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1

The diagram shows part of the Periodic Table.
Only some of the elements are shown.
Li
Na Mg
K Ca

Ti

V

Zr Nb
(a) Answer the following questions by choosing only from the elements shown in the
diagram.
You can use each element once, more than once or not at all.
(i)

State the names of two transition elements shown in the diagram.
.......................................................... and ..............................................................................

(ii)

State the name of an element which is in Period 3 of the Periodic Table.
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(iii)

(1)

Which element has the fastest reaction with water?
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(v)

(1)

Which element has the electronic structure 2,8,1?
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(iv)

(2)

(1)

Which element has 23 protons in its nucleus?
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(b) Sodium reacts with oxygen to form sodium peroxide, Na O .
Complete the symbol equation for this reaction.

(1)

2
2

Na + O2 → Na2O2

(2)
[Total: 8]
2 Ethanol, CH3CH2OH, is a liquid fuel. Ethanol can be manufactured either from glucose,
C6H12O6, or from ethene.
(a) Briefly describe the manufacture of ethanol from glucose.
Include the balanced equation in your answer.
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(4)

............................................................................................................................................................................................. Diamond They are both composed of Graphite (a) Explain the meaning of the following terms............ why graphite can act as a lubricant............................................................................................. Explain..................... ............................................................................................................................... (2) (c) Give one use of diamond which depends on its hardness................................................................................................................................................................................ (1) Total / 5 ........................................................................................................... (iii) Give the conditions needed for this reaction...................................................................... are allotropes of carbon...................................................................................................... (ii) Name the substance that reacts with ethene to make ethanol........................................................................... (b) Graphite is used to make lubricants for engines.............................(b) (i) Draw the displayed formula for ethene.............................................................. .......... in terms of its structure........................................................... (ii) macromolecule .............................. (4) Total / 8 3 Diamond and graphite macromolecules...... ...... ....... ........................................................... .. (i) allotropes .................................................................................. (2) ................ ...........................................................

......... in terms of collisions between particles........................................... NO......... The exhaust fumes contain atmospheric pollutants such as nitric oxide...........................................................4 The exhaust fumes from the internal combustion engines of motor vehicles contribute to the poor quality of air in many cities........ (ii) Explain why......... .... ......................................... .................................................................................................... and carbon monoxide............. .................................................................................................................................. .................... 5 Marble statues are being damaged by acid rain.............................................................................................................................. A student investigated the reaction between marble chips and nitric acid...................................................... (i) Construct a balanced equation for this reaction.............................................................................................................................. (i) Write a balanced equation for this reaction....................... CaCO3(s) + 2HNO3(aq) → Ca(NO3)2(aq) + H2O(l) + CO2(g) (3) Total / 8 ................................................................... the rate of this reaction increases as the concentration of oxygen increases........... ................................................................................ (ii) Explain why the catalyst should be in the form of a powder supported on a mesh.................................................. (a) Nitric oxide...................................................................................... (iii) Explain why the rate of this reaction increases as the engine temperature increases............. ..... (4) (b) Explain how carbon monoxide is formed in an internal combustion engine................................................. CO...................................................................................................................... ............................................................................... ..... (1) (c) Nitric oxide and carbon monoxide in the exhaust gases react together in the catalytic converter of a motor vehicle. The chemical name for marble is calcium carbonate..................................... NO................................................................................... is formed when oxygen and nitrogen from the air react in an internal combustion engine.............................................................. .......... ...............................

.........................18 93.................................................................. ......19 93................ (1) ........26 93................ The table shows the results....14 93........The Diagram shows the apparatus the student used....0 g marble chips 93.....................0 mol/dm3 nitric acid 2......... time / minutes balance reading / g 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 93......................................15 93...24 93............................................................16 93............................17 93................20 93........................ ..15 93..21 93..................... (c) (i) Calculate the number of moles of nitric acid in 50 cm3 of 2........... (1) (b) How can the student tell when the reaction has finished? ..............................................0 mol / dm3 solution....................28 93.30 g The student recorded the balance reading every minute.............................. 50 cm3 of 2......................22 93.....................14 (a) Explain why the balance reading decreases during the experiment..........30 93.............................. ........

