The State University of Medicine and

Pharmacy “N. Testemitanu”
Chief of departament of Histology, Cytology and Embryology
Lilian Saptefrati
Vice Chief of departament of Histology, Cytology and Embryology
Tatiana Globa
Theme №10
CONNECTIVE TISSUES
Skeletal tissues
Common characteristics of skeletal
tissues
• common function – supporting,
• common source of developing –
mesenchyme ,
• structural identity – formed by the special
types of the cells and extracellular matrix
that characterizes the functional
properties of tissues .
Classification of cartilage
Properties of cartilage tissues are:
• no vessels ,
• ability to
continued growth ,
• strength and
elasticity ,
• low level of
metabolism .
Components of cartilage tissues
Cells : - chondrogenic cells
- chondroblasts
- chondrocytes
Extracellular matrix: - collagen fibers
- elastic fibers
- ground substance
Functions of cartilage tissues
• skeletal support ( during the embrionic
period),
• elongation (endochondral ossification),
• sliding area for joints and facilitated bones
movements,
• flexible support (for ears and ear tubes,
trachea and bronchi).
Chondrogenesis
• formation of chondrogenic islands ,
• differentiation of chondroblasts and beginning of secretion
extracellular matrix’s substances,
• growth cartilage bookmarks (interstitial and
appositional growth).
Chondrogenesis
Hyaline cartilage
perichondrium
young chondrocyte
interterritorial matrix
isogenous group of
chondrocytes
territorial matrix
Perichondrium.
It has two layers:
- outer (fibrous)- formed by dense regular
connective tissues. Provide mechanical
support, protection, attachment.
- inner (cellular)- contains chondrogenic
cells, chondroblasts. Provide cartilage
growth and maintenance.
Hyaline cartilage
perichondrium
chondroblast
young chondrocyte
isogenous group of
chondrocytes
territorial matrix
interterritorial matrix
Elastic cartilage
perichondruim
chondroblast
young
chondrocyte
isogenous
group of
condrocytes
elastic fibers
Elastic cartilage
perichondruim
chondroblast
young chondrocyte
isogenous group of
condrocytes
elastic fibers
Elastic cartilage
• have the flexibility ,
• macroscopically -
yellowish, opaque
tissue ,
• cells produce type II
collagen and elastin,
• matrix contains elastic
fibers.
Elastic cartilage
Location:
-auricle,
-the ear canal,
-Eustachian tube,
-the epiglottis,
-some cartilages of
the larynx.
Not exposed to
calcification.
Fibrocartilage tissues
- mechanically resistant ,
- located into pubic symphysis, intervertebral
discs, in the places of attachment of tendons to
bone or hyaline cartilage ,
- no perichondrium .
Bone
- form a skeleton that
protects internal organs
from damage,
- storage of minerals
(calcium, phosphorus,
and many others)
- surrounds the bone
marrow,
- form a system of
levers (Biophysics of
the movements).
Osteoblasts
• synthesis of organic components matrix (type I
collagen, proteoglycans, and glycoproteins),
• located on the surface of the bone,
• the degree of basophilia of the cytoplasm
decreases with a decrease in functional activity,
• surrounding by them self with matrix transform
into osteocytes, forming a gap around it,
• form the osteoid – young ,not mineralized area
of the matrix.
Osteocytes
Osteoclasts
Bone matrix consist of :
• inorganic matter, 50% (calcium,
phosphate, bicarbonate, magnesium, etc.)
• the organic component (collagen type I)
and ground substance (proteoglycans and
glycoproteins).
Intramembranous ossification
(primary)
Endochondral ossification
(secondary)
Compact bone