The system unit is the box-like case that contains major computer’s

electronic components (usually excluding the display, keyboard and
mouse) which many people erroneously refer to the CPU. The system
unit is sometimes called computer chassis, cabinet, box,
tower, enclosure, housing, system unit or simply case.
Major components of the computer system unit
These are some of the major components you are going to find inside
your system unit. If you think of checking these components, make
sure you power off your computer and disconnect it from the mains.
Then locate the top lid of your system unit and remove it so that you
can access the inside of your base unit. Be careful not to mess with
your components if you are not very familiar with them.
The motherboard is sometimes called the system board or main board.
It is the main circuit board of a microcomputer. The motherboard
contains the connectors for attaching additional boards. Typically, the
motherboard contains the CPU, BIOS, memory, mass storage
interfaces, serial and parallel ports, expansion slots, and all the
controllers required to control standard peripheral devices, such as the
display screen, keyboard, and disk drive.
When you are reading about motherboards you cannot fail to come
across the term motherboard form factors, which describe its general
shape, the type of case and power supply it can use, and its physical
organization (layout of the motherboard).

Hard disk drive
A hard disk drive is a high capacity nonvolatile magnetic data storage
media with a volume (disk) which is usually non-removable. Data is
magnetically read and written on the platter by read/write heads that
float on a cushion of air above the platters.

Floppy disk drive
Short for floppy disk drive (FDD), it is a disk drive that can read and
write floppy disks although they are obsolete nowadays. Floppy disk
drives have been replaced by the USB flash disk drives.

Power supply unit
The power supply unit (PSU) is used to convert AC current from the
mains supply to the different DC voltages required by various computer
components. Standard power supplies turn the incoming 110V or 220V
AC (Alternating Current) into various DC (Direct Current) voltages
suitable for powering the computer's components.
Power supplies are quoted as having a certain power output specified
in Watts, a standard power supply would typically be able to deliver
around 350 Watts.

The more components (hard drives, CD/DVD drives, tape drives,
ventilation fans, etc) you have in your PC the greater the power
required from the power supply.

CD-ROM drive
It is a high capacity optical data storage device with a removable disk, it
writes data onto or reads data from a storage medium. A CD-ROM
drive may be connected to the computer via an IDE (ATA), SCSI, S-ATA,
Firewire, or USB interface or a proprietary interface.