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Introduction to VOIP Network

Introduction to voip network, how internet telephony works, how to make internet phone calls, and what
actually is voice over internet protocol. VOIP is simply a transmission of the voice traffic over IP
networks. VOIP is a family of technologies, in which IP networks are used for the voice applications and
traffic e.g IP telephony, voice chat and teleconferencing.
VOIP gives solution at almost every layer of the IP network. The Internet Protocol was developed and
designed for data communication. The success of the IP network has led to its adaptation to voice
networking.
Voice over internet protocol is the fast emerging and replacement technology for the voice
communication. Many people still want to know that how it works. Voice over internet protocol costs
less than your regular phone service and for this reason its more attractive to the consumers. VOIP also
costs less than a mo!ile phones monthly cost.

In the fast communication age, the num!er of the VOIP providers is increasing. "s the num!er of the
VOIP providers grows it gives the more options and calling plans. The VOIP service is availa!le for
!oth residential and commercial use that ranges from P#$to$P# service and P#$to$Phone and Phone$to$
Phone. The following are the most common and !asic features of the VoIP.
VOICE OVER INTERNET PROTOCOL FEATURES
The ma%or feature of the VoIP is that the customers can make call to everywhere in the world. Only the
!road!and internet connection is re&uired. The customers can take their IP phones with them on the
national trips as well as on the International trips. "mong the other features of the VoIP are the soft
phones, which is a software application that loads onto the computer and is used to make the phone
calls. The interface of these softphones is similar to the telephone. 'y these software phones, anyone call
make phone calls to everywhere in the world if !road!and internet connection access is availa!le.
The most VOIP services also gives the access and options of call waiting, caller id, call transfer, repeat
dialing and three way dialing features. There are some additional features like call filtering, forwarding a
call or sending a call to the voice mail, !ut the service providers may charge additionally for these
services. Most VoIP service providers allow the customers to check their voicemail or attached messages
to an e$mail !y connecting to the we!.
The facilities and the components of a VoIP phone system that are supplied !y the VoIp providers and
phone operators are generally vary with each other. The users should !e aware of the pros and cons of
the VoIP services !efore su!scri!ing. "lso, the customer should also check the availa!ility of the ()*+
cutomer support that may !e re&uired fro the VoIP hardware as well as software configurations and for
other technical issues.

How IP Telephony Fits In
"mong the other names in the VoIP industry, the ,kype and Vonage are the !iggest names and all the
credit for the growth of VoIP goes to ,kype and Vonage. There are a large num!er of other vendors for
the telecommunication industry that have promoted the -IP telephony.. "s well as the #isco ,ystems
and "vaya were two of the earlier names in the VoIP phone system technology. The have paved the way
for the growth of VoIP technology. More and more residential customers are using the VoIP service
likewise the corporate customers are integrated the IP !ased$voice technology and upgrading their IP
networks to support the VoIP technology. This transition is similar to the move from mainframe
computers to the personal computers a couple of years ago
HOW DOES VOIP OVER INTERNET PROTOCOL WORKS
Voice Over Internet Protocol also called Internet Telephony and internet telphony is the technology fo
future. /ith this technology you can make free of cost and very cheap long distance calls all over the
world. VoIP uses a !road!and Internet connection for routing telephone calls as opposed to the switching
and fi!er optics. 'y this process the customer can get the higher efficiency and &uality of service as well
as low cost. One ma%or and interesting aspect of the VoIP technology is that there is no ma%or
infrastructure is re&uired.
The VoIP infrastructure includes the !road!and Internet connection, regular telephone line and VoIP
software and hardware. ,ome of renowned companies of the voice over internet protocol !usiness are
Vonage and ,kype. These !oth companies prove services to their 0, people as well as people of the
other countries. #isco systems has also a !ig name in providing the VoIP hardware.
1et the !est VOIP phone installed on your computer and start calling a!road at cheap international rates.
VOIP is used !y millions of people throughout the world to call a!road at a low cost.
Introduction to VoIP
Welcome to the Introduction to VoIP site. VoIP means “Voice over Internet Protocol”. If you've ever
used an internet phone or a system like Skype® or voice chatted with icrosoft® essen!er" the
you've #een usin! VoIP.
