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Natural Gas Supply
Thermal release
The thermal release is also part of the tank shut-off
valve module.
Task
It prevents the natural gas tanks bursting if the
pressure rises excessively because of high
temperatures. The thermal release is installed in such
a way that direct release of the natural gas into the
atmosphere is possible.
How it works
The main part of the thermal release is a small glass
tube containing a fluid that seals the gas leak.
At temperatures above 110°C, the liquid in the glass
tube will expand and cause it to burst.
The gas outlet can now open. The natural gas escapes
from the natural gas tanks into the atmosphere and
can be released there in a controlled manner without,
for example, a backflash occurring or the natural gas
tanks bursting due to high temperatures if the vehicle
is on fire.
Thermal release
The glass tube closes the
gas outlet.
Glass tube
Flow outlet
Gas outlet
The glass tube bursts and
gas can escape.
S373_023
S373_015
S373_008
S373_007
Thermal
release
Effect of heat
Drainage channel
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Shut-off tap
Shut-off tap
open
Shut-off tap
closed
S373_003, S373_004
S373_022
S373_013
Manual shut-off tap
The mechanical shut-off tap allows you to close the
natural gas tank manually with a tool so it is gas-tight.
For safety reasons, this is necessary whenever the
natural gas tank is removed or fitted again.
The drainage channel for the thermal release is
also open when the shut-off tap is closed for safety
reasons.
Shut-off tap
(without hand wheel)
Please see ELSA for more detailed information on repair work.
Thermal release
Drainage channel
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Natural Gas Supply
Gas pressure regulator
The gas pressure regulator is mounted on the
longitudinal member at the front right of the engine
compartment.
Task
The gas pressure regulator has the task of
reducing the natural gas pressure from 200bar to
approx. 6bar.
The relaxation of the natural gas occurs in the gas
pressure regulator in a single pressure reduction
stage.
It thus separates the high-pressure side of the natural
gas system from the low-pressure side.
Design
The gas pressure regulator is made up of the
following components:
- coolant connections to engine cooling system
- integrated filter on gas input
- fuel tank pressure sensor G400
- high-pressure valve for gas mode N372
- pressure reduction stage
- mechanical excess pressure valve
From high pressure to low pressure
Gas input with filter
from natural gas tank
Fuel tank pressure sensor G400
Mechanical
excess pressure
valve
Pressure reduction
stage
High-
pressure
valve for gas
mode N372
Coolant connections
Gas output to
gas fuel rail
Gas pressure regulator
S373_035
S373_031
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The reduction stage on the gas pressure regulator consists of:
- the high-pressure chamber with regulating piston
- the low-pressure chamber with mechanical excess pressure valve
- the diaphragm disc
- the spring
High-pressure gas input from the
natural gas tanks
Fuel tank pressure sensor G400
Excess pressure valve
Pressure reduction
stage
High-pressure
valve for gas
mode N372
Filter
Low-pressure gas
output to engine
Spring
Diaphragm disc
Low-pressure chamber
High-pressure
section
Low-pressure
section
High-pressure chamber
S373_018
Regulating piston
28
Natural Gas Supply
High-pressure valve for gas mode N372
This component is built into the side of the gas
pressure regulator.
Task
The high-pressure valve for gas mode closes or opens
the access to the reduction stage of the gas pressure
regulator. It thus interrupts the connection between
the natural gas tank and the engine and thus
represents a further safety component in the natural
gas system. To perform this task, the high-pressure
valve for gas mode is closed in unpowered state.
Effect upon failure
If the high-pressure valve for gas mode cannot be
powered by the engine control unit, only back-up
petrol mode will be possible.
Fuel tank pressure sensor G400
This pressure sensor is screwed from above into the
gas pressure regulator.
Task
The tank pressure sensor calculates the current
natural gas pressure in the high-pressure side of the
natural gas system. Using this value, the engine
control unit recognises the filling level of the natural
gas tank.
Effect upon failure
If the signal from the tank pressure sensor fails, the
fuel gauge for the natural gas tanks will drop to zero.
The vehicle will continue to run in natural gas mode as
long as a natural gas pressure above 6bar is present
at the gas fuel rail sensor G401.
N372
not powered
Gas flow
Gas flow
G400
High-pressure chamber
S373_055
S373_056
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Spring pushes diaphragm disc and
regulating piston upwards.
