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微波電路講義

8-1
Chapter 8 Microwave filters

8.3 Filter design by the insertion loss method
power loss ratio, maximally flat and equal-ripple LPF
prototypes
8.4 Filter transformations
impedance and frequency scaling, LPF ÷ HPF, BPF, BSF
8.5 Filter implementation
Richard’s transformation, Kuroda’s identities
8.6 Stepped-impedance low-pass filters
microstrip LPF
8.7 Coupled line filters
Z- and Y-inverters, microstrip BPF
8.8 Filters using coupled resonators
BSF, BPF

8-2
8.3 Filter design by the insertion loss method
• Power loss ratio (insertion loss)
filter
(lossless)
2
2
2 2
2
2
1
1 ( )
1
( )
1
( ) ( )
( )
1
( )
inc inc
LR
L inc R
P P
P
P P P
M
M N
M
N
÷ =
÷
=
÷ I e
=
e
÷
e + e
e
= +
e
Discussion
1.
( , available power from source)
for a lossless filter
insertion loss 10log 10log ( 10log ) (12.13)

inc avs in R
in L
inc
LR T
L
P P P P
P P
P
IL P G
P
= = +
=
÷ = = ÷
21
20log , if 0)
return loss 10log 20log
S L
inc
R
S
P
RL
P
= ÷ I = I =
÷ = ÷ I
Pinc
PL
Pin PR
I
e
PLR
LPF
I
e
1

8-3
2.
2
2 2
2 2
*
* * *
2 2
* *
)
( ) is an even function of ( ) (p.169)
) )
( ) : real Re ( ) : , Im ( ) : ( ) ( )
( ) ( ), ( ) ( ), ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ), ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
M(w
w w w
M(w N(w
v t V w even V w odd V w V w
I w I w Z w Z w w w
w w w w w w w w w w
I ÷ I =
+
÷ ÷ ÷ =
÷ = ÷ = I ÷ = I
I = I I = I I ÷ I ÷ = I ÷ I ÷ = I ÷ I
2
( ) 1 ( ) , :cutoff frequency, 1 ( ) 2 3
stopband attenuation 20 /
N
LR c LR c
c
w
P w w P w dB
w
NdB decade
= +c c = ÷ = =
4. Equal ripple (Chebyshev, optimal) LPF
2 2
log(1 )
( ) 1 ( ) , ( ) 1
ripple 10 in passband, stopband attenuation 20 /
frequency responses (p.400, Fig. 8.21)
N
LR N LR c
c
w
P w T P w
w
NdB decade
c
c c
+
= + = +
3. Maximally flat (Butterworth, binomial) LPF

8-4
5. Filter design procedure:
specification ÷ LPF prototype ÷ LPF, HPF, BPF, or BSF
transformation ÷ microstrip realization
6. Filter specification:
frequency range, BW, IL, stopband attenuation and frequencies,
input and output impedances, VSWR, group delay, phase
linearity, temperature range, and transient response.
• LPF prototype
go=1 g2
g1 g3 gN+1
wc=1

8-5
go=1 g1 g3
g2 g4 gN+1
Discussion
1. Maximally flat LPF prototype design equations
2
1
( ) /10
10log[1 ( ) ]
(2 1)
1, 1, 2sin 1 2
2
log(10 1)
2log
N
c
c o N k
IL w
c
w
IL
w
k
w g g g k , ,...N
N
N
w
w
+
= +
÷ t
= = = = =
÷
=
wc=1

8-6
2. Element values for maximally flat LPF prototype are given in
Table 8.3 of p.404, frequency response given in Fig. 8.26 of p.405.
3. Equal-ripple LPF prototype design equations
2
( )
10
1
1
( )
1 ( ) /10
10
1
10log[1 ( )]
10 1
cos( cos ) 0
( )
cosh( cosh )
cosh [10 1] /[10 1]
cos ( )
N
c
ripple dB
c
c
N
c
c
ripple dB
IL w
c
w
IL T
w
w
N w w
w
T w
w
N w w
w
N
w
w
÷
÷
÷
÷
= + c
c = ÷
¦
s s
¦
¦
=
´
¦
>
¦
¹
÷ ÷
=

8-7
N k
N
k
b
N
k
a
N k
b b
a a
g
N
N even
N odd
g
a
g g w
k k
k k
k k
k
N o c
,... 2 , 1 , sin ,
2
) 1 2 (
sin
,... 3 , 2 ,
4
]
37 . 17
) 1 log( 10
ln[coth
2
sinh
,
4
coth
, 1
,
2
, 1 , 1
2 2
1
1
2
1
1
1
= + =
÷
=
= =
+
=
=
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
= = = =
÷
÷
+
t
¸
t
c
|
|
¸
|
¸
4. Element values for equal-ripple LPF prototype (p.406, Table 8.4) and
frequency response (p.407, Fig. 8.27)

