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Igneous Rocks

Igneous Rocks
 “Ignis” means fire
 Rocks that are formed from cystallization
of magma
 Magma is molten rock
Lava is magma that is on the Earth’s Surface

Igneous Rocks
 Two Types of Igneous Rocks
Extrusive (Exterior)
Intrusive (Interior)
 Igneous rocks that solidify into rock beneath
Earth’s surface
 Coarse Grained
 Cool Slowly
 Granite
Extrusive Igneous Rocks
Extrusive (Exterior)
 Igneous rocks that
solidify into rock on
Earth’s surface
 Fine Grained
 Cool Quickly

Intrusive Igneous Rocks
Intrusive (Interior)
 Igneous rocks that
solidify into rock
beneath Earth’s
surface
 Coarse Grained
 Cool Slowly
 Granite

Igneous Rock Formation
Origin of Magma
 Where does the heat
come from that melts
rocks?
 Formation of Earth
 Heat from the decay of
radioactive elements
Factors that Affect Magma
Formation
 Temperature
 Increases with depth
 Pressure
 Increases with depth
 Water Content
 Decreases melting
point
 Mineral Composition
 Different minerals,
different melting points
Characteristics of Magma
 Slushy Mix of molten rock,
gases, and mineral crystals
 Common Elements
 Oxygen (O)
 Silicon (Si)
 Aluminum (Al)
 Iron (Fe)
 Magnesium (Mg)
 Calcium (Ca)
 Potassium (K)
 Sodium (Na)
 Compounds in Magma
 Silica ( Si0
2
)
 Most abundant
 Greatest effect on Magma
Characteristics
 Effects melting temp
 Viscosity of Magma
 Types of Magma
 Based on amount of Silica
 Basaltic
 Andesitic
 Rhyolitic


Type of Magma SiO
2
Content
Rhyolitic 70%
Andesitic 60%
Basaltic 50%
Melting Rocks
 Question
Does a rocks melt like an ice cube, all at the
same time?
Melting Rocks
 Rocks melt according to their melting points.
Example: Ice cube with wax
 Which would melt first ice or wax?

 This example is known as partial melting.
Partial Melting: some minerals melt at lower
temperatures and other minerals remain solid
Think of “stew”
Fractional Crystallization
 Opposite of Partial Melting
 Last to melt are first to solidify (crystallize)
Bowen’s Reaction Series
 N.L. Bowen
Canadian
1900’s
Stated that “as magma cools, minerals form in
predictable patterns”
Known as Bowen’s Reaction Series
Bowen’s Reaction Series
 Two Branches
Feldspars
 Continuous, gradual change of mineral
compositions
Iron-Rich Minerals
 An abrupt change of mineral type
Bowen’s Reaction Series
Feldspars
 Continuous Change
 First Feldspars are
rich in Calcium (Ca)
 Sodium (Na)
increases as cooling
continues
 Last Feldspars to
form are Sodium rich
(Na)
Iron Rich Minerals
 Discontinuous Change
 Magnesium (Mg) cools around
1800
0
C, when olivine
crystallizes, this continous up
to 1557
0
C.
 Now Pyroxene begins to form.
All olivine that was formed is
now turned to pyroxene
 Quartz is the last to form,
because silica and oxygen are
the last to crystallize
Why do we find Olivine?
Four main groups of igneous rocks based on
magma type/mineral composition
 Felsic: high silica content, light colored, from thick & slow moving
magma, contains low amounts of Ca, Fe, and Mg dominant minerals
quartz, potassium rich feldspar
 Ex: granite, pumice, rhyolite
 Magma Type:
 Intermediate: moderate amount of silica, mixture of colors dominant
minerals: sodium and calcium rich feldspar
 Ex: andesite, diorite
 Magma Type:
 Mafic: low silica content, dark colored, high levels of Fe & Mg formed from
thinner, more fluid, & hotter magma than Felsic rocks dominant minerals
hornblende, calcium rich feldspar
 Ex: basalt, gabbro
 Magma Type:
 Ultramafic: very low silica content, dark colors, high levels of Fe & Mg
dominant minerals: olivine, pyroxene
 Ex: peridotite, dunite
 Magma Type:
Classifying Igneous Rocks
 Igneous rock textures:
 Crystal size is dictated by the rate of cooling of the
magma body. A slower cooling rate results in larger
mineral crystals being formed in the rocks as they
cool.
 Porphyritic texture - Large crystals surrounded by
fine grained rock. The rock initially cools slowly to
form some large crystals and then cools quickly to
form the fine grained rock surrounding them.
The Scheme for
Igneous Rock
Identification
A Brief Tour
Crystal size
Description
Grain Size
Igneous rocks have
“Intergrown Crystals”
Intergrown
Intergrown
Intergrown
Not Intergrown
Where it was formed
Outside the volcano: Extrusive
Inside the Earth: Intrusive
Bubbles?
Yes= Vesicular
Bubbles?
No=Non-vesicular
Color
Very Light
Light
NotVery Light Not Very Dark
Dark
Very Dark
Neither Light nor Dark
L
i
g
h
t
e
s
t

D
a
r
k
e
s
t

Density
Very Light
Light Dense
Very Dense
Medium Density
Finding The Minerals
Identify the rock.
Unless you have other information,
work in the middle of the rock’s box.
This is the amount of Potassium Feldspar in the rock.
This is the amount of Quartz in the rock.
This is the amount of Plagioclase Feldspar in the rock.
Use tick marks on a scrap paper to measure the percentage.
Potassium Feldspar 25%
Quartz 40%
Practice
Name a light-colored, fine-grained
rock with no bubbles.
Name a coarse-grained, dense rock.
Igneous Rock Resources
 Ore Deposits
 Building Materials
 Other Uses
Ore Deposits
 Veins: streaks of valuable metal within a
mineral. Created when a metal-rich fluid, such
as gold-quartz, goes through fractional
crystallization, the mineral (quartz) has a lower
crystallization temp and thus solidifies before
the gold. The gold remains liquid and settles
between the quartz crystals forming “gold
veins.”
 Pegmatites: veins with extremely large grain
crystals. Creates some of the world’s most
precious gems.
 Kimberlites: intrusions of magma cooled deep
within earth’s crust. Usually find diamonds
with kimberlites. Named after location of first
discovery, Kimberly, South Africa.
Building Materials
 Many IR’s are used in building materials
because of their interlocking crystals
strength
IR’s are fairly weather resistant
Ex: Granite – building
Ex: Basalt – crushed up to make gravel
Other Uses
 Pumice – cleaning and polishes
 Obsidian
heated to make perlite, a soil additive that
keeps soil loose.
scalpels – more precise and smoother than
steel, but 10x the cost