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**Dynamic Modelling of A Flexible Link Manipulator Robot Using …… (Moh. Khoirudin)
**

DYNAMIC MODELLING OF A FLEXIBLE LINK

MANIPULATOR ROBOT USING AMM

Moh. Khairudi n

Electrical Eng. Dept. Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia

e-mail: moh_khairudin@uny.ac.id

Abstrak

Paper ini menyajikan pemodelan dari sebuah manipulator link fleksibel menggunakan

teknik Lagrangian dalam hubungannya dengan metode modus diasumsikan (AMM). Link-link

dimodelkan sebagai Euler-Bernoulli beams yang memenuhi kondisi batas massa. Sebuah

beban yang terhubung (payload) ditambahkan ke ujung luar link, sedangkan hub inertias

disertakan pada aktuator sendi. Pendekatan Lagrangian digunakan untuk mendapatkan model

dinamis dari struktur. Model dinamis dari sebuah manipulator link fleksibel pada penlitian ini

diverifikasi menggunakan simulasi Matlab/Simulink. Perumusan model yang diusulkan telah

lengkap dengan turut mempertimbankan pengaruh beban yang terhubung (payload) dan

redaman yang berada dalam kerangka kopling (structural link). Penekanan dari perumusan

model ini telah di diatur untuk mendapatkan persamaan gerakan yang akurat yang

menunjukkan aspek-aspek yang paling berpengaruh dalam kopling, khususnya untuk kasus

kopling untuk tenaga gerak yang kaku (rigid) maupun yang selalu berubah serta lentur.

Kata kunci : assumed method, dynamic model, Lagrangian.

Abstract

This paper presents modeling of a flexible link manipulator using Lagrangian technique

in conjunction with the assumed mode method (AMM). The links are modeled as Euler-Bernoulli

beams satisfying proper mass boundary conditions. A payload is added to the tip of the outer

link, while hub inertias are included at the actuator joints. The Lagrangian approach is used to

derive the dynamic model of the structure. In this research, the dynamic model of a flexible link

manipulator verified using Matlab/Simulink simulation. The model formulation proposed in this

work is complete in the sense that it considers the effects of payload and damping structural of

the link. The emphasis has been set on obtaining accurate equations of motion that display the

most relevant aspects of the coupling between rigid and flexible dynamics.

Keywords: assumed method, dynamic model, Lagrangian.

1. INTRODUCTION

The first step of design procedure is to acknowledge the information of constructing the

dynamic model of flexible manipulators using the combination of Euler-Lagrange and Assumed

mode method (AMM). In order to have a successful modeling design, prior knowledge of AMM

and Euler Lagrange equation are needed by integrating with Simulink. Simulation results are

analyzed in both the time and frequency domains to assess the accuracy of the model i n

representing the actual system.

Partial differential equations (PDE) and boundary equations of a flexible link

manipulator system are obtained by matching the shear force and bending moment at the elbow

joint, allowing the eigenvalues to be computed without recourse to dynamic formulations [1]. On

the other hand, the vibration modes of a generic flexible link manipulator are studied as a

function of the link, rotor and tip mass distribution. Necessary and sufficient conditions are

developed for all vibration modes to exhibit a node at the manipulator. Various approaches have

been developed which can mainly be divided into two categories: the numerical analysis

approach and the AMM. The numerical analysis methods that are utilized include finite

difference (FD) and finite element (FE) methods. The FD and FE approaches have been used i n

ISSN: 1693-6930

TELKOMNIKA Vol. 6, No. 3, Desember 2008 : 185 - 190

186

obtaining the dynamic characterization of a single-link flexible manipulator system incorporating

damping, hub inertia and payload [2,3].

Subudhi and Morries [4] have used a combined Euler-Lagrange formulation and AMM

approach to model the planar motion of a manipulator consisting of flexible links and joints. The

conventional Lagrangian modeling of flexible link robots does not fully incorporate the bending

mechanism of flexible link as it allows free link elongation in addition to link deflection. The

equations of motion which can be arranged in a computationally efficient closed form that is also

linear with respect to a suitable set of constant mechanical parameters have been obtained [5].

This paper presents modeling of a flexible link manipulator using Lagrangian technique

in conjunction with the AMM. The links are modeled as Euler-Bernoulli beams satisfying proper

mass boundary conditions. A payload is added to the tip of the outer link, while hub inertias are

included at the actuator joints.

2. A FLEXIBLE LINK SYSTEM

In this section, the flexible link kinematics is described. The kinematics description is

developed for a chain of n serially connected flexible links as shown in Figure 1. The co-ordinate

systems of the link are assigned referring to the Denavit–Hartenberg (D–H) description. X

0

Y

0

is

the inertial co-ordinate frame (CF), X

i

Y

i

the rigid body CF associated with the ith link and

i i

Y X

) )

is

the flexible moving CF.

