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1

The table below gives some information about the elements in Group I of the Periodic Table.

element

boiling point / oC

density / g cm3

radius of atom in
the metal / nm

lithium

1342

0.53

0.157

sodium

883

0.97

0.191

rapid

potassium

760

0.86

0.235

very rapid

1.53

0.250

extremely rapid

rubidium
caesium

669

1.88

reactivity with
water

explosive

(a) How does the density of the Group I elements change down the Group?
(2)
(b) Suggest a value for the boiling point of rubidium.
(1)
(c) Suggest a value for the radius of a caesium atom.
(1)
(d) Use the information in the table to suggest how fast lithium reacts with water compared
with the other Group I metals.
(1)
(e) State three properties shown by all metals.
1.
2.
3.

(3)

(f) When sodium reacts with water, hydrogen is given off.


2Na(s)

2H20(I)

2Na0H(aq)

H2(g)

(i) State the name of the other product formed in this reaction.
(1)
Total / 9

2 The Periodic Table is arranged in groups.


(a) Rubidium, Rb, is in Group I of the Periodic Table. It reacts with water according to the
equation below.
2Rb(s) + 2H2O(l) 2RbOH(aq) + H2(g)
Predict what you would see when a small piece of rubidium is added to cold water.
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................

(3)

(b) Chlorine is in Group VII of the Periodic Table.


Chlorine, Cl2, reacts with aqueous sodium bromide.
(i) Predict what you would see in this reaction.
......................................................................................................................................

(1)

(ii) Write a balanced ionic equation for this reaction.


......................................................................................................................................

(1)

(c) Lithium reacts with fluorine to form lithium fluoride.


(i) Draw a dot and cross diagram to show the bonding in lithium fluoride.
You should show all the electrons.

(2)
(ii) Explain why lithium fluoride conducts electricity when molten but not as a solid.
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
(iii) State one other physical property of lithium fluoride.
...................................................................................................................................... (1)

(2)

Total / 10
3 (a) Brine is an impure solution of sodium chloride. The main impurity in brine is calcium chloride.
It is removed by reacting the brine with sodium carbonate.
CaCl2(aq) + Na2CO3(aq) CaCO3(s) + 2NaCl(aq)
(i) State the name for this type of reaction.
...................................................................................................................................
(ii) Construct an ionic equation for the reaction between calcium ions and carbonate ions to produce
calcium carbonate.
...................................................................................................................................
(iii) Suggest how the calcium carbonate is removed from the mixture.
...................................................................................................................................
(3)
(b) Chlorine is manufactured by the electrolysis of concentrated sodium chloride.
(i) Write equations for both of the electrode reactions.
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
(ii) Calculate the maximum volume of chlorine, at r.t.p., which can be obtained from 175.5 kg sodium
chloride.

(5)
(c) Chlorine reacts with methane to produce chloromethane, CH3Cl.
Draw a dot and cross diagram to show the bonding in chloromethane.
You only need to show outer (valence) electrons.

(2)
[10 marks]

(a) Copper has the structure of a typical metal. It has a lattice of positive ions and a sea
of mobile electrons. The lattice can accommodate ions of a different metal.
io
ns
pr
es
en
t
in
th
e
sol
uti
on
ar
e
as
fo
llo
w
s.

Give a different use of copper that depends on each of the following.


(i) the ability of the ions in the lattice to move past each other
(1)
(ii) the presence of mobile electrons
(1)
(iii) the ability to accommodate ions of a different metal in the lattice
(1)
(b) Aqueous copper(II) sulphate solution can be electrolysed using carbon electrodes. The
Cu 2+(aq),

SO42 (aq),

H +(aq),

OH (aq)

(i) Write an ionic equation for the reaction at the negative electrode (cathode).
(1)
(ii) A colourless gas was given off at the positive electrode (anode) and the solution
changes from blue to colourless.
Explain these observations.

(2)
(c)

Aqueous copper(II) sulphate can be electrolysed using copper electrodes.


