Mechanics of Solids- Formulae

Tension, Compression and Shear

Prismatic bar in tension: (a) free-body diagram of a
segment of the bar, (b) segment of the bar before
loading, (c) segment of the bar after loading, and
(d) normal stresses in the bar.

, for the analysis small parts


Hook’s Law

σ is the axial stress
ϵ is the axial strain
E is a constant of proportionality
known as the modulus of elasticity for
the material

Poisson’s ratio

Dilation (Unit Change)

Shear Stress

Hooke’s Law in shear

τ is the shear stress
γ is the shear strain
G is the shear modulus of elasticity
Relation between Modulus of elasticity in Tension and

Bearing Pad in Shear

Fig. A bearing pad of the kind used to support machines and
bridge girders

d is the horizontal displacement due to shear
h is the thickness
V is the applied horizontal shear force
a, b are the dimensions of plate

Factor of Safety

Margin of Safety
Allowable Stress and Allowable Load

Ultimate Stress and Ultimate Load

Axial Members

Fig. Elongation of an axially loaded spring

where, k = Stiffness constant


where, f is flexibility

Relation between f and k



For a System in rotation

Elongation in a tapered section

Fig. Change in length of a tapered bar of solid circular

P = load applied on the section
l = length of the section
E = modulus of elasticity
dA & dB = diameter of the ends

For a prismatic bar,

Composite Structures

Fig. Statically indeterminate composite structure
Load acting on Material s

Load acting on Material c

Net Load acting on structure

Net Elongation

Thermal Effect
Thermal Strain (ϵT)

α = coefficient of thermal (depends upon the properties of the
ΔT = change in temperature

Axial Stress

Temperature Displacement Relation

Fig. Increase in the length of a prismatic bar due to a uniform change in

Sleeve and Bolt assembly with uniform temperature increase ΔT

Assumption: The coefficient of thermal expansion of sleeve αs is
greater than the coefficient of thermal expansion of bolt αb i.e.
(αs > αb)

1. Equation of Compatibility

2. Equation of Equilibrium

3. Stresses in the Sleeve and Bolt

4. Net Elongation of the assembly

Stresses on Inclined Plane

Fig. Prismatic bar in tension showing the stresses acting on an inclined section pq
1. Normal Stress on a cross-section

P is the axial load acting on the centroid of the cross-sectional area
A is the cross-sectional area
2. Stresses acting on the section inclined at an angle θ
i. Normal Stress

ii. Shear Stress

Strain Energy

Load Displacement Diagram

Strain Energy = Area under the load
displacement curve

SI Unit: J (Joules)

Some Cases of Strain Energy
1. Linearly Elastic Behavior
Strain Energy stored in bar which follows Hooke’s law is

2. Linearly Elastic Spring
Replacing the stiffness ⁄ of the prismatic bar by the stiffness k of
the spring


3. Non-uniform Bars
i. Bar consisting of several segments
Total Strain Energy = sum of strain energies of individual

where, Ni is the axial force acting in segment i and Li , Ei , and Ai are
properties of segment i

ii. Bar with uniformly varying cross-section


where, N(x) and A(x) are the axial force and cross-sectional area at
distance x from the end of the bar.

Strain-Energy Density (u)
Strain Energy per unit volume

1. Strain Energy of a prismatic bar suspended from its upper end

Fig. (a) Bar hanging under its own weight, and (b) bar hanging under its own
weight and also supporting a load P
i. The weight of the bar itself

where, γ is the weight density of the material and A is the
cross sectional area of the bar
ii. The weight of the bar plus a load P at the lower end

Vertical displacement of the joint B of the truss

Fig. Displacement of a truss supporting a single load P

Down displacement of the joint B (δB)

Impact Loading

Fig. Impact load on a prismatic bar AB due to a falling
object of mass M
Maximum Elongation of the bar (δmax)





W is the weight of the collar
L is the length of the bar
A is the cross-sectional area of the bar
h is the height from which the collar

[ (




is the elongation of the bar due to
the weight of the collar under static
loading conditions
Maximum Stress in the Bar due to Impact Loading

[ (



Impact Factor (IF)

Transformation of Stress
Stresses on inclined sections

Fig. Wedge-shaped stress element in plane stress: (a) stresses acting on the element, and (b)
forces acting on the element (free-body diagram)
Transformation Equations for Plane Stress



are the stresses acting on the x and y planes


Special Cases for Plane Stress
1. Uniaxial Stress

2. Pure Shear

3. Biaxial Stress

Principal Stresses

The maximum and minimum normal stresses, called the principal stresses.

where the angle θP defines the orientation of the principal planes





Maximum Shear Stresses

gives maximum shear stress

The plane of maximum shear stress occurs at 45° with the
principal plane.



Mohr’s Circle

Equation of Mohr’s circle



R = Radius of the Mohr’s circle =



Centre of the Circle is at