....................................... .............................................................................................................. This time the acid is at a higher temperature................................ ....................................... (1) (i) What is meant by the term acid ? ................................................................. (1) (b) Give an ionic equation to represent the neutralisation reaction between sodium hydroxide and sulphuric acid.......................................... ...................................(ii) Calculate the number of moles of calcium carbonate in 2.............. (2) Total / 9 6 A student adds aqueous sodium hydroxide from a burette into 25.................................... is in excess? Explain your answer............................................................................................................................................................................................0 g................ ................................................................. calcium carbonate or nitric acid...........................................................................0 cm3 of dilute sulphuric acid................................................................................... .................... (ii) What is the difference between a strong acid and a weak acid? .. (a) Describe how the pH value changes...................... .................................................. in terms of collisions between reacting particles........................................................ the effect of increasing the temperature on the rate of reaction......................................................................................................................................... (c) Sulphuric acid is a strong acid................................................................................ (3) ........................... The student measures the pH value of the mixture during the addition of the sodium hydroxide............ (iii) Which reagent... (5) (d) The student repeats the experiment using the same quantities of calcium carbonate and nitric acid...................................... ................................................................................................................................... Describe and explain..................................................................... ........................................

......(d) Dilute sulphuric acid reacts with magnesium to give hydrogen................... 7 (1) Total / 6 Hydrogen chloride can be made by burning hydrogen in chlorine.. Show all the electrons........ Put a ring around the correct answer.. Suggest the pH of hydrochloric acid.. use o for an electron from a hydrogen atom use x for an electron from a chlorine atom (2) (c) Hydrochloric acid is formed when hydrogen chloride gas dissolves in water................. pH 1 pH7 pH9 pH 13 (1) (d) Complete the equation for the reaction of hydrochloric acid with zinc................... Give the ionic equation for this reaction.. zinc + hydrochloric acid zinc chloride + ……………… (1) (e) Describe how dry crystals of zinc chloride can be obtained from a solution of zinc chloride....................................................... HCl (2) (b) Draw a dot and cross diagram for a molecule of hydrogen chloride.. State the name of the product formed at .... H2 + …………..... .. (2) (f) A student electrolysed molten zinc chloride............. ………....... (a) Complete the equation for this reaction.......

........................ which are used as catalysts................................................................................................................................ (1) (c) Copper is a transition element...................................................................................................................................... ................................. ....................................................................... .................................................................................................... ............................................................................................. ...... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. ............ (2) ..................................................................... ......... ......................... ............................... (1) (ii) Explain why the colour of the copper(II) sulfate solution fades during this electrolysis....................................................................................(i) the anode.......................... (i) Name two transition elements..................………............................................................................. (4) (b) Aqueous copper(II) sulfate can also be electrolysed using carbon electrodes............................................................................................................... or compounds of transition elements......................................................................................... (1) (ii) the cathode.......................... ................................................................................................................... (1) [Total: 10] 8 Copper is purified by the electrolysis of aqueous copper(II) sulfate using copper electrodes..................... ........................................................... .................................................................................. For each catalyst name an industrial product made using the catalyst................ .. ...................................................... (i) Write an equation for the reaction which takes place at the anode in this electrolysis........................................ (a) Explain how this process is carried out in the laboratory and give relevant equations for the electrode reactions................................................................................................................................................... ...............................................................................................................................