The reaction at the negative electrode is the same but the positive electrode
becomes smaller and the solution remains blue.
(i) Write a word equation for the reaction at the positive electrode.
(2)

(1)
(1)
(ii) Explain why the colour of the solution does not change.
(iii) What is the large scale use of this electrolysis?
(1)
5 Sodium chloride is used in making many important chemicals including chlorine and hydrogen.
(a) Write the electrode reactions for the electrolysis of molten sodium chloride.
Which electrode reaction is an oxidation? Explain your answer.
.......................................................................................................................................................

...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...

............................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................................
(3)
(b) Explain why the electrolysis of aqueous sodium chloride using inert electrodes gives
hydrogen.
.......................................................................................................................................................
(1)
(c) Explain why graphite is used as electrode in the electrolysis but diamond is not.
.......................................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................................
(3)
(d) Hydrogen is used to manufacture ammonia, NH3. Calculate the volume of hydrogen needed to
react completely with 240 dm3 of nitrogen, all gas volumes measured at room temperature
and pressure.

( 3)
Total / 10

Some reactions of metals W, X, Y and Z are given below.


reaction with water

reaction with dilute


hydrochloric acid

A few bubbles form slowly in cold


water.

Vigorous reaction. Gas given off.

Vigorous reaction. Metal melts.


Gas given off.

Explosive reaction. Should not


be attempted.

No reaction.

No reaction.

Does not react with cold water.


Hot metal reacts with steam.

Steady fizzing.

metal

(a) Arrange these metals in order of reactivity.


most reactive

least reactive

(2)

(b) Which of these metals could be


(i) magnesium,
(1)
(ii) copper?
(1)

(c) The equation for the reaction of X with cold water is given below.
2X(s) + 2H2O(l)

2XOH(aq) + H2(g)

(i
)
D
e
s

cribe the test you would use to show that the gas evolved is hydrogen.

(1)
(ii) How could you show that the water contained a compound of the type XOH?

(2)
(iii) In which group of the Periodic Table does metal X belong?
(1)
5 Sodium chloride is used in making many important chemicals including chlorine and hydrogen.
(a) Write the electrode reactions for the electrolysis of molten sodium chloride.
Which electrode reaction is an oxidation? Explain your answer.
.......................................................................................................................................................

3
Total /
10

.......................................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................................
(3)
(b) Explain why the electrolysis of aqueous sodium chloride using inert electrodes gives
hydrogen.
.......................................................................................................................................................
(1)
(c) Explain the three stages in the purification of water supplies.
.......................................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................................
(3)
(d) Hydrogen is used to manufacture ammonia, NH3. Calculate the volume of hydrogen needed to
react completely with 240 dm3 of nitrogen, all gas volumes measured at room temperature
and pressure.

The
frac
tion
al
dist
illat
ion
of
cru
de
oil
usu
ally
pro
du
ces
larg
e
qua
ntit
ies
of
the
hea
vie
r
fra
ctio
ns.
The
mar
ket

demand is for the lighter fractions and for the more reactive alkenes. The heavier fractions
are cracked to form smaller alkanes and alkenes as in the following example.
C8H18
octane

C4H10
butane

C4H8
butenes
(a)
(i)
Wri
te a
diff
ere
nt
equ
ati
on
for
the
cra
cki
ng
of
oct
ane
.
C8H18
+
(1)
(ii) The
cracking
of
octane
can
produce
isomers
with the
molecul
ar
formula
C4H8.

Dra
the
stru
ura
form
lae
of
two
of
the
iso
ers.

(2)
(b) (i) Give the essential condition for the reaction between chlorine and butane.
(1)
(ii) What type of reaction is this?
(1)
(iii) This reaction produces a mixture of products. Give the names of two products
that contain four carbon atoms per molecule.
and

(2)

(c) Alkenes are more reactive than alkanes and are used to make a range of organic
chemicals. Propene, CH3CH=CH2, is made by cracking. Give the structural formula
of the addition product when propene reacts with the following.
(i) water

(1)

(ii) bromine

C
(d) Propene reacts with hydrogen iodide to form 2 - iodopropane.
CH3CH=CH2

HI

CH3CHICH3

1.4 g of propene produced 4.0 g of 2 - iodopropane.

a
l

culate the percentage yield.