8-8
8.4 Filter transformations
• Impedance scaling
o o o
R impedance R g × ¬ ÷ =1
• Frequency scaling
:1 ' ( ) ( ) same impedance,
' '
scaled values:
' '
c LR LR
c c
L
c c
C
c c
w w
w w P w P w
w w
w L
jX j L jwL L
w w
w C
jB j C jwC C
w w
÷ ¬ = ¬ ÷
= = ÷ =
= = ÷ =
scaled values: ' , ' , ' , '
S o L o L o
o
C
R R R R R L R L C
R
= = = =
scaled values: ' , ' , ' , '
o
S o L o L
c o c
R L C
R R R R R L C
w R w
= = = =
• Impedance and frequency scaling

8-9
• Frequency scaling for HPF, BPF and BSF
C
L
LPF HPF BPF BSF
C w
L w
c
c
1
1
L w
w
L
o
o
A
A

o o
C
w w C
A
A
1

o o
L
w L w
A
A
o
o
w
C
C w
1
A
A
BW fractional :
o
1 2
w
w w ÷
= A

8-10
Discussion
1. Ex. 8.3 design a maximally flat LPF, fc=2GHz, Zo=50O, IL(3GHz)
=15dB
1 5 2 4 3
1
1 5
2
2 4
3
3
from Fig.8.26, 15 for 1 0.5@3 5
from Table 8.3, 0.618, 1.618, 2
' ' 0.984
50
50
' ' 6.438
' 3.183
50
frequency response (p.412, Fig. 8.30) with the
c
c
c
c
w
IL dB GHz N
w
C C L L C
C
C C pF
w
L
L L nH
w
C
C pF
w
= ÷ = ÷ =
= = = = =
÷ = = =
= = =
== =
comparison of
equal-ripple and linear phase LPF

8-11
2. LPF ÷ HPF frequency scaling
-1 1
w
PLR
-wc wc
w
PLR
0 ,1 , 1
1 1
1
1
1
c
c c
c
c
c
c
w
w w w
w
jwL'
L'
w C
jwC
w C j
LPF HPF w
w L
C'
jwL j
w L
w jwC'
÷±· ÷÷ ÷ ÷ ¬ ÷÷
¦
¦
÷ =
¦
=
¦
÷
¦
¦
¬
´ ´
¦ ¦
=
÷÷ =
¦ ¦
¹
¹

8-12
.
3. LPF ÷ BPF frequency scaling
-1 1
w
PLR
-w2 -w1 w1 w2
w
PLR
-wo wo
2 1
2 1 1 2
1
0 ,1 , 1 ( ), ,
1 1 1
,
( )
,
( )
o
o o
o o
o o
o o
o o
o o
o o
o o
w w w w
w w w w w ww
w w w
C
C' L' w Cw C w C
jwC
j jw
w w C
w w w jw
LPF BPF
L
w Lw L w L L' C'
jwL j jw
w w L
w w w jw
÷
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ¬ ÷ ÷ = A =
A
¦
÷ = A
¦
¦
= =
¦
÷ +
¦ A
¦ ¦
A A A
¬
´ ´
A
¦ ¦
= =
÷ ÷ = + ¦ ¦
A
¹
A A A
¦
¹

8-13
.
4. LPF ÷ BSF frequency scaling
-1 1
w
PLR
-w2 -w1 w1 w2
w
PLR
-wo wo
1 2
0 ,1 , 1
1 1
1 ( )
,
1
1 ,
( )
o
o
o
o
o
o o
o
o o
o o
o o
w w w
w w
w w
w jw
jwC jwC C w
C jC
C' L' w w
w w C
w w
LPF BSF
L
L' C'
jwL jL
w w L
w w w jw
w w jwL Lw
A
÷±· ÷÷ ÷ ÷ ¬ ÷
÷
¦
÷ = +
¦
A
A A
A
¦ ¦
= =
¦ ¦
÷
A
¦ ¦
¬
´ ´
A
¦ ¦
A = =
÷ =
¦ ¦
A
¹
¦
÷ +
¦ A A
¹

8-14
5. Ex. 8.4 design a N=3, 0.5dB equal-ripple BPF, fo=1GHz, Zo=50O,
BW=10%

1 3 2
1
1 3
1 3
1
2
2
2
2
from Table 8.4, 1.5963, 1.0967, 1
50
' ' 127
' ' 0.199
50
50
' 0.726
' 34.91
50
frequency response (p.415, Fig. 8.33)
L
o
o
o
o
L L C R
L
L L nH
w
C C pF
w L
L nH
w C
C
C pF
w
= = = =
÷ = = =
A
A
= = =
A
= =
== =
A

8-15
8.5 Filter implementation
• Richard’s transformation
e ÷ O, O ÷ tan|l = tan (e l/vp)
lumped elements ÷ commensurate lines with S.C. or O.C. stub

8
1 1 1

8
c
in in
c
in in
λ
Z j L L Z j L L,
λ
Z C Z ,
j C j C C
= ÷ = O
= ÷ =
O
e
e
Discussion
1.