.............................................................. ..................... (2) (b) Ink is a mixture of many chemicals................................................................................................. She then left the syringe in a clamp for twenty hours..... ............................................ .............................. .................................... .................................................................................... What do you understand by the term mixture? ................................................................................................................................. She then carefully drew up some blue ink into the syringe so that it formed a separate layer below the water.......................................................................................................................... (1) (c) The list shows some of the substances present in ink........................................................... (1) ................................................... ................................... carboxylic acids cobalt(II) ions ethanol iron(II) ions nickel(II) ions tannins water (i) Water is a good solvent.................... (a) Use the kinetic particle theory to explain these observations......................................................................................................................................................................... ...................................... clamp water water ink water ink After twenty hours the blue colour of the ink had spread throughout the water..................................................................................(ii) Other than acting as catalysts state two properties which are specific to transition elements.. (2) [Total: 10] 9 A student half-filled a syringe with water............................................ From the list choose one other substance that is a good solvent......................................................................

........................ (a) Describe what you would observe when a small piece of lithium is dropped onto the surface of cold water....... ............................................ Lithium reacts with water to form lithium hydroxide and hydrogen................... (2) .. What do you understand by the term polymer? ....................................................................................(ii) What is the meaning of the symbol (II) in iron(II)? Tick one box............................ (1) [Total: 9] 10 Lithium is in Group I of the Periodic Table...................................... (2) (d) One of the carboxylic acids present in ink is gallic acid............................................................................. What do you understand by the term reduction? ... (i) On the structure above........................................................................................................................................... (1) (ii) Gallic acid is a good reducing agent.................. put a ring around the carboxylic acid functional group.............................................. the number of outer shell electrons the difference between the neutron and proton number the oxidation state the type of isotope (1) (iii) Tannins are polymers.............................. ...................................................................................... (b) Write the equation for the reaction between lithium and water............................................................................. The structure of gallic acid is shown below.......... .........

......................................................... is another element in Group I.......................... for the reaction between iron(II) ions and hydroxide ions..... Rusting involves a series of reactions.............. Initially iron atoms lose electrons to form iron(II) ions... ..... Fe(s) Fe2+(aq) + 2e– At the same time oxygen... Li+...... Predict what you would observe when a small piece of rubidium is dropped onto cold water................................... ................................. Explain why the formation of a lithium ion from a lithium atom is an example of oxidation.......................... ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. (a) (i) Explain why the formation of iron(II) ions from iron atoms is an example of oxidation...................... O2(g) + 2H2O(l) + 4e– 4OH–(aq) Aqueous iron(II) ions then react with aqueous hydroxide ions to form solid iron(II) hydroxide................ O2....... including state symbols.......... metal relative reactivity zinc most reactive iron tin least reactive An iron object plated with either zinc or tin will not rust...................... ............................. ...... (1) (c) When lithium reacts with water.............................. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………..................... …………(1) (ii) Write the ionic equation.......... (3) Total / 7 11 Aluminium and iron are both metals...... ……………………………………………………………………………………………........................ ................. Finally the iron(II) hydroxide is oxidised to give hydrated iron(III) oxide (rust)...... ..................... Rb.(1) (ii) An iro n ob jec t pla ted wi th tin ............. are formed......................... lithium ions. ...... ................................................................. .......................................... Iron rusts in the presence of oxygen and water...... ......................... and water molecules react to form hydroxide ions................................................................................... (i) Suggest how tin stops iron from rusting... ………… (2) .......................................... (b) The table shows part of the reactivity series of metals........... (1) (d) Rubidium... ......................................... ... ………………………………………………………………………………………………………......................

.................................................................................... ................................................ ......................................................................................................................................... .................................... An iron object plated with zinc will not rust if the layer of zinc is scratched..................................................... ................................................. ………………………………………………………………............................. alcohol formula boiling point / °C methanol CH3OH 65 ethanol C2H5OH 78 propanol C3H7OH 97 pentanol C5H11OH 138 (a) What is meant by the term homologous series? .............. .................................................. .. ....................................................................... Use the information in the table to explain these two observations............................. .................................................................................... ............................................................... (2) [Total: 10] 12 Alcohols are an homologous series of organic chemical compounds......................................... (1) ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... (3) (c) Explain why aluminium will not corrode in the presence of oxygen and water.............................................................................................................will start to rust if the layer of tin is scratched................... ............................................................................................................................................................................................. ............................................................................................................................................ ......................................................... (b) (i) (3) Estimate the boiling point of butanol ..................................................................................................................................................................... (1) (d) State a use of aluminium and explain why this metal is particularly suited for the stated use.................................................... ................................................................ The table shows some information about different alcohols............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ .............................