Spring
Diaphragm
disc
Regulating
piston
High-
pressure
chamber
Low-pressure
chamber
S373_057
S373_058
Reduction stage
Task
The natural gas pressure is reduced from
high pressure to low pressure in the pressure
reduction stage.
Function
If the high-pressure valve for gas mode is opened
by the engine control unit, the natural gas will flow at
high pressure to the regulating piston in the
high-pressure chamber. The regulating piston is
connected to the low-pressure chamber by a
spring-loaded diaphragm.
If the natural gas pressure in the low-pressure
chamber is lower than 6bar, the diaphragm and the
regulating piston is pressed upwards by the pressure
spring. The regulating piston opens the passage to the
high-pressure chamber. Natural gas now flows from
the high-pressure chamber into the low-pressure
chamber.
30
Natural Gas Supply
The gas pressure pushes diaphragm
disc and regulating piston downwards.
Spring pushes diaphragm disc and
regulating piston upwards again.
S373_060
S373_059
The pressure in the low-pressure chamber rises due
to the incoming natural gas. If the pressure reaches
6bar, it presses the diaphragm downwards against
the spring force. This causes the regulating piston
connected to the diaphragm to close the connection to
the high-pressure chamber.
When natural gas is consumed by the engine, the
natural gas pressure in the low-pressure chamber
falls. The spring now pushes the diaphragm disc
upwards again, which opens the regulating piston.
Natural gas flows into the low-pressure chamber
again.
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Coolant connections
If the natural gas is regulated from 200bar down to
6bar, the natural gas will expand. It draws thermal
energy from its surrounds so the gas and its surrounds
cool down.
The process is similar to the behaviour of the coolant
in the evaporator of an air-conditioning system.
Task
The gas pressure regulator is connected to the coolant
system via the coolant connections. This prevents
the gas pressure regulator icing.
You will find more information on the natural gas mode operating conditions on pages 36/37
of this self-study programme.
Regulating
piston
Risk of icing on
regulating piston
Coolant
connection
S373_105
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Natural Gas Supply
Low-pressure side
Gas fuel rail
The gas fuel rail is mounted on the upper part of the
intake manifold. It has four electrically controlled gas
injection valves N366 to N369 as well as the gas fuel
rail sensor G401.
Gas injection valves N366,
N367, N368 and N369
The gas injection valves are inserted into the cylinder
intake ducts. They are activated by the engine control
unit in natural gas mode with a pulse-width
modulation signal.
The opening times of the gas injection valves
depend on:
- the engine speed,
- the engine load,
- the natural gas quality and
- the natural gas pressure in the gas fuel rail.
Effect upon failure
As soon as one gas injection valve fails, the engine
control unit switches to back-up petrol mode.
Gas fuel rail
S373_081
S373_080
G401
Gas injection valve
S373_082
Gas injection valve
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Gas fuel rail sensor G401
The gas fuel rail sensor is mounted on the left-hand
front side of the gas fuel rail. It determines the natural
gas pressure in the fuel rail.
Signal use
The engine control unit uses the signal from the
sensor to calculate and control the opening times of
the injection valves.
S373_030
G401
Effects of signal failure
If the pressure in the gas fuel rail rises above the
value 10.5bar or if the sensor signal fails, the vehicle
will switch to back-up petrol mode.
34
System Overview
With example of Touran
Engine speed sender G28
Hall sender G40
Accelerator position sender G79
Accelerator position sender 2 G185
Clutch position sender G476
Brake pedal switch GF47
Throttle valve module J338
Throttle valve drive angle sender 1
for electric throttle G187
Throttle valve drive angle sender 2
for electric throttle G188
Coolant temperature sender G62
Radiator outlet coolant temperature sender G83
Coolant shortage indicator sender G32
Knock sensor 1 & 2 G61, G66
Brake light switch F
Fuel tank pressure sensor G400
Gas fuel rail sender G401
Oil level and oil temperature sender G266
Lambda probe G39
Lambda probe after catalytic converter G130
Sensors
Engine control unit
J623
Intake manifold pressure sender G71
Intake air temperature sender G42
CAN data bus
S373_084
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Control elements
Fuel pump switch-off relay J333
Fuel pump relay J17
Fuel system pressurisation pump G6
Injectors for cylinders 1-4
N30, N31, N32, N33
Ignition coils 1-4 with output stage
N70, N127, N291, N292
Gas injection valve 1-4
N366, N367, N368, N369
High-pressure valve for gas mode
N372
Valves 1-4 for tank shut-off
N361, N362, N363, N429
Throttle valve module J338
Throttle valve drive for electric throttle G186
Heater element for crankcase breather
N79
Active charcoal filter system solenoid valve N80
Lambda probe heater Z19
Lambda probe 1 heater after catalytic converter Z29
Control unit with
display in dash panel
insert J285
S373_085
Only the sensors and actuators that are required exclusively for natural gas mode are highlighted.
