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FLAT PLATE
For the case of an incompressible, steady laminar flow over a
smooth flat plate, the boundary layer thickness can be
estimated with the following assumptions
(a) Pressure gradient is assumed to be zero (why?) and U
m
is a
constant (why?)
(b) The velocity profiles are assumed to be similar wherein u/U
m
is
expressed as some function of y/!.
(c) Using Newton's viscosity formula for
!
"
w
= µ #u/#z
( )
w
!
u
U
m
= f
z
"
#
$
%
&
'
(
= f )
( )
!
"#
w
=
d
dx
0
$
%
& u
2
"U
m
u
( )
dz
'
(
)
*
+
,
!
dp
dx
= 0 " U
m
= const
LAMINAR BOUNDARY LAYER OVER A SMOOTH FLAT
PLATE
!
At any x
"#
w
=
d
dx
0
$
%
& u
2
"U
m
u
( )
dz
'
(
)
*
+
,
"µ
.u
.z
/
0
1
2
3
4
w
=
d
dx
&u
2
dz
0
$
%
/
0
1
2
3
4
"U
m
d
dx
&udz
0
$
%
/
0
1
2
3
4
For similar velocity profiles
u
U
m
= f
z
$
/
0
1
2
3
4
= f 5
( )

U
m
µ
$
df 5
( )
d5
'
(
)
*
+
,
5= 0
= &
.
.x
U
m
2
$ 1" f 5
( ) [ ]
f 5
( )
d5
0
1
%
'
(
)
*
+
,
LAMINAR BOUNDARY LAYER OVER A SMOOTH FLAT
PLATE
!
Let
" = 1# f $
( ) [ ]
f $
( )
d$
0
1
%
& =
df $
( )
d$
'
(
)
*
+
,
$= 0

U
m
µ&
.
= /U
m
2
"
0.
0x
Integrating
µ&x =
1
2
/U
m
".
2
+ const
With . = 0 at x = 0
. =
2&
"
x
R
ex
'
(
)
*
+
,
LAMINAR BOUNDARY LAYER OVER A
SMOOTH FLAT PLATE
!
"
W
=
d
dx
# U
m
$ u
( )
udz
0
1
%
&
'
(
)
*
+
= #U
m
2
,
d
dx
= #U
m
2
,
2µ.
#U
m
,
&
'
(
)
*
+
1
2
x
$1/ 2
= #U
m
2
,.
2R
ex
!
F = "
W
dx
0
L
#
= $U
m
2
%&
0
L
= 2%'$µU
m
3
L
[ ]
The total friction force on one side of
the smooth flat plate between x=0
and x=L for a unit width of the plate
EXAMPLE: LAMINAR BOUNDARY LAYER
!
F
total
drag
force
!
= 2
2 sides
!
2"#$µU
m
3
L
[ ]
where " = 1 % f & ( )
[ ]
0
1
'
f & ( )d& and # =
df & ( )
d&
(
)
*
+
,

& =0
!
" = 1 # 2$ #$
2
( )
{ }
0
1
%
2$ #$
2
( )
d$ = 2$ # 5$
2
+ 4$
3
#$
4
{ }
0
1
%
d$
= $
2
#
5
3
$
3
+$
4
#
1
5
$
5
&
'
(
)
*
+
0
1
=1 #
5
3
+1 #
1
5
=
2
15
,
!
" =
df # ( )
d#
$
%
&
'
(
)
# =0
= 2 * 2# [ ]
# =0
= 2 +
EXAMPLE : LAMINAR BOUNDARY LAYER
!
F = 2 2"#$µU
3
L
[ ]
= 2 2
2
15
%
&
'
(
)
*
2 ( )$µU
3
L
+
,

