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You are on page 1of 6

**3 Double-Angle, Half-Angle, and Sum-Product
**

Identities

Double-Angle Formulas

EXAMPLE: If cos x = −

2

3

and x is in quadrant II, ﬁnd cos 2x and sin 2x.

Solution: Using one of the double-angle formulas for cosine, we get

cos 2x = 2 cos

2

x −1 = 2

_

−

2

3

_

2

−1 =

8

9

−1 = −

1

9

To use the formula sin 2x = 2 sin xcos x, we need to ﬁnd sin x ﬁrst. We have

sin x =

√

1 −cos

2

x =

¸

1 −

_

−

2

3

_

2

=

√

5

3

where we have used the positive square root because sin x is positive in quadrant II. Thus

sin 2x = 2 sin xcos x = 2

_

√

5

3

_

_

−

2

3

_

= −

4

√

5

9

EXAMPLES:

(a) Write cos 3x in terms of cos x.

(b) Prove the identity

sin 3x

sin xcos x

= 4 cos x −sec x.

1

EXAMPLES:

(a) Write cos 3x in terms of cos x.

Solution: We have

cos 3x = cos(2x + x)

= cos 2xcos x −sin 2xsin x

= (2 cos

2

x −1) cos x −(2 sin xcos x) sin x

= 2 cos

3

x −cos x −2 sin

2

xcos x

= 2 cos

3

x −cos x −2 cos x(1 −cos

2

x)

= 2 cos

3

x −cos x −2 cos x + 2 cos

3

x

= 4 cos

3

x −3 cos x

(b) Prove the identity

sin 3x

sin xcos x

= 4 cos x −sec x.

Solution: We have

sin 3x

sin xcos x

=

sin(x + 2x)

sin xcos x

=

sin xcos 2x + cos xsin 2x

sin xcos x

=

sin x(2 cos

2

x −1) + cos x(2 sin xcos x)

sin xcos x

=

sin x(2 cos

2

x −1)

sin xcos x

+

cos x(2 sin xcos x)

sin xcos x

=

2 cos

2

x −1

cos x

+ 2 cos x

= 2 cos x −

1

cos x

+ 2 cos x

= 4 cos x −sec x

2

Half-Angle Formulas

EXAMPLE: Express sin

2

xcos

2

x in terms of the ﬁrst power of cosine.

Solution: We use the formulas for lowering powers repeatedly.

sin

2

xcos

2

x =

_

1 −cos 2x

2

__

1 + cos 2x

2

_

=

(1 −cos 2x)(1 + cos 2x)

2 · 2

=

1 −cos

2

2x

4

=

1

4

−

1

4

cos

2

2x =

1

4

−

1

4

_

1 + cos 4x

2

_

=

1

4

−

1 + cos 4x

8

=

1

4

−

1

8

−

cos 4x

8

=

1

8

−

1

8

cos 4x =

1

8

(1 −cos 4x)

Another way to obtain this identity is to use the double-angle formula for sine in the form

sin xcos x =

1

2

sin 2x. Thus

sin

2

xcos

2

x =

1

4

sin

2

2x =

1

4

_

1 −cos 4x

2

_

=

1

8

(1 −cos 4x)

EXAMPLE: Find the exact value of sin 22.5

◦

.

3

EXAMPLE: Find the exact value of sin 22.5

◦

.

Solution: Since 22.5

◦

is half of 45

◦

, we use the half-angle formula for sine with u = 45

◦

. We

choose the + sign because 22.5

◦

is in the ﬁrst quadrant.

sin

45

◦

2

=

_

1 −cos 45

◦

2

=

¸

1 −

√

2/2

2

=

¸

2 −

√

2

4

=

1

2

_

2 −

√

2

EXAMPLE: Find the exact value of sin 15

◦

.

Solution: Since 15

◦

is half of 30

◦

, we use the half-angle formula for sine with u = 30

◦

. We

choose the + sign because 15

◦

is in the ﬁrst quadrant.

sin

30

◦

2

=

_

1 −cos 30

◦

2

=

¸

1 −

√

3/2

2

=

¸

2 −

√

3

4

=

1

2

_

2 −

√

3

Note that

1

2

_

2 −

√

3 can also be rewritten as

√

6 −

√

2

4

. Indeed,

1

2

_

2 −

√

3 =

√

6 −

√

2

4

⇑

2

_

2 −

√

3 =

√

6 −

√

2

⇑

_

2

_

2 −

√

3

_

2

=

_

√

6 −

√

2

_

2

⇑

4

_

2 −

√

3

_

=

_

√

6

_

2

−2

√

6

√

2 +

_

√

2

_

2

⇑

8 −4

√

3 = 6 −2

√

12 + 2

⇑

8 −4

√

3 = 8 −2

√

12

⇑

8 −4

√

3 = 8 −2

√

4

√

3

EXAMPLE: Find tan(u/2) if sin u =

2

5

and u is in quadrant II.

Solution: To use the half-angle formulas for tangent, we ﬁrst need to ﬁnd cos u. Since cosine is

negative in quadrant II, we have

cos u = −

_

1 −sin

2

u = −

¸

1 −

_

2

5

_

2

= −

√

21

5

Thus

tan

u

2

=

1 −cos u

sin u

=

1 +

√

21/5

2/5

=

5 +

√

21

2

4

Product-Sum Formulas

EXAMPLE: Express sin 3xsin 5x as a sum of trigonometric functions.

Solution: Using the fourth product-to-sum formula with u = 3x and v = 5x and the fact that

cosine is an even function, we get

sin 3xsin 5x =

1

2

[cos(3x −5x) −cos(3x + 5x)]

=

1

2

cos(−2x) −

1

2

cos 8x

=

1

2

cos 2x −

1

2

cos 8x

EXAMPLES:

(a) Write sin 7x + sin 3x as a product.

(b) Verify the identity

sin 3x −sin x

cos 3x + cos x

= tan x.

5

EXAMPLES:

(a) Write sin 7x + sin 3x as a product.

Solution: The ﬁrst sum-to-product formula gives

sin 7x + sin 3x = 2 sin

7x + 3x

2

cos

7x −3x

2

= 2 sin 5xcos 2x

(b) Verify the identity

sin 3x −sin x

cos 3x + cos x

= tan x.

Solution: We apply the second sum-to-product formula to the numerator and the third formula

to the denominator.

sin 3x −sin x

cos 3x + cos x

=

2 cos

3x + x

2

sin

3x −x

2

2 cos

3x + x

2

cos

3x −x

2

=

2 cos 2xsin x

2 cos 2xcos x

=

sin x

cos x

= tan x

EXAMPLE: Verify the identity

sin 4x + sin 2x

sin 2x

=

sin 3x

sin x

.

Solution: We apply the ﬁrst sum-to-product formula to the numerator.

sin 4x + sin 2x

sin 2x

=

2 sin

4x + 2x

2

cos

4x −2x

2

2 sin xcos x

=

2 sin 3xcos x

2 sin xcos x

=

sin 3x

sin x

6

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