......0% Cu2O cuprite (a) (i) What is the formula of the copper compound in tenorite? . (i) Write an equation for the reaction between ethene and steam............... (iii) Calculate the percentage of copper by mass in Cu2O................................................................................... Ethene reacts with steam in the presence of an acid catalyst to form ethanol...................................... (3) Total / 10 13 The table below shows some information about two copper ores.......................................... ............................... (1) (c) Ethanol can be manufactured from ethene..................................................................... C6H12O6............. tenorite and cuprite..................... (5) ...................... ........................................................................ Both contain copper oxide.............................. Cu2O? ............................................................ formula of copper oxide in ore ore tenorite oxidation number of copper percentage of copper by mass +2 80.............. ....... C6H12O6 2CO2 + 2C2H5OH.................................................92 kg of ethanol........................................................ Calculate the percentage yield of ethanol......(ii) A molecule of the alcohol hexanol contains six carbon atoms... A solution containing 18 kg of glucose makes only 0................................... (ii) What is the oxidation number of copper in cuprite.......... Write the formula of hexanol........ (1) (d) Ethanol can also be manufactured from glucose..... (1) (ii) Name the type of reaction that takes place....................................................................

. (i) Name the catalyst used in the Haber process. 2+ Cu copper ion sulphide ion (2) [Total: 7 marks] 14 Ammonia is manufactured by the Haber process..(b) Another ore of copper contains copper(II) sulphide. Ammonia is used to manufacture nitrogenous fertilisers such as ammonium nitrate. Complete the dot and cross diagram below for copper(II) sulphide showing outer electrons only. (ii) Write a balanced equation for the formation of ammonia in the Haber process. …………………………………………………………………………………………………. (a) The graphs below give information about the percentage of ammonia present in the equilibrium mixture at different temperatures and pressures. . …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 100 80 60 percentage of ammonia at equilibrium 40 400 atm 20 200 atm 100 atm 50 atm 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 25 atm 600 temperature in °C (a) The reaction requires the use of a catalyst. which operates most efficiently within the temperature range 280 – 450 °C.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………................... Write an equation for the reaction between ammonium nitrate and calcium hydroxide.... (iv) Suggest why the normal working temperature used in the Haber process is often over 400 °C........ (ii) Polymer X is used as an insulating cover for electrical wires.............. …………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………… (3) (c) A farmer spreads a fertiliser containing ammonium nitrate onto his land..... …………………………………………………………………………………………………..... (2) Total / 10 15 The macromolecule below is an addition polymer X....... Explain why polymer X does not conduct electricity.............. ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. Explain how the use of a catalyst can reduce the overall energy requirement for the Haber process.............. …………………………………………………………………………………………………....................................................... (1) (1) Total / 3 ............... (i) Explain what is meant by a covalent bond . (1) (b) The atoms in polymer X are covalently bonded......................... …………………………………………………………………………………………………..................................... `` ............................. ........ (5) (b) Describe and explain the effect of a catalyst on the rate of a reaction............................................ Use this equation to explain why the nitrogen content of the fertiliser will be lowered................... (a) Draw the structure of the monomer from which polymer X is formed....................................................................... The farmer then spreads calcium hydroxide on his land to reduce its acidity......................................(iii) Which conditions of temperature and pressure give the highest percentage of ammonia at equilibrium within the catalyst operating temperature range? …………………………………………………………………………………………………..............