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**Tension, Compression and Shear
**

Stress

Prismatic bar in tension: (a) free-body diagram of a

segment of the bar, (b) segment of the bar before

loading, (c) segment of the bar after loading, and

(d) normal stresses in the bar.

**, for the analysis small parts
**

Strain

Hook’s Law

where,

σ is the axial stress

ϵ is the axial strain

E is a constant of proportionality

known as the modulus of elasticity for

the material

Poisson’s ratio

Dilation (Unit Change)

Shear Stress

**Hooke’s Law in shear
**

where,

τ is the shear stress

γ is the shear strain

G is the shear modulus of elasticity

Relation between Modulus of elasticity in Tension and

Shear

**Bearing Pad in Shear
**

Fig. A bearing pad of the kind used to support machines and

bridge girders

where,

d is the horizontal displacement due to shear

h is the thickness

V is the applied horizontal shear force

a, b are the dimensions of plate

Factor of Safety

Margin of Safety

Allowable Stress and Allowable Load

Ultimate Stress and Ultimate Load

Axial Members

Fig. Elongation of an axially loaded spring

Stiffness

where, k = Stiffness constant

Flexibility

where, f is flexibility

**Relation between f and k
**

or

Elongation

**For a System in rotation
**

**Elongation in a tapered section
**

Fig. Change in length of a tapered bar of solid circular

cross-section

where,

P = load applied on the section

l = length of the section

E = modulus of elasticity

dA & dB = diameter of the ends

For a prismatic bar,

Composite Structures

Fig. Statically indeterminate composite structure

Load acting on Material s

Load acting on Material c

Net Load acting on structure

Net Elongation

Thermal Effect

Thermal Strain (ϵT)

where,

α = coefficient of thermal (depends upon the properties of the

material)

ΔT = change in temperature

Axial Stress

**Temperature Displacement Relation
**

Fig. Increase in the length of a prismatic bar due to a uniform change in

temperature

**Sleeve and Bolt assembly with uniform temperature increase ΔT
**

Assumption: The coefficient of thermal expansion of sleeve αs is

greater than the coefficient of thermal expansion of bolt αb i.e.

(αs > αb)

1. Equation of Compatibility

2. Equation of Equilibrium

3. Stresses in the Sleeve and Bolt

4. Net Elongation of the assembly

**Stresses on Inclined Plane
**

Fig. Prismatic bar in tension showing the stresses acting on an inclined section pq

1. Normal Stress on a cross-section

where,

P is the axial load acting on the centroid of the cross-sectional area

A is the cross-sectional area

2. Stresses acting on the section inclined at an angle θ

i. Normal Stress

ii. Shear Stress

Strain Energy

Load Displacement Diagram

Strain Energy = Area under the load

displacement curve

∫

SI Unit: J (Joules)

Some Cases of Strain Energy

1. Linearly Elastic Behavior

Strain Energy stored in bar which follows Hooke’s law is

**2. Linearly Elastic Spring
**

Replacing the stiffness ⁄ of the prismatic bar by the stiffness k of

the spring

or,

**3. Non-uniform Bars
**

i. Bar consisting of several segments

Total Strain Energy = sum of strain energies of individual

segments

∑

**where, Ni is the axial force acting in segment i and Li , Ei , and Ai are
**

properties of segment i

ii. Bar with uniformly varying cross-section

∫

[]

**where, N(x) and A(x) are the axial force and cross-sectional area at
**

distance x from the end of the bar.

Strain-Energy Density (u)

Strain Energy per unit volume

Case

1. Strain Energy of a prismatic bar suspended from its upper end

Fig. (a) Bar hanging under its own weight, and (b) bar hanging under its own

weight and also supporting a load P

Considering

i. The weight of the bar itself

**where, γ is the weight density of the material and A is the
**

cross sectional area of the bar

ii. The weight of the bar plus a load P at the lower end

**Vertical displacement of the joint B of the truss
**

Fig. Displacement of a truss supporting a single load P

Down displacement of the joint B (δB)

Impact Loading

Fig. Impact load on a prismatic bar AB due to a falling

object of mass M

Maximum Elongation of the bar (δmax)

[(

)

(

)]

⁄

where,

W is the weight of the collar

L is the length of the bar

A is the cross-sectional area of the bar

h is the height from which the collar

falls

[ (

)

⁄

]

√

√

where,

**is the elongation of the bar due to
**

the weight of the collar under static

loading conditions

Maximum Stress in the Bar due to Impact Loading

[ (

)

⁄

]

√

√

Impact Factor (IF)

Transformation of Stress

Stresses on inclined sections

Fig. Wedge-shaped stress element in plane stress: (a) stresses acting on the element, and (b)

forces acting on the element (free-body diagram)

Transformation Equations for Plane Stress

where,

&

**are the stresses acting on the x and y planes
**

Also,

**Special Cases for Plane Stress
**

1. Uniaxial Stress

2. Pure Shear

3. Biaxial Stress

Principal Stresses

The maximum and minimum normal stresses, called the principal stresses.

**where the angle θP defines the orientation of the principal planes
**

√

(

)

√

(

)

**Maximum Shear Stresses
**

gives maximum shear stress

**The plane of maximum shear stress occurs at 45° with the
**

principal plane.

√

(

)

Mohr’s Circle

Equation of Mohr’s circle

(

)

where,

**R = Radius of the Mohr’s circle =
**

√

(

)

Centre of the Circle is at

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