2. stub response repeats every 4ec.
8 4
8 8
c c
c c
f
c
ì ì e
| = t ÷ = t ÷e= t = e ¬
2
1 tan tan tan 1
8 4
c
c c c
c
λ
l
λ
t t
e | = ÷O = = = =

8-16

• Kuroda’s identites
2
Z
1
U.E.

1
Z
U.E.
2
2
n
Z
2
1
n
Z
÷
U.E.
2
Z
1
Z
2
2
Z n
1
U.E.
1
2
Z n
÷
U.E. (unit element) : ìc/8 line
1
2
2
1
Z
Z
n + =

8-17
Discussion
1. Use ìc/8 redundant lines to separate stubs.
2. series L (short stub) ÷ shunt C (open stub)
series C and shunt L change positions
1
Z
U.E.

2
Z
U.E.
2
2
n
Z
÷
U.E.
1
Z
2
1
Z
2
2
Z n
1
U.E.
1
2
Z n
÷
2
1
n
Z
2
n : 1
1 : n
2
1
2
2
1
Z
Z
n + =

8-18
3. derivation of (a)
U.E.

1
Z
U.E.
2
2
n
Z
2
Z
2
1
n
Z
l l
l
l
l , Z
o
1
2
1
1
cos sin
1
sin cos
1 0
open-circuited shunt stub
1
1 0
1
1 0
short-circuited shunt stub 1
1
o
o
o
o
o
o
j Z
l jZ l
j
jY l l
Z
j
Z
Y
j Z
=
+O
O
(
| |
(
(
O
(
(
| |
¸ ¸
(
¸ ¸
¦
(
¦
(
O
¦
(
¦
(
(
¦ ¸ ¸
=
´
(
(
¸ ¸
¦
(
¦
(
¦
O (
¦¸ ¸
¹
Y

8-19
Z
1
open-circuited series stub
1
0 1
0 1
1
short-circuited series stub
0 1
o
o
Z
j
Z
j Z
¦
(
¦
(
O
¦
(
(
¦
(
=
¸ ¸ ´
(
¸ ¸
¦
O
(
¦
(
¦
¸ ¸
¹
1
2
2 1
1
2 1
2
1 2 2
2
2 1
2
2
2
2
1 2 2
2
2
2 1
2 2
1 0 1
1
1 1
1
1
1
1 1
( 1
1
1
1 1

1
1 0 1

1 ( )
1
1
1
L
R
j Z
A B
j j
C D
Z Z
j Z
Z
j )
Z Z Z
j Z
j Z
A B n
n
j n C D
Z
j
Z Z
n
Z j n
Z Z
O ( (
(
( (
= O O
(
( (
+ O ¸ ¸
( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
O (
(
=
(
O + ÷O
+ O
(
¸ ¸
O (
O (
(
(
(
(
=
(
( O
(
+ O ¸ ¸
(
¸ ¸
(
¸ ¸
O (
+

=
O

+ O
÷O

¸
2 2
1
1
Z
n
Z
(
(
÷ = +
(
(
¸

8-20
4. Microstrp LPF design procedure
series L, shunt C ÷ ìc/8 series short stub, ìc/8 shunt open stub
÷ add redundant ìc/8 Zo lines ÷ ìc/8 shunt open stubs
÷ consider discontinuity effects
5. Ex.8.5 design a 3dB equal-ripple LPF with fc=4GHz, N=3,
Zin, Zout=50O
L1=3.3487 L3=3.3487
C2=0.7117
Zo=3.3487 Zo=3.3487
Zo=1.405
l = ìc /8

8-21
Zo=4.35 Zo=4.35
Zo=1 Zo=1
Zo=1.299
Zo=1.299 Zo=1.405
50O 217.5O 217.5O 50O
64.9O 70.3O 64.9O
frequency response
(p.421, Fig.8.37)
l = ìc/8
(a) (b)
Kuroda’s identity
Zo=1.405
Zo=3.3487 Zo=3.3487

8-22
6. Similar procedures can be used for bandstop filters, but Kuroda
identities are not useful for highpass or bandpass filters.
ì/4
ì/4
Series capacitor transformation is not
available in Kuroda identities.
ì/4

8-23
8.6 Stepped-impedance LPF
• Short transmission line section
l , , Z
o
|
,
4
h h
Z l
t
| <
2
l
tan jZ
o
|
l sin j
Z
o
|
l sin jZ
o
|
2
l
tan jZ
o
|
2
l
tan j
Z
o
|
2
l
tan j
Z
o
|
,
4
l l
Z l
t
| <

h h
jwL jZ l ~ |
1
l
l
Z
jwC j l
~
|
low Zo
high Zo
Discussion
1. (derivation)