36
Engine Management
Engine control unit J623
The engine control unit is mounted in the centre of the
plenum chamber. It regulates the mixture preparation
in natural gas and back-up petrol mode.
Engine control unit functions
in natural gas mode
Engine start
- Coolant temperature below 15°C:
Start in petrol mode
- Coolant temperature over 15°C:
Start in natural gas mode
Conditions for natural gas mode
- Coolant temperature above 15°C
- Natural gas pressure in the gas fuel rail above
6bar
Engine start after filling up with natural gas
Start always in petrol mode.
The switch-over to natural gas mode occurs upon
activation of Lambda control or after the engine has
been running for 3 minutes at the latest.
Lambda regulation in natural gas mode
The mixture composition is regulated to Lambda 1 by
the engine control unit in natural gas and petrol
back-up mode.
Depending on the quality of the natural gas used
(high or low gas), the engine control unit needs to
adjust the mixture. The Lambda probe measures the
exhaust gas composition and sends the result as a
signal to the engine control unit. Using the signal, the
engine control unit calculates the mixture composition
that is currently required (air/natural gas). The engine
control unit changes the opening times of the gas
injection valves to control the mixture composition.
S373_129
J623
37
Adaptation of the natural gas used
The engine control unit needs to adjust the opening
times of the gas injection valves to the natural gas
quality used after you fill up with natural gas.
The engine control unit recognised that a filling
procedure has occurred using the fuel tank pressure
sensor G400.
If the vehicle has been filled up with high gas, a richer
mixture results due to the higher proportion of
methane in the exhaust gas and accordingly a leaner
mixture with low gas. The engine control unit
recognises the mixture composition using the exhaust
gas quality that is detected by the Lambda probe.
If the exhaust gas quality does not correspond with
the current mixture composition, the engine control
unit presumes that a different natural gas quality has
been filled and adjusts the opening times of the gas
injection valves to the current natural gas quality.
On-board diagnose II
The on-board diagnosis checks all components and
systems relevant to the exhaust gas while the vehicle is
running. It stores the malfunctions and indicates
exhaust gas-related errors with a warning lamp (MIL).
S373_108
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Engine Management
Dash panel insert
Petrol supply
gauge
Warning lamp
for back-up
petrol mode
Gas supply
gauge
Dash panel in
Midline version
Gas supply gauge
The following indicators for natural gas mode and for petrol back-up mode are located
in the dash panel insert:
- Petrol back-up mode warning lamp
- Petrol level bar indicator
- Analogue natural gas supply gauge
There are two different versions of the dash panel insert:
- one for the Midline versions of the vehicles and
- one for the Highline versions of the vehicles.
If the arrow next to or above the bar indicator is
illuminated, the engine is running on petrol. Once the
arrow extinguishes, the vehicle is driving with natural
gas again.
The natural gas mode is possible from an engine
coolant temperature of over 15°C. The engine control
unit switches between gas and back-up petrol mode
automatically.
S373_095
S373_096
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Dash panel in
Highline version
Petrol supply
gauge
Gas supply gauge
Warning lamp for
back-up
petrol mode
S373_087
S373_086
Back-up
gauge in
natural
gas mode
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Safety Concept
Natural gas system safety
During the development of the two Caddy and Touran EcoFuel natural gas vehicles, particular focus was placed on
safety in the area of the natural gas system. To illustrate this, we will summarise the constructive and functional
features that influence the safety of the natural gas system for you.
- All high-pressure pipes and connecting elements
are made from seamless stainless steel. These
components are extremely corrosion-resistant and
thus not prone to leaks.
