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L I A IN SUkIACL WA1Lk LNVIkCNMLN1
L l A ln surlace water envlronment malnly deals wlth Cuallty and Cuantlty ol Surlace and
Croundwater sources. 1he basellne envlronmental status was assessed based on prlmary and
secondary data collected through on-slte lleld observatlons and obtalned lrom agencles such as
lMu Cround Water uepartment, Central Cround Water 8oard State Þollutlon Control 8oard
Census ol lndla.
Water Lnvlronmental lndlcators
Chemlcal assessment
ulssolved oxygen (uC)
nltrate-n
Crthophosphates
Chemlcal oxygen demand (CCu)
8lochemlcal oxygen demand (8Cu)
Þestlcldes
Metals
Þhyslcal assessment
pP
1emperature
1otal suspended sollds (1SS)
1urbldlty
1otal dlssolved sollds (1uS)
8lologlcal assessment
8lologlcal monltorlng metrlcs have been developed ln many places, and one wldely used
measure ls the presence and abundance ol members ol the lnsect orders Lphemeroptera,
Þlecoptera and 1rlchoptera. LÞ1 lndexes wlll naturally vary lrom reglon to reglon, but generally,
wlthln a reglon, the greater the number ol taxa lrom these orders, the better the water quallty.
LÞA and other organlzatlons ln the unlted States oller guldance on developlng a monltorlng
program and ldentllylng members ol these and other aquatlc lnsect orders.
1he basellne data analysls ol secondary and prlmary data ol water ls summarlzed as Water
quallty ol surlace and ground water were
WA1L8 CuALl1? ÞA8AML1L8S Anu u8lnklnC WA1L8 S1AnuA8uS
SL.
nC.
ÞA8AML1L8S unl1S u8lnklnC WA1L8lS: 10300 - 1991
uLSl8A8LL MAxlMuM
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1. Colour Pazen
unlts
3 23
2. Cdour - unob[ectlonable -
3. 1aste - Agreeable -
4. 1urbldlty n1u 3 10
3. pP value - 6.3 to 8.3 no relaxatlon
6. 1otal hardness (as CaCC3) mg/l 300 600
7. lron mg/l 0.3 1.0
8. Chlorldes mg/l 230 1000
9. 8esldual, lree Chlorlne mg/l 0.2 -
10. ulssolved Sollds mg/l 300 2000
11. Calclum mg/l 73 200
12. Copper mg/l 0.03 1.3
13. Manganese mg/l 0.1 0.3
14. Sulphate mg/l 200 400
13. nltrate mg/l 30 no relaxatlon
16. lluorlde mg/l 1.0 1.3
17. Þhenollc compounds mg/l 0.001 0.002
18. Mercury mg/l 0.001 no relaxatlon
19. Cadmlum mg/l 0.01 no relaxatlon
20. Selenlum mg/l 0.01 no relaxatlon
21. Arsenlc mg/l 0.03 no relaxatlon
22. Cyanlde mg/l 0.03 no relaxatlon
23. Lead mg/l 0.03 no relaxatlon
24. Zlnc mg/l 3 13
23. Anlonlc detergents mg/l 0.2 1.0
26. Chromlum mg/l 0.03 no relaxatlon
27. Þolynuclear aromatlc
Pydrocarbons
mg/l - -
28. Mlneral oll mg/l 0.01 0.03
29. Þestlcldes mg/l Absent 0.001
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30. 8adloactlve materlals
(a) Alpha emltters (b)
8eta emltters
8q/l
Þcl/l
-
-
0.1
0.037
31. Alkallnlty mg/l 200 600
32. Alumlnlum mg/l 0.03 0.2
33. 8oron mg/l 1 3
L I A IN AIk LNVIkCNMLN1
L l A ln alr envlronment malnly deals wlth Cuallty and Cuantlty ol atmospherlc concentratlon.
Alr envlronment ls composed ol gaseous mlxture, water vapours and partlculate matter. 1hls
gaseous mlxture may be characterlzed by gases whose concentratlons remaln constant and
those that change seasonally. Any change ln the natural composltlon ol gases ln alr or addltlon
ol new gases or partlculate matter allects alr adversely. Þollutants ln the atmospherlc slnk may
be emltted lrom varlous natural and anthropogenlc sources whlch have dlverse lmpacts on all
the llvlng creatures.
1he ma[or ana|ys|s of a|r part|cu|ates.
Dust CoIIector
A dust collector is a system used to enhance the quality of air released from industrial and
commercial processes by collecting dust and other impurities from air or gas. Designed to
handle heavy dust loads, a dust collector system consists of a blower, dust filter, a filter-
cleaning system, and a dust receptacle or dust removal system. Ìt is distinguished from air
cleaners, which use disposable filters to remove dust.
Types of dust coIIectors
Five principal types of industrial dust collectors are:
1. Ìnertial separators: Ìnertial separators separate dust from gas streams using a
combination of forces, such as centrifugal, gravitational, and inertial. These forces
move the dust to an area where the forces exerted by the gas stream are minimal.