8-24
l , , Z
o
|
| |
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
(
¸
(

¸

=
(
¸
(

¸

u u
u u
u u
u u
tan sin
sin tan
1
1
,
cos sin
sin cos
j
Z
j
Z
j
Z
j
Z
C
A
C
C C
A
Z
jY
jZ
D C
B A
o o
o o
o
o
12 11
Z Z ÷
12 22
Z Z ÷
12
Z
2
tan
2
cos
2
sin 2
2
sin 2
]
sin
1
sin
cos
[
2
12 11
u
u u
u
u u
u
o
o o
jZ
jZ jZ Z Z
=
÷
÷ = ÷ ÷ = ÷

8-25
12 11
Y Y +
12 22
Y Y +
12
Y ÷
| |
11 12
1 1
tan sin
1 1 1
sin tan
tan
1 cos 1
2
[ ]
sin sin
o o
o o
o o
D BC AD
jZ jZ
B B
Y
A
B B jZ jZ
j
Y Y
jZ Z
÷
(
÷
(
(
(
u u
(
= =
(
÷ (
(
÷
(
(
u u ¸ ¸
¸ ¸
u
u
+ = ÷ =
u u
2. Microstrp LPF design procedure
L, C ÷ select proper Zh, Zl ÷ at cutoff frequency RoL= Zh| lh,
Ro/C= Zl /| ll ÷ lh , ll ÷ consider parasitics of L,C and discontinuity
effects
3. Considerations of Z
l
4
1
1
1 1 2
sin
1 sin
2
sin open stubs?
l
l
l
l l
l
l l
Z
Z C
l CZ
j l j C
l CZ
t
| s
÷
s
e
= ÷ | = e s ÷
| e
= e ÷
|

8-26
5. Ex.8.6 design a maximally flat LPF with fc=2.5GHz, IL(4GHz)=20
dB, Zin, Zout =50O, Zh=120O, Zl =20O
L2=1.414 L4=1.932 L6=0.517
C1=0.517 C3=1.932 C5=1.414
lh =RoL/| Zh,
ll =CZl /| Ro
frequency response
(p.425, Fig.8.41)
4. Considerations of Z
h
4
1
2 , fabrication?
1
sin sin
1
sin , capacitor coupling?
2
l
h
h h h
h h
h
Z L
L
jZ l j L l
L
Z l
Z
t
| s
÷
> e
e
| = e ÷ | = s ÷
e
=
|

8-27
8.7 Coupled line filters
• Coupled line BPF element
) C 1 j )( C 1 j (
C
2 2
2
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
1 2
3
4
ì/4
1
C
C 2
2
C 1 jC
C 1 jC
÷ ÷
÷ ÷
2
2
C 1 j
C 1 j
÷ ÷
÷ ÷
4
2 2 2 4 2
[ (1 )] 4 4 1 C C C C ÷ ÷ = ÷ + 1
2 2 2 2 4 2
[ 2 1 ] 4 (1 ) 4 4 j C C C C C C ÷ ÷ = ÷ = ÷ +
1 4 + =1
1
if ,
2
C = ÷ 1
4
=0,
=1

8-28
•Impedance and admittance inverters (p.422, Fig. 8.38)
L
2
in
Z
K
Z =
impedance inverter admittance inverter
L
2
in
Y
J
Y =
,
4
K
ì
±
1
,
4 J
ì
±
2 2 / / u u

o o
Z jX Z
o o
Y jB Y
2
1
tan ,
2
1 ( )
2
tan
o
o
o
θ K
K Z X
K
Z
X
Z
÷
= =
÷
u = ÷
2
1
tan ,
2
1 ( )
2
tan
o
o
o
θ J
J Y B
J
Y
B
Y
÷
= =
÷
u = ÷
ZL
J , ± 90° YL K, ± 90°
2 2 / / u u
-C
C
-C
1
K
C
=
e
C
-C -C
J C = e

8-29
(derivation of impedance inverter)
,
4
K
ì
÷
2
0
cos sin
,
sin cos 0
4
l
o
o
o
Z K jK
l jZ l A B
j
jY l l C D l
K
t
| =÷ = ÷
(
| |
( (
(
= ÷
ì
( (
(
| | = ÷ ÷
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
(
¸ ¸
2
2
1 0 cos sin cos sin cos sin (sin sin )
2 2 2 2 2 2
1
1 1 1
sin cos sin cos ( sin cos ) cos sin
2 2 2 2 2 2
cos sin 0
2
1 1
( sin cos
o o
o o o
o
o o o
o
o
Z Z
jZ jZ jZ
X X
j j Z
j
jX
Z Z Z X X
Z
X
j
Z X
u u u u u ( ( (
u+ u u+ (
( ( (
(
( ( ( =
( u u u u u
( ( (
u÷ u+ u
(
¸ ¸
( ( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
u+ u =
÷ u÷
1
2
2 2
2
2
2 2
2 (1) (2)
tan
1 ( )
) sin cos ...(1)
2tan 2 2
2 / 2 2
tan , tan
sin sin ...(2)
2 (sin sin )
1 ( ) 1 tan 2
2
2
o
o
o o
o
o o
o
o o
o
o
K
X X
K
Z
Z
Z Z j
K X K
K Z X
Z K K Z
Z
K
Z jZ jK
X Z
X
Z
÷
÷ ÷ =
u = ÷
÷
u u
= ÷ ÷ u÷ = ÷ ÷
u
u
u u = = = =
u
u+ = ÷
u
u+ = ÷
÷ ÷
2 2 / / u u

