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25/10/2014 E Learning Holy Quran: Short History of Islam till Martyrdom (assassination) of Hadhrat Imam Husain 1/2
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Saturday, 25 October 2014
Short History of Islam till Martyrdom (assassination) of Hadhrat Imam
“Our Prophet, Muhammad ('alaihi 's-salâm), was born in Mekka on the
Monday morning of Rabî' al-awwal 12, which coincided with April 20, 571 (mîlâdî).
He passed away in Medina in the 11th year of the Hegira (m. 632). At the age 40,
the angel called Jabrâ'il ('alaihi 's-salâm) revealed to him his prophethood. He
emigrated (hijra) from Mekka to Medina in 622; his arrival at the Kubâ village near
Medina on Monday, September 20, marks the beginning of the Muslims' Hijrî
Shamsî (solar) calendar, while Muharram 1 of the same year marks the beginning
of the Qamarî (lunar) calendar. The Persian Shamsî year begins six months before
this, that is, on the twentieth of March, which is the day of the Magian festival.”
Reference: The Sunni Path, page 8 and 9
Note: Western Calendar (January-December) is called Gregorian and Miladi Calendar. It has been started
from the Era of Prophet Hadhrat Eesa (Jesus) peace be upon him. It is also called Christian calendar and
Eeswi calendar. This calendar is used in both ways Solar and Lunar. Christians observe Christmas-Birthday
of Hadhrat Eesa (Jesus) peace be upon him according to solar cycle but they celebrate Easter according to
lunar cycle. Islamic Calendar has been started from the time of the Migration (Hijrat) of Holy Prophet
Muhammad peace and blessing be upon him according to Gregorian calendar it was year of 622, Islamic
lunar calendar is eleven days shorter than the Gregorian calendar used in the Western world. In the
international Gregorian calendar, the dates vary from year to year, drifting approximately 11 days earlier
each year.
After the death of Holy Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him (Muslims believe that Prophets are alive in
their graves) on 12th of Rabi-al-awwal 11 Hijri according to June 632, First Khalifa (King) of Islam and
Muslims was Hadhrat Abu Baker siddeeq Radi-yallahu-anhu (Father-in-Law of Holy Prophet), he was
elected by the Companions of Holy Prophet. Hadhrat Abu Baker Siddeeq passed away on 22nd Jamadi-al-
Sani in 13 Hijri/23rd of August 634. He made his Successor Hadhrat Omar (Father-in-Law of Holy Prophet)
before his death. Total age of the Hadhrat Abu Baker was 63 years.
Second Khalifa Hadhrat Omar Radi-yallahu-anhu ruled there 10 years till Zil-Hajj 23 Hijri. He was injured by
a killer. He announced a committee to elect next Khalifa. Hadhrat Omar Martyred in age of 63 years on 1st of
Muharram 24 Hijri/ 11th of November, 644.
Third Khalifa Hadhrat Usman نﺎ َ ﻣ
ﺛُ ﻋ was elected by that Committee. He was Son-in-Law of Holy Prophet, two
of the Daughters of Prophet were married with him one after another, Firstly Hadhrat Ruqayya died, and then
he was married with Hadhrat Umm-e-Kalsoom. Hadhrat Usman نﺎ َ ﻣ
ﺛُ ﻋ got married with Hadhrat Ruqqaya in
city of Mecca. She died after migration to Medina in 2nd Hijri. Hadhrat Umme-Kalsoom died in 9th Hijri.
Hadhrat Usman increased and developed Masjid-al-Haraam (situated in Mecca) in 26th Hijri and Masjid-al-
Nabawi (Situated in Medina) in 29th of Hijri. Hadhrat Usman نﺎ َ ﻣ
ﺛُ ﻋ was assassinated on 18th Zil-Hajj in 35
Hijri/ 20th of June 656.