With a #road#and connection VoIP is very easy to !et into" as most computers" #oth ac and P$
support the protocol with software applications.
It is also possi#le to #uy VoIP phones which can #e plu!!ed into your computer and work with say
Skype® and it is also possi#le to #uy VoIP phones which plu! into your #road#and router.
%his introductory site is &ust to !ive you a taster of VoIP from a home'users perspective. If you would
like to find out more detail" or look at serious VoIP use in #usiness" then why not visit our advanced
site( “)ll a#out VoIP”" which is part of our family of telecoms related sites. )lternatively you mi!ht want
to visit the site of one of our sponsors.
The PSTN system
%his is the Pu#lic Switched %elephone *etwork" the normal phone network" often called the land line
network. PS%* is a “hard wired” connection which is usually routed throu!h a switch#oard. %he PS%*
is #ased on copper wires formin! a circuit #etween the two phones involved in a call. %hese phones do
a specific task #ased on efficient communication of voice si!nals. PS%* has #een in service for around
+,, years.
%he PS%* needs vast len!ths of copper wire" connected to local e-chan!es" and is !ood at the
dedicated task it performs . telephony / #ut not so !ood at handlin! the needs of telecoms in the
Information a!e.
The VoIP system
VoIP relies on #ein! connected to an internet style network which uses IP addresses. Voice
transmission is sent as 0i!ital packets of information switched to specified addresses in the network.
VoIP uses either a purpose #uilt phone for VoIP " sometimes called an IP 1ardphone" or an application
.pro!ram/ runnin! on a user's P$ !ivin! VoIP telephony access. %his is sometimes called an IP
Softphone.
VoIP and quality
VoIP re2uires a !ood route across the network #etween the sender and receiver of the voice
transmission. Pro#lems usually occur for home users #ecause(
• %heir #andwidth up to the internet is too low .voice distortion/.
• %here are many routers #etween them and their recipient .voice la!/.
• %he pro-y servers for the VoIP si!nal are overloaded .voice dropouts/.
%hese pro#lems can only #e improved #y selectin! a provider who has access to a !ood local and
national and international IP network. %his means that 2uality VoIP communications are most often the
province of #usiness customers.
Introduction to Voice over IP (Voip)
Voice over IP (Voip, pronounced voyp) is a technology that allows voice conversations to be
conducted over the Internet (hence IP, for Internet Protocol) instead of the plain old telephone
system (POTS)
Voice over IP isn!t an especially new technology People have been using software li"e #icrosoft
$et#eeting to chat using the Internet for several years, while Spea" %reely a pioneering piece
of Voip software that has now largely fallen out of use was &rst released in '((' #any
Internet users are already familiar with Voip technology than"s to the popularity of S"ype
)hat ma"es Voip an interesting technology is that it is one that is set to revolutioni*e the way
ordinary telephone conversations are conducted Today, it is a toy for computer users to play
with, but tomorrow everyone, even your grandmother, will be using it even if they don!t
reali*e it, and even if they don!t own a computer
This article will e+plain how Voice over IP wor"s, what distinguishes the di,erent systems, and
provide some technical bac"ground with lin"s you can follow up for greater detail if you are
interested If you are thin"ing about trying out Voip, this article will help you to decide which
solution to use, and help you to understand what is going on in the bac"ground when you use
it
How Voip works
The basic principle of Voip is very simple It!s the same technology you have probably used
already to listen to music over the Internet Voice sounds are pic"ed up by a microphone and
digiti*ed by the sound card The sounds are then converted to a compressed form, compact
enough to be sent in real time over the Internet, using a software driver called a codec The
term codec is short for -encoder.decoder- The sounds are encoded at the sending end, sent
over the Internet and then decoded at the receiving end, where they are played bac" over the
spea"ers The only re/uirements are a connection between the two computers of an ade/uate
speed, and matching codecs at each end
To be usable, a Voip system also needs a method for establishing and managing a connection,
for e+ample, calling the other computer, &nding out if they accept the call, and closing the
connection when a user hangs up 0ecause Voip allows two way communication, and even
conference calls, it!s a lot more complicated than simple audio streaming 1ow calls are