o o
Z jX Z
Y
1 0
1
A B
C D Y
( (
=
( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸

8-30
(derivation of impedance inverter)
,
4
K
ì
2
0
cos sin
,
sin cos 0
4 1
1 1
1
1 1
1 0 0
1
0
0 1 0 1
l
o
o
o
Z K jK
l jZ l A B
j
jY l l C D l
K
K
C
A B j
j C j C
C
C D j C
j C
t
| = =
(
| |
( (
(
= ÷
ì
( (
(
| | =
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
(
¸ ¸
÷ =
e ( (
(
÷ ÷
( (
( (
(
e e = =
e
( (
( (
(
e
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
e
(
( (
¸ ¸
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
Y
1 0
1
A B
C D Y
( (
=
( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
-C
C
-C
Z
1
0 1
A B Z
C D
( (
=
( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸

8-31
(derivation of admittance inverter)
1
,
4 J
ì
÷
2
cos sin 0
,
sin cos
0
4
l
o
o
o
j Y J
l jZ l A B
J
jY l l C D l
jJ
t
| =÷ = (
| | ÷ ( (
(
= ÷
ì
( (
(
| | = ÷
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
÷ (
¸ ¸
2
2
1 1
1 cos sin cos sin cos sin ( sin cos )
1
2 2 2 2 2 2
0 1 sin cos sin cos (sin sin ) cos sin
2 2 2 2 2 2
cos sin 0
2
1 1
( sin cos
o
o o o
o o
o o o
o
o
Y j j
j
Y Y B Y B
jB
Y Y
jY jY jY
B B
Y
B
j
Y B
u u u u u ( ( (
u+ u u÷ (
( ( (
(
( ( ( =
(
( u u u u ( ( u
( u+ u+ u
¸ ¸
( ( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
u+ u =
÷ u÷
1
2
2 2
2
2
2 2
2 (1) (2)
tan
1 ( )
) sin cos ...(1)
2tan 2 2
2 / 2 2
tan , tan
sin sin ...(2)
2 (sin sin )
1 ( ) 1 tan 2
2
2
o
o
o o
o
o o
o
o o
o
o
J
B B
J
Y
Y
Y Y j
J B J
J Y B
Y J J Y
Y
J
Y jY jJ
B Y
B
Y
÷
÷ ÷ =
u = ÷
÷
u u
= ÷ ÷ u÷ = ÷ ÷
u
u
u u = = = =
u
u+ = ÷
u
u+ = ÷
÷ ÷
o o
Y jB Y
2 2 / / u u
Z
1
0 1
A B Z
C D
( (
=
( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸

8-32
(derivation of admittance inverter)
1
,
4 J
ì
÷
2
1
0 cos sin
,
sin cos
0
4
1 1
1 0 1 0 1 0
1 1
0 1 0
l
o
o
o
Y J
l jZ l A B
jJ
jY l l C D l
jJ
J C
A B
j C j C
C D j C j C
j C
t
| =÷
( =
| | ( (
(
= ÷
ì
( (
(
| | = ÷
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
÷ (
¸ ¸
÷ = e
( (
( ( (
( (
e e = =
( ( (
( (
÷ e ÷ e
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
÷ e ( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
Y
1 0
1
A B
C D Y
( (
=
( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
Z
1
0 1
A B Z
C D
( (
=
( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
C
-C -C

8-33
Discussion
1.
u
¹
´
¦
+ ÷ =
+ + =
=
] ) ( 1 [
] ) ( 1 [
,
2
2
2
o o o oo
o o o oe
JZ JZ Z Z
JZ JZ Z Z t
u
J
-90
o