Note: Holy Prophet Hadhrat ْ تَ رْ ﺿَ ﺣ Muhammad had 4 daughters and 3 sons, three of the sons died in their
Note: A Muslim man is allowed to marry four women at a time, but there should not be two sisters as his
wives at a time, he can adopt second after death of first.
And forth Khalifa was Hadhrat Ali (Cousin and Son-in-Law of Holy Prophet). YoungestDaughter of Holy
Prophet Hadhrat Fatima
تَ ﺮْ ﻀَ ﺣ
ہَ ﻤِ طﺎ
ﻓ was married with Hadhrat Ali in 2nd Hijri. They had two
Sons, Hadhrat Hasn (نْ ﺳَ ﺣ) and Hadhrat (نْ ﯾ َ ﺳُ ﺣ) Husain. Imam Hasn was born in 3rd Hijri and Imam Husayn
was born in 4th Hijri. Hadhrat Ali Ruled from 35 to 40 Hijri and he was assassinated on the day of 21st of
¸ر. · ¸ م+ا . تد,¸:.ا ¸ر ¸م.ا ت·_. .ں¸ µ :_¸,_ ¸ودرا
Compiled by Abdul Razzaq Qadri
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After the assassination of Hadhrat ْ تَ رْ ﺿَ ﺣ Ali, people of Koofa accepted Hadhrat Imam Hasn as Khalifa
and after 6 months Hadhrat Imam Hassan handed over whole kingdom to Hadhrat ْ تَ رْ ﺿَ ﺣ Mua’wia in Rabi-al-
awwal 41st Hijri on a conditioned agreement.
Hadhrat Mua’wia also was one of the companions of Holy Prophet. He ruled 20 years from 40 to 60 Hijri as a
king. He had been Governor of Syria before being a king since 20 years (Syria was a province/state of Great
Islamic Kingdom Khilaafat ْ تَ ﻓ
ﻼِ ﺧ at that time). He died in month of Rajab in 60 Hijri.
After the death of Hadhrat Mua’wia his son Yazid was appointed as a king according to his will. Yazid
was a bad person and a bad sinner. Yazid was born in Era of Hadhrat Usman in 25th of Hijri. Name of his
mother was Maisoon.
Hadhrat Husain refused to accept him (Yazid) as Muslim King. Hadhrat Husain received a lot of Letters from
people of the city of Koofa (in Iraq). People of Koofa wanted to see him as a Muslim Khalifa. Hadhrat Imam
Husain travelled from Medina to Mecca on 4th Sha’abaan in 60th of Hijri.
Hadhrat Nouman نﺎ َ ﻣ ْ ﻌ
ﻧ bin Bashir, one of the companions of Holy Prophet was Governor of Koofa at that time.
Hadhrat Imam Husain sent Hadhrat Muslim bin Aqeel (his two young sons Muhammad and Ibrahim were
with him) to know the current situation of Koofa. Hadhrat Muslim bin Aqeel wrote a letter to Hadhrat Imam
Husain that people of Koofa loved him so much and were ready to accept him as a Khalifa of Muslims.
Meanwhile Governor of Koofa was changed by Yazid. Name of new Governor was Abdullah bin Ziyaad. He
announced there in Koofa to favor Yazid. He declared that if someone would favor Hadhrat Imam Husain he
would be punished. Hadhrat Muslim bin Aqeel and his sons were killed (martyred) there in Koofa by new
Governor Ibne-Ziyad. On the same day Hadhrat Imam Husain left for Koofa. People who met Hadhrat Imam
Husain in his way they told him that people of Koofa Loved to him but they were standing with Banu
Umayyad (Yazid) if any mishap. They suggested him to do not travel to Koofa.
On 10th of Muharram 61 Hijri on the land of Iraq (Karbala desert), army of Yazid Killed Hadhrat Husain
including many of his family members and his friends there. It was first month Muharram of 61 Hijri year
which coincided with 680 AD. Muslims has been cursing on Yazid and they do so still from that
incident. Muslims Loved and they love still the name of Hadhrat Husain (Grand-son of Holy Prophet).
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