managed is the area in which Voip systems fundamentally di,er, and two Voip users must be
using the same system (or compatible ones) in order to be able to call each other
0ecause most Internet users don!t have a permanent Internet address (IP address, a number
li"e 2'23344'5 that uni/uely identi&es that computer, at that moment), Voip systems don!t
generally wor" by calling another computer direct although that may be an option for those
who do have a permanent address Instead, each user of the service registers with an
intermediate server, which maintains a record of their IP address all the time they are
connected 6n e+ample of a Voip application that wor"s this way is Picophone The small si*e of
the PicoPhone application &le (about 738b, barely larger than )indows $otepad) demonstrates
clearly that the basic principles of Voip are not complicated to implement
6nother reason for using an intermediate server is that it eases the problem of getting Voip to
wor" through the &rewalls that everyone uses these days #any &rewalls bloc" any data from
the Internet that is not sent in response to a speci&c re/uest This ma"es it impossible to call
another computer direct 0ecause the called computer did not re/uest any data from the
caller, the call re/uest would be bloc"ed 0y establishing a connection with a server, the Voip
software opens a channel of communication through which other computers can call it
9ommunication may continue using the server, or information may be passed via the server
that allows the two computers to open a direct connection between them and continue using
that
Voip standards
6lthough the basic re/uirements of a Voip system are /uite simple, real:world implementations
are /uite comple+ Voip systems in widespread use today fall into three groups; systems using
the 1<2< protocol, systems using the SIP protocol, and systems that use proprietary protocols
1<2< is a standard for teleconferencing that was developed by the International
Telecommunications =nion (IT=) It supports full multimedia audio, video and data transmission
between groups of two or more participants, and it is designed to support large networ"s
1<2< is networ":independent; it can be used over networ"s using transport protocols other
than T9P.IP 1<2< is still a very important protocol, but it has fallen out of use for consumer
Voip products due to the fact that it is di>cult to ma"e it wor" through &rewalls that are
designed to protect computers running many di,erent applications It is a system best suited
to large organi*ations that possess the technical s"ills to overcome these problems 6s a
solution for a home or small o>ce telephony system it is best avoided
SIP (for Session Initiation Protocol) is an Internet ?ngineering Tas" %orce (I?T%) standard
signalling protocol for teleconferencing, telephony, presence and event noti&cation and instant
messaging It provides a mechanism for setting up and managing connections, but not for
transporting the audio or video data It is probably now the most widely used protocol for
managing Internet telephony @i"e all I?T% protocols, SIP is de&ned in a number of A%9s
(Ae/uest %or 9omments the standards documents that de&ne Internet standard protocols)
principally A%9 <27'
6 SIP:based Voip implementation may send the encoded voice data over the networ" in a
number of ways #ost implementations use Aeal:time Transport Protocol (ATP), which is
de&ned in A%9 <BBC 0oth SIP and ATP are implemented on =DP which, as a connectionless
protocol, can cause di>culties with certain types of routers and &rewalls =sable SIP phones
therefore also need to use ST=$ (for Simple Traversal of =DP over $6T), a protocol de&ned in
A%9 <34( that allows a client behind a $6T router to &nd out its e+ternal IP address and the
type of $6T device Than"s to ST=$, setting up SIP:based Voip hardware or software behind a
home or small o>ce &rewall should be a simple a,air, but in practise it can still be
problematic
There is little that can be said about proprietary Voip implementations such as S"ype or
Voipcheap, because little or no technical detail about them is published 1owever, one
advantage of proprietary implementations is that they can be designed with the principal
obEective of being install:and:run on an end:user computer without any &ddling with &rewall
settings being re/uired The disadvantage is that these products will not inter:operate with
anything else This may not seem such a bad thing to users of S"ype, with its millions of
members, but it might be inconvenient in the future
Codecs
9odecs are software drivers that are used to encode the speech in a compact enough form that