Zo, u Zo, u
1 2
3
4
1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1
2 1 1 1 1 2
1 1
3 1 1 1 1 3
For the left circuit: ,
,
,
e e o o
e e o o
oe oe oo oo
j j j j j j j j e e o o
e e o o
oe oe oo oo
e
e e o o
oe
V V V V
V V V V V I
Z Z Z Z
V V V V
V V e V e V e V e I e e e e
Z Z Z Z
V V
V V V V V I
Z
+ ÷ + ÷
+ ÷ + ÷
+ ÷ + ÷
+ ÷ u ÷ u + ÷ u ÷ u ÷ u u ÷ u u
+
+ ÷ + ÷
= + + + = ÷ + ÷
= + + + = ÷ + ÷
= + ÷ ÷ = ÷
1 1
1 1 1 1
4 1 1 1 1 4
,
e o o
oe oo oo
j j j j j j j j e e o o
e e o o
oe oe oo oo
V V
Z Z Z
V V V V
V V e V e V e V e I e e e e
Z Z Z Z
÷ + ÷
+ ÷ + ÷
+ ÷ u ÷ u + ÷ u ÷ u ÷ u u ÷ u u
÷ +
= + ÷ ÷ = ÷ ÷ +
design equation #1
1/2 -1/2

1/2 1/2

8-34
4 4
1 11 14 1
1 4
11 14
4 14 11 4 1 1
0 0
2
1 1
11
2 3
1 1
4
14
1 1
11 11
41
, ,
( ) cot
ports 2, 3 open, I I 0
2
I 0
( ) csc
2
I I
j
o o
oe oo
e o
oe oo
oe oo
e o
oe oo
V Z Z I
V V
Z Z
V Z Z I I I
V V e
j
Z Z Z
V V
j Z Z
Z Z Z
V V
Z Z
Z Z
Z A B
C D
= =
÷ + ÷ u
+ +
÷ +
( ( (
= = =
( ( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
=
= ÷ + u
= =
¬ = ¬
=
= ÷ ÷ u
=
(
=
(
¸ ¸
2 2
44
14
41
44
41 41
( ) ( ) cos
cos 2
( ) sin
1
sin
2 cos
oe oo oe oo oe oo
oe oo oe oo
oe oo
oe oo oe oo
Z Z Z Z Z Z Z
Z j
Z Z Z Z Z
Z
Z Z
j
Z Z
Z Z Z Z
( + ÷ ÷ + u (
÷ u
(
(
÷ ÷ u
(
(
=
(
( + u
u
(
(
÷ ÷
(
¸ ¸
¸ ¸

8-35
) 1 (
) 1 (
2 2 ,
2
sin 2
sin cos , cos cos sin ) ( " "
cos sin ) ( sin cos
cos sin cos sin ) (
cos sin
sin cos
0
0
cos sin
sin cos
2 2
2 2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2 2 2
o o o oo
o o o oe
o
o
oo oe
o
o
oo oe
oo oe
oo oe
o
oo oe
oo oe o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
Z J JZ Z Z
Z J JZ Z Z
JZ
Y
J
Z Z
J
Y
J Z
Z Z
Z Z
Z Z
j
J
Y
j jJ
Z Z
Z Z
J
Y
J Z
J
Y
J Z
J
Y
j jJ
J
j
J jZ
J
Y
J Z
jY
jZ
jJ
J
j
jY
jZ
÷ ÷ =
+ + =
¬
= = ÷ + =
÷
+
¬ =
÷
= + ÷
÷
+
= + ¬ =
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

+ + ÷
÷ +
=
(
¸
(

¸

(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷
(
¸
(

¸

t
u
u
u u u u u
u u u u
u u u u
u u
u u
u u
u u
J
-90
o

Zo, u Zo, u

8-36
2.
Zo, 2u
C L
2
design equation #2 ,
2
o
o o o
Z
L C
Z
t
= =
e t e
¬
Z1 Z1 1 : -1
Z2
u
u
u
u
u u
u u
cot
2 sin
2 cos ) 1 (
2 sin
1
1
2 1
1 0
0 1
1
1
2 1
2 cos 2 sin
2 sin 2 cos
1
2
2
1
2
2
1
2
2
2
1
1
2
1
2
1
2
2
2
1
1
2
1
o
o
o
o
o
jZ Z
jZ
Z
Z
Z
jZ
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
jY
jZ
÷ =
=
¬
= + ÷
=
¬
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

+
+ +
÷ =
(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

+
+ +
=
(
¸
(

¸

¬

8-37
1 : -1
u 2 sin
o
jZ
u cot
o
jZ ÷ u cot
o
jZ ÷
1 : -1
t w
w jZ
o o
A
÷
t t t t u t | u
u
t
u
o o o o
o
w
w
w
w
w
w
w
w w
l
c
w
l
A
÷ ~
A
÷ =
A
+ = ÷
A +
= = =
~ ~
sin ) sin( 2 sin 2
0 cot ,
2
for
C L
Zin
o o o o
o o o o
o o o
o
o
o
o
o
in
Z w Lw
C
w
Z
L
w
Z jw
L
w
jw
L
w
jw
w
L w w jw
w
w w w
L w w j
LC w w
L w w j
LC w
jwL
jwL
jwC
Z
2
1
,
2
2
" "
2 2
) (
1
) 2 (
) (
) ( 1
) (
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2 2
t
t t
= = = ¬
A
÷
=
A
÷
¬ =
A
÷
~
A
A + ÷
~
A + A
A + ÷
=
A + ÷
A +
=
÷
=
+
=
¬

