the coupling between rigid and flexible dynamics.


REFERENCES
[1]. A. S. Morris, A. Madani, “Inclusion of Shear Deformation Term to Improve Accuracy i n
Flexible-Link Robot Modeli ng”, Mechatronics, Vol. 6, No. 6., pp. 631-647, 1996.
[2]. Tokhi MO, Mohamed Z, Azad AKM, “Finite difference and finite element approaches to
dynamic modell ing of a flexibl e manipulator”, Proceeding of IMechE-I: Journal of
Systems and Control Engineering, 211:145-156, 1997.
[3]. Tokhi MO, Mohamed Z, Shaheed MH, “Dynamic characterizat ion of a flexibl e
manipulator system”, Robotica, 19:571-580, 2001.
[4]. Subudhi B, Morris AS., “Dynamic Model ing, Si mulation and Control of a manipulator
with flexible links and joints”, Robotics and Autonomous System, 41:257-270, 2002.
[5]. M.Khairudin, Z. Mohamed, “A Technique For Modeling of a Two-Link Flexibl e
Manipulator”, The 6rd IEEE Student Conference on Research and Development (SCOReD
2008), Johor, Malaysia, 26-27 Nov. 2008.
[6]. Hasting, G. G. and Book, W. J., “A l inear dynamic model for flexible robot
manipulators” , IEEE Control Systems Magazine, Vol. 7, pp. 61-64, 1987.