Figure 1. Structure of a flexible link manipulator system

Considering revolute joints and motion of the manipulator on a two-dimensional plane,

the rigid transformation matrix,

i

A , from X

i-1

Y

i-1

to X

i

Y

i

is written as

⎥

⎦

⎤

⎢

⎣

⎡ −

=

i i

i i

i

A

θ θ

θ θ

cos sin

sin cos

(1)

On using assumption (IV), the elastic homogenous transformation matrix, E

i

, due to the

deflection of the link i can be written as

⎥

⎥

⎥

⎥

⎦

⎤

⎢

⎢

⎢

⎢

⎣

⎡

∂

∂

∂

∂

−

=

=

=

1

) , (

) , (

1

i i

i i

l x

i

i i

l x

i

i i

i

x

t x

x

t x

E

υ

υ

(2)

where ) , ( t x

i i

υ is the bending deflection of the ith link at a spatial point x

i

(0 ≤ x

i

≤ l

i

) and l

i

is

the length of the ith link. The global transformation matrix T

i

transforming co-ordinates from X

0

Y

0

to X

i

Y

i

follows a recursion as below

i i i i

A E T T

1 1 − −

=

(3)

TELKOMNIKA ISSN: 1693-6930 ■

Dynamic Modelling of A Flexible Link Manipulator Robot Using …… (Moh. Khoirudin)

187

Let

⎪

⎭

⎪

⎬

⎫

⎩

⎨

⎧

=

) , (

) (

t x

x

x r

i i

i

i i

i

υ

be the position vector that describes an arbitrary point along the ith deflected link with respect to

its local CF (X

i

Y

i

) and

i

r

0

be the same point referring to X

0

Y

0

. The position of the origin of

X

i+1

Y

i+1

with respect to X

i

Y

i

is given by

) (

1 i i

i

i

i

l r p =

+

(4)

and

i

p

0

is its absolute position with respect to X

0

Y

0

.

Using the global transformation matrix,

i

r

0

and

i

p

0

can be written as

i

i

i i i

r T p r + =

0 0

,

1

0

1

0

+ +

+ =

i

i

i i i

p T p p (5)

3. THE DYNAMIC MODELLING OF A FLEXIBLE LINK SYSTEM

To derive the kinetic and potential energies associated with the manipulator, the

procedure adopted in previous section is followed. By substituting for links (i = 1) and for two

modes (j = 1, 2).

The solution of the partial differential equation describing the flexible motion of the

manipulator can be obtained following the general procedures. In this case, the effective

masses at the end of the individual links are set as

p L

M M =

1

, 0

1

=

L

J , 0

1

= MD (6)

Here, the co-ordinate vector consists of link positions, θ

1

, and modal displacements (q

11

, q

12

).

The force vector is F = {τ

1

, 0, 0}

T

, where τ is the torques applied by the rotor. Therefore, the

following Euler–Lagrange’s equations result, with i = 1 and j = 1 and 2:

i

i i

L L

t

τ

θ θ

=

∂

∂

−

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

∂

∂

∂

∂

&

(7)

0 =

∂

∂

−

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

∂

∂

∂

∂

ij ij

q

L

q

L

t

&

(8)

Assembling the mass and stiffness matrices and utilising the Euler-Lagrange equation

of motion, the dynamic equation of motion of the flexible manipulator system can be obtained as

) ( ) ( ) ( ) (

. ..

t F t KQ t Q D t Q M = + + (9)

where M, D and K are global mass, damping and stiffness matrices of the manipulator

respectively. The damping matrix is obtained by assuming the manipulator exhibit the

characteristic of Rayleigh damping. The global damping normally determined through

experimentation. The damping ratio typically ranges [6] from 0.007 to 0.01. For the flexible

manipulator under consideration, the global mass matrix can be represented as

⎥

⎦

⎤

⎢

⎣

⎡

=

ww w

w

M M

M M

M

θ

θ θθ

ISSN: 1693-6930

TELKOMNIKA Vol. 6, No. 3, Desember 2008 : 185 - 190

188

where

ww

M is associated with the elastic degrees of freedom (residual motion),

w

M

θ

represents the coupling between these elastic degrees of freedom and the hub angle θ and

θθ

M is associated with the inertia of the system about the motor axis. Similarly, the global

stiffness matrix can be written as

⎥

⎦

⎤

⎢

⎣

⎡

=

ww

K

K

0

0 0

where

ww

K is associated with the elastic degrees of freedom (residual motion). It can be shown

that the elastic degrees of freedom do not couple with the hub angle through the stiffness

matrix.

The global damping matrix D in equation (9) can be represented as

⎥

⎦

⎤

⎢

⎣

⎡

=

ww

D

D

0

0 0

where

ww

D denotes the sub-matrix associated with the structural damping. This proportional

damping model has been assumed because it allows experimentally determined damping ratios

of individual modes to be used directly in forming the global matrix. It also allows assignment of

individual damping ratios to individual modes, such that the total manipulator damping is

constituted with the sum of the damping associated with the modes. Using this assumption, the

damping can be obtained as

ww ww ww

K M D β α + = (10)

where

2

1

2

2

1 2 2 1 2 1

) ( 2

f f

f f f f

−

−

=

ξ ξ

α ;

2

1

2

2

1 1 2 2

) ( 2

f f

f f

−

−

=

ξ ξ

β

with

1

ξ ,

2

ξ ,

1

f and

2

f represent the damping ratios and natural frequencies of modes 1 and 2

respectively.

