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1. The table below shows some of the ores of iron.

ore

formula

haematite
magnetite
siderite

Fe2O3
Fe3O4
FeCO3

(a) Which ore in the table contains the greatest percentage by mass of iron? Explain your answer.
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(b) Give the equations for the redox reactions taking place in the extraction of iron from haematite.
In each case state which substance is oxidised and which is reduced.
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(c) Iron is malleable. Describe how this property can be explained in terms of its structure. [2]
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(d) State and explain how the properties of iron can be changed by the addition of carbon. [2]
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2. Iron is one of the most important metals. It is a transition element.
Most iron is used in the alloy steel.
(a) Explain, in terms of metallic bonding, why iron is a good electrical conductor.
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(b) Describe how different proportions of carbon can modify the physical properties of steel.
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(c) When underwater, iron pipes will rust relatively rapidly.

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................................................. (ii) Pieces of magnesium are often attached to underwater iron pipes.......................................[2] 3......................................... .................................................... with the help of an equation...........................................................(i) State the essential conditions needed for the rusting of iron.................................................................................... Explain how the magnesium protects the iron pipes against rusting............................................................................ ...................... ................................... (a) Explain............................ ............................... 1................................................................. ............................................................................................................................................... [3] (d) Write two typical properties that are generally common only to transition elements...................................................................................................................................................................... .............................................................. Graphite anode Steel tank molten aluminum oxide and cryolite at 950oC Graphite anode molten aluminium out One reason that this process is expensive is that the graphite anodes need replacing regularly...... ...................................... [2] .......................................... why the graphite anodes need replacing regularly................... 2........................................... This diagram shows an electrolysis tank used industrially to produce aluminium from aluminium oxide .................................................. .................................................................. ..............

..................................................................................... .................................................. why limestone is used in the blast furnace................................................................................. Explain........................... .... coke...................................................................................................................................... is reduced by carbon monoxide to form iron and ........................................................ ........................................ .................................... ........ Iron is extracted by reducing iron ore in a blast furnace................................... .. ............................................................................ (c) State two uses of aluminium.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................(b) Adding molten cryolite reduces the cost of the process by lowering energy demand..................................... [2] ......................................................................................... [2] .................................................. air and limestone..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... [3] (d) In the centre of the blast furnace iron(III) oxide. ..................................... ...................................................................... . Explain how adding molten cryolite reduces the energy demand of the process... .................................................. .. (a) Name an ore of iron.................................................................. ............................................................................. why this reaction is exothermic............................................................ 4.......................... The raw materials used are iron ore.................. ....................... State the property of aluminium which makes it suitable for each use............................................................. [1] (b) Explain................................................. .................................................................... ................................... Fe2O3.......................................................... by reference to the chemical reactions involved............................................................................................................................................................................ .......................................... [3] (c) Coke burns in oxygen to form carbon dioxide........................................................ in terms of bond breaking and bond making...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

................................................................................................................................................... Near the bottom of the blast furnace the remaining iron(III) oxide is reduced by carbon to form iron and carbon monoxide........................ ...................carbon dioxide................ [2] ........................... Write equations for both of these reactions................ ...........................