8-38
1
1
1 1
1
2
1
,
2
,
2
1
+
+
÷
A
=
A
=
A
=
N N o
N
i i o
i
o
g g Z
J
g g Z
J
g Z
J
t t t
3. derivation of design equation #3 (8.121)
“N=2” (p.434-455, Fig. 8.45 (e), (f))
J3
J2
J1
Zo
L’1
C’1
L’2 C’2
Zo
Yin

8-39
1 0
0
0 0 0
lef : right: , 1
0
0 0
0
0
o
o o
o
o o
o o
JZ
j
jZ jZ
JZ t
J
jY jY
jJ
JZ JZ
( ( ÷
(
÷ ÷
( (
( (
(
=
( (
( (
(
÷ ÷
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
÷
( ( (
¸ ¸
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
J
-90°
1 : ZoJ
Zo, ìo/4
÷
Zo, ìo/4
ZoJ:1
J2
-90°
1 : ZoJ3
Zo
ZoJ1:1
C1 L1 C2 L2
Yin

8-40
g1 g3 gN
g2
4. Coupled line BPF design
2 1
shunt element shunt element
, ,
series element series element
o i
o i o o
i i
i o o
o i o o
Z g
g Z
L C
g Z
g Z
A
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
e e A
e ÷e ¦ ¦
= = A =
´ ´
A e
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
e e A
¹ ¹

8-41
JN+1
J2
J1
1 1
1 1
1
1 1
design equation #3 , ,
2 2
2
i N
o o N N
o i i
J J J
Z g Z g g
Z g g
+
+
÷
tA tA tA
= = =
JN+1
-90
o
J2
-90
o
J1
-90
o
Zo, 2u Zo, 2u Zo Zo
1 2 3 N+1
2
2
[1 ( ) ]
π
design eq. #1 θ ,
2
[1 ( ) ]
oe o o o
oo o o o
Z Z JZ JZ
Z Z JZ JZ
¦
= + +
¦
=
´
= ÷ +
¦
¹

8-42
5. Ex.8.7 design a 0.5dB ripple equal-ripple coupled line BPF, N=3,
fo=2GHz, BW=10%, Zo=50O
i gi ZoJi Zoe Zoo
1 1.5963 0.3137 70.61 39.24
2 1.0967 0.1187 56.64 44.77
3 1.5963 0.1187 56.64 44.77
4 1.0000 0.3137 70.61 39.24
frequency response
(p.436, Fig.8.46)
IL(1.8GHz) ~ 20dB
1
1
1 1
1
2
1
,
2
,
2
1
+
+
÷
A
=
A
=
A
=
N N o
N
i i o
i
o
g g Z
J
g g Z
J
g Z
J
t t t
2 2
[1 ( ) ], [1 ( ) ]
oe o o o oo o o o
Z Z JZ JZ Z Z JZ JZ = + + = ÷ +
4. Microstrp coupled line BPF design procedure
LPF prototype gi ÷ Ji ÷ Zoei, Zooi ÷ microstrip line Wi, Si
÷ consider discontunuity effects

8-43
8.8 Filters using coupled resonators
• ì/4 stub
o o o
o
Z
C
Z
L
t e e
t 4
,
4
= =
Zo, ìo/4 O.C.
L

C
design equation
O.C. line: ,
tan 4 4 2 2
( )
tan
2 2
tan( )
2 2
1 1
series LC: ( ) ( )
( )( ) 2( )
2 ( )
o o o
in
o o o
o o
in o o
o o
o
o
in
o
o o o
o o
o o
Z w w w w c w
Z l
j c c f w w
Z w w w
Z jZ jZ
w
w w
j
w
w L L w
Z jwL j w LC j
jwC C C w w w LC
w w w w w w L L
j j j L w w Z
C w w C w
ì t t
u |
u
t t
t t
+ A
= = = = = =
÷ A
= = ~
A
+
= + = ÷ = ÷
+ ÷ ÷
= ~ = ÷ ¬ =
4
o
w L
t
4
,
4
o
o o o
Z
C L
Z
t
e e t
= = Zo, ìo/4 S.C.
C L
design equation

8-44
1. BSF using ì/4 open-circuit stub
g1 g3 gN
g2
Discussion
J=1/Zo
-90
o
J=1/Zo
-90
o
J=1/Zo
-90
o

8-45
4
BSF: open-circuit shunt stub
4
(BPF: short-circuit shunt stub )
4 4
o
oi
i
o
oi
i
Z
Z
g
Z
Z
g
ì
t
t ì
=
A
A
=
design equation
Zo, ìo/4 Zo, ìo/4 Zo, ìo/4
Zoi, ìo/4
Derivation for N=2 is given in p.439-440.