- There is a tank shut-off valve on each of the four
natural gas tanks. In addition, the gas pressure
regulator has a high-pressure valve for gas mode.
These five valves automatically interrupt the gas
supply when the engine is not running, in petrol
mode as well as in crashes.
- The flow restrictor in the tank shut-off valves
prevent natural gas leaking from the natural gas
tanks if a pipe is damaged.
- In addition, a check valve has been fitted
on the tank shut-off valve for natural gas tank 1.
It prevents backflow and thus gas escaping through
the filling system if, for example, the gas filler neck
happens to be leaking.
Gas filler neck with integrated filter
and check valve
Tank shut-off valve module with the actual valve,
flow restrictor, thermal release and shut-off tap
Natural gas tank 4
with tank shut-off valve
Natural gas tank 3
with tank shut-off valve
Natural gas tank 2
with tank shut-off valve
Natural gas tank 1
with tank shut-off valve
and check valve
S373_125
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Gas fuel rail
Gas fuel rail
sensor G401
Flexible
braided hose
Gas pressure
regulator with
high-pressure
valve for gas
mode N372 and
fuel tank
pressure sender
G400
S373_124
High-pressure
natural gas pipe
made from stainless steel
The natural gas system on the Touran
N372
G400
Double-ferrule compression fitting
Service and maintenance work on the high-pressure pipes of the natural gas system may only be
carried out by specialist technicians. Please make sure you read the latest instructions in ELSA.
- A flexible braided hose is used between the gas
pressure regulator and gas fuel rail.
- The whole natural gas system on both vehicles
is installed so that it has the best possible
protection against damage.
- All components and mountings were tested
in front and rear collisions.
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Functional Diagram
Touran functional diagram
G476 Clutch position sender
J271 Motronic current supply relay,
on E-box, on left-hand side of engine compartment
J519 Onboard supply control unit
J623 Engine control unit
J681 Terminal 15 voltage supply relay
J682 Terminal 50 voltage supply relay
N30 Injector for cylinder 1
N31 Injector for cylinder 2
N32 Injector for cylinder 3
N33 Injector for cylinder 4
N70 Ignition coil 1 with output stage
N79 Heater element for crankcase breather
N80 Active charcoal filter system solenoid valve 1
N127 Ignition coil 2 with output stage
N291 Ignition coil 3 with output stage
N292 Ignition coil 4 with output stage
N361 Valve 1 for tank shut-off
N362 Valve 2 for tank shut-off
N363 Valve 3 for tank shut-off
N429 Valve 4 for tank shut-off
S Fuse
U Battery
J271
J519
S S S S S S S S S
S S
J681
U
J623
N70 N127 N291 N292
N30
-
N33
G476 J682
N
3
6
1
N
3
6
2
N
3
6
3
N
4
2
9
G401 N80
N
7
9
S373_076
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G6 Fuel pump
G39 Lambda probe
G40 Hall sender
G61 Knock sensor 1
G79 Accelerator pedal position sender
G130 Lambda probe after catalytic converter
G185 Accelerator pedal position sender 2
G186 Throttle valve drive for electric throttle
G187 Throttle valve drive angle sender 1
for electric throttle
G188 Throttle valve drive angle sender 2
for electric throttle
G400 Fuel tank pressure sensor
G401 Gas fuel rail sensor
J17 Fuel pump relay on relay carrier on left under
dash panel
J104 ABS control unit
J333 Fuel pump switch-off relay
J338 Throttle valve module
J519 Onboard supply control unit
J623 Engine control unit
J643 Fuel supply relay
J681 Terminal 15 voltage supply relay
N366 Gas injection valve 1
N367 Gas injection valve 2
Z19 Lambda probe heater
Z29 Lambda probe 1 heater after catalytic converter
J623
J519
S S S
J
3
3
3
J
6
4
3
J17
G47
J104
G39 Z19 Z29 G130
N366 N367
G6 G400 G185 G79
J338
G186 G188 G187 G40 G61
Input signal
Output signal
Positive
Earth
CAN data bus
S373_077
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Functional Diagram
G Fuel gauge sender
G1 Fuel gauge
G28 Engine speed sender
G42 Intake air temperature sender
G62 Coolant temperature sender
G66 Knock sensor 2
G71 Intake manifold pressure sender
G83 Radiator outlet coolant temperature sender
G411 Natural gas gauge
J119 Multifunction display
J285 Control unit with display in dash panel insert
J519 Onboard supply control unit
J527 Steering column electronics control unit
J533 Data bus diagnostic interface
J623 Engine control unit
J681 Terminal 15 voltage supply relay
K192 Natural gas mode warning lamp
N368 Gas injection valve 3
N369 Gas injection valve 4
Y25 Segment display in dash panel insert
C/DFM Alternator field monitor
(engine control unit adjusts the alternator output
to the voltage requirement
using the engine speed.)