(1)

moles of CH3CH=CH2 reacted =

maximum moles of CH3CHICH3 that could be formed =

mass of one mole of CH3CHICH3 = 170 g

maximum mass of 2 - iodopropane that could be formed =

percentage yield

(4)

DATA SHEET
The Periodic Table of the Elements
Group
I

III

II

IV

VI

VII

He

Hydrogen

Helium

1
7

11

12

14

16

19

20

Li

Be

Ne

Lithium

Beryllium

Boron

23

24

Na

Mg

Sodium

Magnesium

11

Nitrogen

Oxygen

28

31

32

Al

Si

13

Silicon

14

Phosphorus

Neon

10

Sulphur

16

15

Fluorine

27

Aluminium

12

Carbon

35.5

40

Cl

Ar

Chlorine

17

Argon

18

39

40

45

48

51

52

55

56

59

59

64

65

70

73

75

79

80

84

Ca

Sc

Ti

Cr

Mn

Fe

Co

Ni

Cu

Zn

Ga

Ge

As

Se

Br

Kr

Potassium

Calcium

19

20
85

Scandium

Titanium

21
88

22
89

Vanadium

23
91

Chromium

24
93

Manganese

25

Iron

26

96

Cobalt

27
101

Nickel

28
103

Copper

29

Zinc

30

106

108

Gallium

31
112

Germanium

32

Arsenic

33

115

119

Selenium

34
122

Bromine

35

Krypton

36
127

128

131

Rb

Sr

Zr

Nb

Mo

Tc

Ru

Rh

Pd

Ag

Cd

In

Sn

Sb

Te

Xe

Rubidium

Strontium

Yttrium

Zirconium

Niobium

Molybdenum

Technetium

Ruthenium

Rhodium

Palladium

Silver

Cadmium

Indium

Tin

Antimony

Tellurium

Iodine

Xenon

37

38
133

39

40
139

137

41
178

42
181

44

43
184

186

45

46
192

190

47

48

195

197

Cs

Ba

La

Hf

Ta

Re

Os

Ir

Pt

Au

Hg

Caesium

Barium

Lanthanum

Hafnium

Tantalum

Tungsten

Rhenium

Osmium

Iridium

Platinum

Gold

Mercury

55

56

Fr

57
226

227

Ra

Ac

Radium

Francium

88

87

72

73

X
b

76

77

78

79

80

52

54

53

207

Tl

Pb

Bi

Po

At

Rn

Lead

Bismuth

Polonium

Astatine

Radon

Thallium

81

82

209

83

84

85

86

Actinium

140

141

144

Ce

Pr

Nd

Cerium

Key

75

51

204

89

*58-71 Lanthanoid series


90-103 Actinoid series
a

74

50

49
201

58

a = relative atomic mass

X = atomic symbol
b = proton (atomic) number 90

Praseodymium

59

Neodymium

60

232

Pm
Promethium

61

150

152

157

159

162

165

167

169

173

175

Sm

Eu

Gd

Tb

Dy

Ho

Er

Tm

Yb

Lu

Samarium

62

Europium

63

Gadolinium

64

Terbium

65

Dysprosium

66

Holmium

67

Erbium

68

Thulium

69

Ytterbium

70

Lutetium

71

238

Th

Pa

Np

Pu

Am

Cm

Bk

Cf

Es

Fm

Thorium

Protactinium

Uranium

Neptunium

Plutonium

Americium

Curium

Berkelium

Californium

Einsteinium

Fermium

91

92

93

94

95

96

97

98

99

The volume of one mole of any gas is 24 dm3 at room temperature and pressure (r.t.p.).

100

Md
Mendelevium

101

No

Lr

Nobelium

Lawrencium

102

103

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