they can be sent in real time across the Internet using the bandwidth available 9odecs are not
something that Voip users normally need to worry about, as the Voip clients at each end of the
connection negotiate between them which one to use
Voip software or hardware may give you the option to specify the codecs you prefer to use
This allows you to ma"e a choice between voice /uality and networ" bandwidth usage, which
might be necessary if you want to allow multiple simultaneous calls to be held using an
ordinary broadband connection Four selection is unli"ely to ma"e any noticeable di,erence
when tal"ing to PST$ users, because the lowest bandwidth part of the connection will always
limit the /uality achievable, but Voip:to:Voip calls using a broadband Internet connection are
capable of delivering much better /uality than the plain old telephone system
6 broadband connection is desirable to use Voip, though it is certainly possible to use it over a
dial:up modem connection if a low:bandwidth, low:&delity codec is chosen The table below
lists some commonly used codecs
Codec Algorithm
Bit rate
(Kbit/s)
Bandwidt
h
(Kbit/s)
G5'' Pulse 9ode #odulation (P9#) 73 452
G522 6daptive Pulse 9ode #odulation (6DP9#) 34 774
G527 6daptive Di,erential Pulse 9ode #odulation (6DP9#) <2 BB2
G524 @ow:Delay 9ode ?+cited @inear Predication (@D:9?@P) '7 <'B
i@09 Internet @ow 0itrate 9oded (I@09) 'B 255
GS# Aegular Pulse ?+cited (AP?) '< <C'
G52(a
9onEugate Structure 6lgebraic:9ode ?+cited @inear Prediction
(9S:9?@P)
4 <'2
G52<'
a
#P:#@H 73 2'(
G52<' 69?@P B< 2C4
The bit rate is an appro+imate indication of voice /uality or &delity, however it is only
appro+imate 9odecs that use pulse code modulation all give high &delity, and you will detect
little or no di,erence between any of them The G524 codec will give much better /uality than
the only nominally lower rate GS# codec, because the algorithm it uses is much more
sophisticated 1owever, the GS# codec uses less computing power, and so will run on simpler
devices
The bandwidth gives an indication of how much of the capacity of your broadband Internet
connection will be consumed by each Voip call The bandwidth usage is not directly
proportional to the bit rate, and will depend on factors such as the protocol used ?ach chun"
of voice data is contained within a =DP pac"et with headers and other information This adds a
networ" overhead of some 'B : 2B8bit.s, more than doubling the bandwidth used in some
cases 1owever, most Voip implementations use silence detection, so that no data at all is
transmitted when nothing is being said
Insu>cient bandwidth can result in interruptions to the audio if Voip uses the same Internet
connection as other users who may be downloading &les or listening to music %or this reason,
it is desirable to enable the Huality of Service -HoS- option in the T9P.IP Properties of any
computer running a software Voip client, and to use a router with HoS support for your Internet
connection This will ensure that your Voip tra>c will be guaranteed a slice of the available
bandwidth so that call /uality does not su,er due to other heavy Internet usage
Voip solutions
6 Voip solution consists of an implementation and a service provider 6s e+plained above,
direct point:to:point communications aren!t very easy to achieve in practise due to the
intervention of &rewalls and the fact that many users have a di,erent IP address each time
they connect to the Internet, so users need a server maintained by a third party to facilitate
the tas" of ma"ing connections In addition, many Voip users want facilities li"e PST$ numbers
so that non:Voip users can call them, and the ability to call regular phone numbers These
things are part of the service o,ered The availability and cost of these features, as well as the
ease of installation and use of the Voip software or hardware, must be ta"en into account when
choosing a Voip solution
Top of the list for ease of installation and use are the proprietary solutions li"e S"ype
and Voipcheap These products Eust wor" 1owever, they do not inter:operate with
other services, so the bene&t of free Voip:to:Voip calls will only be reali*ed if all your
friends and contacts are also using the same service This may not be too limiting if
you choose S"ype, due to its widespread popularity 0ut before choosing it, consider
the disadvantages of being loc"ed in to a proprietary service which through its
position of strength has no need to try to compete on services or pricing
SIP:based services allow you to roll your own solution, if you have enough of a technical
inclination to pic" the right components Fou can sign up to the service of your choice one