............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. (i) Name the products of the reaction............. ................................................................................. a) ........................ The ionic equation for the reaction is: Mg(s) + Cu2+(aq)  Fe2+ + Cu(s) a) Write down any one change that you would observe during this reaction..........(e) When cold................. How can this iron from the blast furnace be converted to mild steel? ............................................................ producing a lot of sparks and a bright flash of light....................... [1] b) Some magnesium powder was mixed with some copper(II) oxide and heated strongly.......................................................................................................................... copper................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... b) Which substance has been oxidised in this reaction? c) Write down the full (not ionic) equation for this reaction.... iron................................................... c) ......................................... .............................................................................. the following reaction occurs: Zn(s) + CoO(s) (i) (ii) (iii)  ZnO(s) + Co(s) Which metal is higher in the reactivity series? The zinc can be described as a reducing agent.......................................................... .......... ...................................................................................... b) .......... Some iron fillings were shaken with some copper(II) sulfate solution.............. (iii) Which substance in the reaction has been reduced? (iv) Which substance is the oxidising agent? ................................ using the example........... ............................................................. ...................... sodium........... explain what is meant by the term ‘reducing agent’......................... (ii) Write a balanced symbol equation for the reaction........................................................................................................................................................................................... [4] 6.. [4] ................................ [4] c) If a mixture of zinc poder and cobalt(II) oxide is heated.................... ....................................................................................................................... ............................................................... the iron obtained from the blast furnace is brittle........................................................................... There was a vigorous reaction................ [1] [Total: 10] 5 a) List the following meals in order of decreasing reactivity: aluminium............................................................................................ Which substance in this reaction has been ozidised? ....................................................................... .

..................................................................................................................... ................................... ............................................................................................................... [1] c) Write full balanced equation for the reaction..................... ........ ....................................................... Explain your choice in terms of either oxygen transfer or electron transfer as appropriate...................... Study the following equations and............................................................................................................................................................. a) Zn(s) + Cuo(s)  ZnO(s) + Cu(s) b) Fe2O3(s) + c(s)  2Fe(s) + 3CO(g) c) Mg(s) +Zn2+(s)  Mg2+(s) + Zn(s) d) Zn(s) + Cu2+(aq)  Zn2+(aq) + Cu(s) ............................................................................................................................................ Name the solution.................................... [2] d) Explain why the aluminium hardly reacts with vigorously after even gently heating................................... very little happens..................7........................................................................... ..................................................... a) What do you understand by the term ‘reduction’? ...... in each case............ ...................................................... .................................................................... If you warm this gently.......................................................................... you would end up with a colourless solution.......................................................... [1] c) The main heat source in the furnace is provided by burning coke in air.......................... it starts to fizz very rapidly................. ... ....................................... .......................... [1] b) Give the proper chemical name for haematite................................................................................................................... [1] b) If you used an excess of hydrochloric acid............................................................ [1] 9......... ...................................................................................... .................................................................... a) Name the gas given off to produce the fizzing.. .................................................................................................................................. If you add some powdered aluminium to a small amount of cold dilute hydrochloric acid in a boiling tube..... decide whether the substance in bold type has been oxidised or reduced........................................................................ haematite(Fe2O3)............. [8] 8............................................................................... Iron is produced in a blast furnace by the reduction of its ore.................................................

.. Write an equation to show its formation................................................. [1] ................................................................................................................. such as silicon dioxide (SiO2)................. i) Give one use in each case for cast iron........................... i)Name the ore from which aluminium oxide is obtained........................................................................................................ why is the extraction expensive? ................................ but most is converted into various steels................................................................ .................................... high-carbon steel and stainless steel.............................................................................................................. ................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ ........... ................................. [3] g) The impure iron from the blast furnace can be used to make cast iron............................................................................ [2] iv) Aluminium is the commonest metal in the Earth’s crust.......................................................... and yet it is entirely expensive because its extraction is expensive........... .............................C(s) + O2(g)  CO2(g) What name is given to a reaction which produces heat? ........................................................................... a) Aluminium is manufactured by the electrolysis of aluminium oxide dissolved in molten cryolite............................................................................................. Explain the chemistry of this............................................................................................................................................................................. .............................................. [4] ii) Give two effects of increasing the proportion of carbon mixed with the iron................. ............................... [1] e) Balance the equation : Fe2O3(s) + CO(g)  Fe(l) + CO2(g) .......................................................................................................................... . [1] ii) At which electrode is the aluminium produced? .............. [1] iii) Oxygen is released at the other electrode...................................................... Explain why that creates a problem.............................................. ..... ................ .... ..................... mild steel............... [2] 10................................................................ [1] d) The main reducing agent in the furnace is carbon monoxide................ [1] f) Limestone is added to the furnace to help in the removal of impurities in the ore.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................