8-46
2. Ex.8.8 design a 0.5dB ripple equal-ripple ì/4 stub BSF,
N=3, fo=2GHz, BW=15%, Zo=50O
i gi Zoi
1 1.5963 265.9
2 1.0967 387
3 1.5963 265.9
frequency response (p.440, Fig.8.49)
3. Design procedure for microstrip BPF or BSF using ì/4 stub
LPF prototype gi ÷ ì/4 open-circuit or short-circui stubs Zoi
÷ microstrip line ÷ consider discontunuity effect
JN+1
90
o
J2
90
o
J1
90
o
Zo, | Zo, | Zo Zo
4. BPF using capacitively coupled series resonator

8-47
jB2
Zo, |
Zo, |
Zo Zo
2 / 2 /
1

1
| | 2 / 2 /
2

2
| |
jB1 jBN+1
2 / 2 /
1 N 1 N

+ +
| |
Zo, u1
Zo, u2
Zo Zo
jB1 jB2 jBN+1
1 1 1 1
2
2 2
( ), (tan tan )
2 2 2
1 ( )
o i i i i
o i
o o
i
i
o i
B B
l
Y Y
J
B
Z J
÷ ÷ + +
ì | |
| = t = u = t+ + = t÷ +
=
÷
design
equation

8-48
5. Design procedure for microstrip BPF using capacitively coupled
resonator
LPF prototype gi ÷ Ji ÷ Bi, |i ÷ Ci, ui ÷ microstrip gap width
and line length ÷ consider discontunuity effect
6. Ex.8.9 design a 0.5dB ripple equal-ripple BPF using capacitively
coupled resonators, fo=2GHz, BW=10%, Zo=50O, IL(2.2GHz) >
20dB

i gi ZoJi Bi(x10
-3
) Ci(pF) ui(deg)
1 1.5963 0.3137 6.96 0.554 155.8
2 1.0967 0.1187 2.41 0.192 166.5
3 1.5963 0.1187 2.41 0.192 166.5
4 1.0000 0.3137 6.96 0.554
frequency response (p.443, Fig.8.51)

8-49
7. BPF using capacitively coupled shunt stub resonator
JN,N +1
-90
o
J12
-90
o
J01
-90
o
C1 L1 C2 L2 CN LN
C1 L1 C2 L2
CN LN
C01
-C01
C12
-C12 -C12
CN,N+1
-CN,N+1
01 , 1 , 1
1 1
1
, ,
4 4
4
o o n n o N N
N N
n n
Z J Z J Z J
g g g
g g
+ +
+
+
= = =
t t t
design equation
, 1 , 1
01
01 , 1 , 1
2 2
0
0 0 01 0 0 , 1
, ,
1 ( ) 1 ( )
n n N N
n n N N
N N
J J
J
C C C
w
w Z J w Z J
+ +
+ +
+
= = =
÷ ÷

8-50
C12
Zo, l1
C01
Zo, l2
CN,N+1
Zo, l2
C’1 L1 C’2 L2 C’N LN
C01 C12 CN,N+1
design equation
'
1, , 1 1, , 1
,
4 2
n n n n n n n n n n n n n
o o n
n
C C C C C C C C C
Z w C
l
÷ + ÷ +
= ÷ ÷ = + = ÷ ÷
= +
ì
ì
t

8-51
Zo, ì/4
ACn
YL
Zo, ì/4
YL
Al
L o n
Y Y jw C = +
1
tan 1 1 1
tan
tan
tan
1
tan
1
1
tan
o L
L o
o L o
o
o L
L
l
o
L
o o
L
o
Z jZ l
Y
Z jZ l
Z Z Z jZ l
Z
Z jZ l
Y j l
Z l
Y j
Z Z
jY l
Z
<<
+
= = =
+
+
+
+
= ~ +
+
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
2
2
o o o n
o n
o o
l Z w C l
jw C j j l
Z Z
| t
ì
ì t
A A
= = ÷A =
Y Y
(derivation of the change of stub length due to a shunt capacitor)

8-52
8. Design procedure for BPF using capacitively coupled shunt stub
resonator
LPF prototype gi ÷ Ji-1,i ÷ Ci ÷ ACi ÷ Ali ÷ resonator length ÷
consider discontunuity effect
9. Ex.8.10 design a 0.5dB ripple 3rd order equal-ripple BPF using
capacitively coupled shunt resonators, fo=2GHz, BW=10%, Zo=50O,

i gi ZoJi-1,i Ci-1,i(pF) ACi(pF) Ali(ì) l
1 1.5963 0.2218 0.2896 -0.3652 -0.04565 73.6º
2 1.0967 0.0594 0.0756 -0.1512 -0.0189 83.2º
3 1.5963 0.0594 0.0756 -0.3652 -0.04565 73.6º
4 1.0000 0.2218 0.2896
frequency response (p.447, Fig.8.54)
ADS examples: Ch8_prj