G66 G28 G71
G42 G
6
2G83
J527
J533
J285
G411
G1
J119
Y25
K192
G
N368 N369
Drive CAN data
bus
Convenience
CAN data bus
Dash panel insert
CAN data bus
Diagnostic
connection
C/DFM
OUT IN
Input signal
Output signal
Positive
Earth
CAN data bus
S373_078
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Legend and meaning of stamped labels
a VW 1G0201158 BC (example) Item number
b 50.2kg Curb weight
c Do not use after 08/2025 Indication of life of natural gas tank (expiry date)
d 54l Capacity
e PH 30MPA Test pressure of 30MPA
(30 MegaPascal = 30,000,000 Pascal = 300bar)
f 71675516 U.T. Test code
g PW26MPA Max. filling pressure of 26MPa (260bar)
h CNG only 08/2005 Filling note with date of manufacture
i PS 20MPA / 15°C Operating pressure of 20MPa (200bar)
at a temperature of 15°C
k (E) 110R-00102 ECE norm
Service
Natural gas tank labelling
The natural gas tanks have to be replaced after 20 years.
Information on the year of manufacture is given on the stamped test label on the natural gas tanks.
k i
Natural gas tank
a
h g e d
c
b
f
S373_053
46
Service
Special tools
Name Tool Application
T10349
Magnetic
release tool
The magnetic release tool is used to empty the natural gas tank
when the tank shut-off valve is not powered.
T10350
Special
wrench
Wrench for removing and fitting
the tank shut-off valves
T10351
Holder for
natural gas
tank
The holder is used to prevent the natural gas tanks rolling away
while they are being fitted or removed.
The holder has different radii on the top and bottom for the
different sized natural gas tanks.
S373_128
S373_127
S373_126
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Test Yourself
1. At what pressure are the natural gas tanks filled?
a) 15bar
b) 200bar
c) 6bar
Which answers are correct?
One or several of the answers could be correct.
2. Which valve is also fitted on the tank shut-off valve for the first natural gas tank?
a) An electromagnetic valve
b) A check valve
c) A mechanical shut-off valve
3. The pressure in the gas fuel rail is ...
a) 10bar
b) 9bar
c) 6bar
4. How high is the anti-knock index of natural gas?
a) 130RON
b) 95RON
c) 110bar
48
Test Yourself
5. Name the main components of the tank shut-off valve.
6. Who may carry out work on the high-pressure side of the natural gas system?
a) Service technician
b) Any mechanic
c) Only a trained person with proof of qualification
7. What safety system prevents the natural gas tank bursting in a fire?
a) The gas pressure regulator
b) The thermal release
c) The tank shut-off valve
8. What should you observe when carrying out repairs on the natural gas tanks?
a) The mechanical shut-off taps should be closed on the tank shut-off valves.
b) The natural gas tanks need to be checked for leaks and damage.
c) The thermal fuses should always be replaced.
S373_049
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
49
Notes
A n s w e r s
1 . b ) ; 2 . b ) ; 3 . c ) ; 4 . a ) ; 5 . a ) S h u t - o f f t a p , b ) F l o w r e s t r i c t o r , c ) N a t u r a l g a s t a n k c o n n e c t i n g t h r e a d ,
d ) T a n k s h u t - o f f v a l v e , e ) T h e r m a l f u s e ; 6 ) c ; 7 ) b ; 8 ) a , b
50
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© VOLKSWAGEN AG, Wolfsburg
All rights and rights to make technical alterations reserved.
000.2811.80.20 Technical status 05/2006
Volkswagen AG
Service Training VSQ-1
Brieffach 1995
38436 Wolfsburg
❀ This paper was manufactured from pulp that was bleached without the use of chlorine.
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