which o,ers the best rates for calling PST$ numbers, or the best range of services and then
choose your own SIP soft:phone or Voip hardware device 1owever, the number of providers
currently available ma"es it hard to come to a decision, and getting it all to wor" can be a
challenge
If you need a simpler solution, then many SIP:based services li"e Sipgate can provide
customi*ed soft:phones or hardware devices precon&gured with your account details This can
provide a S"ype:li"e install:and:go e+perience as long as your &rewall doesn!t decide to
interfere
#any SIP:based services o,er free sign:up Some, li"e Sipgate or Gossiptel even provide a free
PST$ number for incoming calls, though it may not be a local geographic number, and may be
more e+pensive to call 9omputer:to:computer calls are free, as are incoming calls from the
POTS Fou may even get the ability to call freephone numbers or ma"e one:minute test calls
without paying the service provider any money It!s worth see"ing out a service li"e this, as it
enables you to try out Voip to see whether it will wor" before ma"ing a commitment
#any services allow you to pay as you go for outgoing calls by topping up your account to
"eep it in credit Thin" twice before signing up with services that re/uire you to pay a regular
monthly fee The cost can be as much as a regular line rental, and this doesn!t ma"e much
sense unless you plan to get rid of your landline to o,set the cost
If you!re thin"ing of dumping the landline, thin" again The plain old telephone system may be
low:tech, but it!s reliable 6 domestic broadband connection comes with no guarantee of
availability, and can (and will) stop wor"ing from time to time Voip service provider servers go
oIine now and again too 6nd none of your Voip e/uipment will wor" if you have a power cut
%ew Voip services today support the ability to ma"e emergency calls If you switch completely
to Voip, you!ll have to rely on your mobile phone for emergency use
If you already have a computer microphone, installing a software Voip phone and registering
with a free service provider gives you an easy way to try Voip 0ut such a set:up is no
replacement for a regular phone ?cho can be a problem if you use a microphone and
spea"ers Fou can buy =S0 handsets, but while these all wor" with S"ype, compatibility with
other soft:phone applications can be lac"ing
%or the serious Voip user the only solution is to buy hardware that allows you to connect a
regular phone or D?9T base station to your broadband connection 0ut this hardware is still
/uite e+pensive It!s only Eusti&able if you would otherwise need to pay for a second PST$ line
Conclusion
Voip is an interesting technology that allows a lot of possibilities for the technically:inclined
Some people have installed the 6steris" open:source P0J software on an old computer running
@inu+, giving their family or business multiple lines using their 6DS@ broadband connection
0ut the regular telephone networ", with it!s built:in independent power supply, has reliability
bene&ts that broadband:based Voip cannot match 6nd when wor"ing out the cost of your Voip
system, don!t forget the electricity that!s used "eeping that P9 running 23.5
Voip is a good way to get a cheap business line for a home:based business that!s available
during o>ce hours only, or a cheap second line for use in the evening by young family
members %or smaller businesses, Voip o,ers signi&cant savings compared to the cost of
multiple incoming lines and a P60J 0ut isn!t a replacement for the POTS, and you should "eep
your landline for fallbac" and for emergency use
In the future, it!s li"ely that more calls made using regular telephones will be routed over the
Internet This should bring down the cost of overseas calls placed using regular phone
companies (one of the main bene&ts of Voip at the moment) Such bene&ts are already
available from services li"e 9all'4477, which o,ers lower rates than many Voip services So
even now, you don!t need a computer or special software or hardware to ta"e advantage of
Voip technology Soon, we!ll all be using Voip, without even reali*ing it
References
• 1<2< Information Site
• =nderstanding the 1<2< Standard (#icrosoft)
• SIP; Session Initiation Protocol home page
• A%9 <27' SIP; Session Initiation Protocol
• ATP; 6udio:Video Transport )or"ing Group
• A%9 <BBC : ATP; 6 Transport Protocol for Aeal:Time 6pplications
• A%9 <34( ST=$ : Simple Traversal of =ser Datagram Protocol (=DP) Through $etwor"
6ddress Translators ($6Ts)
• Standard Speech 9odecs : information
• Send this article to a riend or colleague
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