4. RESULT AND DISCUSSION

The dynamic model of a flexible link manipulator has been presented. The physical

parameters of the manipulator are given in Table 1. In this study, the damping ratios were

assumed as 0.0086 and 0.01 for vibration modes 1 and 2 respectively. The manipulator was

excited with symmetric bang-bang torque inputs as shown in Figure 2. A bang-bang torque has

a positive (acceleration) and negative (deceleration) period allowing the manipulator to, initially,

accelerate and then decelerate and eventually stop at target location. The output responses of

the manipulator are taken from both angle rotation and modal displacement.

Table 1. Parameters of the flexible link manipulator

Symbol Parameter Value Unit

ρ Mass density 0.1648 kgm

-1

EI Flexural rigidity 3.73 Nm

2

l Length 0.9 m

I

r

Rotor and hub inertia 5.8598x10

-4

kgm

2

I

b

Beam inertia 0.04 kgm

2

TELKOMNIKA ISSN: 1693-6930 ■

Dynamic Modelling of A Flexible Link Manipulator Robot Using …… (Moh. Khoirudin)

189

0 0. 5 1 1. 5 2 2.5 3

-0. 4

-0. 3

-0. 2

-0. 1

0

0. 1

0. 2

0. 3

0. 4

Time ( s)

T

o

r

q

u

e

(

N

m

)

B ang- bang i nput command

Figure 2. The bang-bang input torque

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3

0

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

Time (s)

H

u

b

a

n

g

l

e

(

d

e

g

)

Hub-angle

(a) Hub-angle.

0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000

-150

-100

-50

0

50

150

200

250

300

Time (s)

H

u

b

v

e

l

o

c

i

t

y

(

d

e

g

/

s

e

c

)

Hub-veloci ty

(b) Hub-velocity.

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3

-150

-100

-50

0

50

100

150

200

Time (s)

E

n

d

p

o

i

n

t

a

c

c

e

l

e

r

a

t

i

o

n

(

m

/

s

e

c

/

s

e

c

)

End-poi nt accelerati on

(c) End-point acceleration.

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

10

-7

10

-6

10

-5

10

-4

10

-3

10

-2

10

-1

10

0

Frequency (Hz)

M

a

g

n

i

t

u

d

e

(

m

/

H

z

)

(d) Spectral density of end-point

acceleration.

Figure 3. Response of the simulation of one-link flexible manipulator

ISSN: 1693-6930

TELKOMNIKA Vol. 6, No. 3, Desember 2008 : 185 - 190

190

However, a slightly different response was obtained in the frequency domain where only

two modes of vibration can be obtained within simulation compared to three modes of vibration

from experimental results. This is because only two modes of vibration are considered i n

deriving the mathematical model of the system. It is noted that the first two modes of vibration of

the system converged to 13.94 Hz and 55.78 Hz for the simulation results. The experimental

results, however, gave 11.72 Hz, 35.15 Hz and 65.60 Hz. The corresponding errors between

the simulation and experimental results by taking the first two modes are accordingly 18.9% and

58.4 % respectively, which are considered a big difference. This is due to the limitation of

number of modes (two modes) using in the simulation model.

5. CONCLUSSION

A generalized modeling framework has been described to obtain the closed-form finite

dimensional dynamic model for a flexible link manipulators by using the Euler-Lagrange

approach combined with the AMM. The model formulation proposed in this work is complete in

the sense that it considers the effects of payload and damping structural of the link. The

emphasis has been set on obtaining accurate equations of motion that display the most relevant

aspects of the coupling between rigid and flexible dynamics.

REFERENCES

[1]. A. S. Morris, A. Madani, “Inclusion of Shear Deformation Term to Improve Accuracy i n

Flexible-Link Robot Modeli ng”, Mechatronics, Vol. 6, No. 6., pp. 631-647, 1996.

[2]. Tokhi MO, Mohamed Z, Azad AKM, “Finite difference and finite element approaches to

dynamic modell ing of a flexibl e manipulator”, Proceeding of IMechE-I: Journal of

Systems and Control Engineering, 211:145-156, 1997.

[3]. Tokhi MO, Mohamed Z, Shaheed MH, “Dynamic characterizat ion of a flexibl e

manipulator system”, Robotica, 19:571-580, 2001.

[4]. Subudhi B, Morris AS., “Dynamic Model ing, Si mulation and Control of a manipulator

with flexible links and joints”, Robotics and Autonomous System, 41:257-270, 2002.

[5]. M.Khairudin, Z. Mohamed, “A Technique For Modeling of a Two-Link Flexibl e

Manipulator”, The 6rd IEEE Student Conference on Research and Development (SCOReD

2008), Johor, Malaysia, 26-27 Nov. 2008.

[6]. Hasting, G. G. and Book, W. J., “A l inear dynamic model for flexible robot

manipulators” , IEEE Control Systems Magazine, Vol. 7, pp. 61-64, 1987.

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