.
/
0
=1.46 $µU
3
L
By definition,
F =C
D
1
2
$ 2L ( )U
2
1C
D
=
1.46 $µU
3
L
$LU
2
=
1.46
$UL
µ
=
1.46
R
eL
2
TURBULENT BOUNDARY LAYER OVER A FLAT
PLATE
In the case of the turbulent boundary layer, the shearing stress at
the plate may be expressed by
!
"
w
= µ + #
t
( )
$u
$z
%
&
'
(
)
*
z= 0
"
t
the eddy viscosity is a property of the flow; i.e. it depends on
the character of the flow. The eddy viscosity can be different
all over the flow and it is not readily determined
BLASIUS’ FORMULA FOR TURBULENT SHEAR
STRESS OVER SMOOTH SURFACE (Re<10
7
)
!
Momentum equation
0 = p
*
A" p
*
+ dp
*
( )
A" #
W
Pdx
$ #
w
= " A/ P
( )
dp
*
/ dx
( )
= " D/ 4
( )
dp
*
/ dx
( )
= "
D
4
%
&
'
(
)
*
1
+g
dp
*
dx
%
&
'
(
)
*
+g
( )
=
+gD
4
%
&
'
(
)
*
dh
L
dx
%
&
'
(
)
*
=
+f
8
%
&
'
(
)
*
U
2
,
noting dh
L
= "
dp
*
+g
=
fdx
D
%
&
'
(
)
*
U
2
2g
%
&
'
(
)
*
!
Growth of a turbulent boundary layer can be approximated
obtained using some established facts about turbulent flow in
circular pipes
(a) Wall shear stress in the pipe with turbulent steady flow
(b) Blasius formula for f for smooth pipes with diameter D and
mean velocity U. This appears to fit the experimental results for
Reynolds number between 3000 and 10
5
.
!
!
f = 0.32
UD
"
#
$
%
&
'
(
)1/ 4
* f = 0.32
0.8U
m
D
"
#
$
%
&
'
(
)1/ 4
= 0.32
1.6U
m
R
"
#
$
%
&
'
(
)1/ 4
= 0.32
1.6U
m
+
"
#
$
%
&
'
(
)1/ 4
,
w
=
fU
2
8
=

8
0.8U
m
( )
2
0.32
( )
"
1.6U
m
+
#
$
%
&
'
(
1/ 4
= 0.0227U
m
2
"
U
m
+
#
$
%
&
'
(
1/ 4
.
!
BLASIUS’ FORMULA FOR TURBULENT SHEAR
STRESS OVER SMOOTH SURFACE (Re<10
7
)
TURBULENT BOUNDARY LAYER OVER A FLAT PLATE
Use the momentum equation of von Karman for the mean time
quantities, assume similarity in velocity profiles along the plate and
account for the wall shear stress by using an experimentally derived
value.
If then
and U
m
is constant along the direction of x outside the boundary
layer.
!
"p
*
"x
= 0
!
"U
m
"x
= 0
Simple velocity profile suggested by Prandtl in the turbulent
boundary layer
!
u
U
m
=
z
"
#
$
%
&
'
(
n
, n =
1
7
(c) Assume a velocity profile
TURBULENT BOUNDARY LAYER OVER A FLAT PLATE
!
"#
dp
*
dx
" $
W
=
d
dx
%u
2
dz
0
#
&
'
(
)
*
+
,
"U
m
d
dx
%udz
0
#
&
'
(
)
*
+
,
!
0.0225U
m
2
"
U
m
#
$
%
&
'
(
)
1/ 4
=
d
dx
0
#
*
U
m
2
z
#
$
%
&
'
(
)
1/ 7
+
z
#
$
%
&
'
(
)
2/ 7
,

.
/
0
1 dz
,

.
.
/
0
1
1
!
0.0225
"
U
m
#
$
%
&
'
(
)
1/ 4
=
d
dx
7
8
# *
7
9
#
$
%
&
'
(
)
=
7
72
d#
dx
"
U
m
$
%
&
'
(
)
1/ 4
dx = 4.32
1/ 4
#
d#
Von Karman integral equation
Integrating
For Reynolds numbers which are not too great (Rex < 10
7
), Blasius
found that for smooth surfaces
TURBULENT BOUNDARY LAYER OVER A FLAT PLATE
!
"
U
m
#
$
%
&
'
(
1/ 4
x = 3.45)
5/ 4
+ constant
*
)
x
= 0.376
U
m
x
"
#
$
%
&
'
(
+1/ 5
,
Turbulent boundary layer starts at the transition location and has some
thickness at this position. Location of the transition is difficult to
determine.
The length of the laminar boundary layer is generally small and one can
approximately imagine that the turbulent boundary layer commences at
the leading edge x = 0.
!
• In the turbulent boundary layer, the thickness varies as
• In the laminar boundary layer, the thickness varies as
• The turbulent boundary layer grows faster along x than the laminar case.
5 / 4
x
!
x
1/ 2
TURBULENT BOUNDARY LAYER DRAG OVER A FLAT PLATE
The drag for unit width on both sides of the smooth plate
Drag = 2
0
L
! w !
dx = 0.072"U
m
2
L
#
U
m
L
"
#
$
%
&
'
1/5
= 0.072 "U
m
2
L R
eL
(1/5
The drag coefficient C
D
of an object immersed in a fluid stream of
velocity U and mass density # is defined by
!
C
D
=
Drag force
1
2
"U
m
2
Area
( )
C
D
=
0.072!U
m
2
L.1
( )
R
eL
!1/5
0.5!U
m
2
2L
two sides
!
= 0.072R
eL
!1/5
DRAG ON FLAT PLATE
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