2. Fabric filters: fabric collectors use filtration to separate dust particulates from dusty
gases. They are one of the most efficient and cost effective types of dust collectors
available and can achieve a collection efficiency of more than 99% for very fine
particulates.
3. Wet scrubbers: Dust collectors that use liquid are known as wet scrubbers. Ìn these
systems, the scrubbing liquid (usually water) comes into contact with a gas stream
containing dust particles. Greater the contact of the gas and liquid streams yields
higher the dust removal efficiency
4. Electrostatic precipitators: these are use electrostatic forces to separate dust
particles from exhaust gases. A number of high-voltage, direct-current discharge
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electrodes are placed between grounded collecting electrodes. The contaminated
gases flow through the passage formed by the discharge and collecting electrodes.
Electrostatic precipitators operate on the same principle as home "Ìonic" air purifiers
5. Unit collector: unit collectors control contamination at its source. They are small and
self-contained, consisting of a fan and some form of dust collector. They are suitable
for isolated, portable, or frequently moved dust-producing operations, such as bins
and silos or remote belt-conveyor transfer points.
A|r qua||ty is defined as a measure of the condition of air relative to the requirements of one
or more biotic species or to any human need or purpose.
Air Quality Monitoring
Amb|ent A|r Çua||ty
Air Pollution
Air quality
Lm|ss|ons
Dust Collector
Scrubber
Wet Scrubber
Flue Gas Desulfurization
Þo||utants
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Ma[or prlmary pollutants produced by human actlvlty lnclude:
5ulfut ox|Jes (5O
x
) - especlally sulphur dloxlde, a chemlcal compound wlth the lormula SC
2
.
SC
2
ls produced by volcanoes and ln varlous lndustrlal processes. nltrogen oxldes (n
Cx
) -
especlally nltrogen dloxlde are emltted lrom hlgh temperature combustlon
cotboo mooox|Je - ls a colourless, odorless, non-lrrltatlng but very polsonous gas. lt ls a product
by lncomplete combustlon ol luel such as natural gas, coal or wood. vehlcular exhaust ls a
ma[or source ol carbon monoxlde.
cotboo J|ox|Je (cO
2
) - a colourless, odorless, non-toxlc greenhouse gas assoclated wlth ocean
acldlllcatlon, emltted lrom sources such as combustlon, cement productlon, and resplratlon
volot|le otqoo|c compouoJs - vCCs are an lmportant outdoor alr pollutant.
lott|culote mottet - Þartlculates, alternatlvely relerred to as partlculate matter (ÞM) or llne
partlcles, are tlny partlcles ol solld or llquld suspended ln a gas. ln contrast, aerosol relers to
partlcles and the gas together. Sources ol partlculate matter can be man made or natural. Some
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partlculates occur naturally, orlglnatlng lrom volcanoes, dust storms, lorest and grassland llres,
llvlng vegetatlon, and sea spray. Puman actlvltles, such as the burnlng ol lossll luels ln vehlcles,
power plants and varlous lndustrlal processes also generate slgnlllcant amounts ol aerosols.
Averaged over the globe, anthropogenlc aerosols-those made by human actlvltles-currently
account lor about 10 percent ol the total amount ol aerosols ln our atmosphere. lncreased
levels ol llne partlcles ln the alr are llnked to health hazards such as heart dlsease
,[3]
altered
lung lunctlon and lung cancer.
1ox|c metols, such as lead, cadmlum and copper.
cblotofluotocotboos (clcs) - harmlul to the ozone layer emltted lrom products currently
banned lrom use.
Ammoo|o (Nn
J
) - emltted lrom agrlcultural processes. Ammonla ls a compound wlth the
lormula nP
3
. lt ls normally encountered as a gas wlth a characterlstlc pungent odor.
OJots - such as lrom garbage, sewage, and lndustrlal processes
koJ|ooct|ve pollutoots - produced by nuclear exploslons, war exploslves, and natural processes
such as the radloactlve decay ol radon.
Secondary pollutants lnclude:
CtouoJ level ozooe (C
3
) lormed lrom nC
x
and vCCs. Czone (C
3
) ls a key constltuent ol the
troposphere.
letoxyocetyl o|ttote (lAN) - slmllarly lormed lrom nC
x
and vCCs.
Mlnor alr pollutants lnclude:
A varlety ol pets|steot otqoo|c pollutoots, whlch can attach to partlculate matter.
lets|steot otqoo|c pollutoots (lOls) are organlc compounds that are reslstant to envlronmental
degradatlon through chemlcal, blologlcal, and photolytlc processes
Not|oool A|t Ouol|ty Moo|tot|oq ltoqtomme (N.A.M.l.)
LIA CI 8ICLCGICAL LNVIkCNMLN1
1he blologlcal envlronment comprlses all llvlng organlsms, lncludlng plants and anlmals (both
vertebrates and lnvertebrates). 1he structure and type ol vegetatlon depends on cllmatlc
condltlons and physlographlc as well as the requlrements ol the local lnhabltants ol an area.
Cllmatlc condltlons ol the study area are warm humld eco-reglon wlth moderate to heavy
ralnlall and large molsture avallablllty. lt, therelore, can have a good vegetatlon cover. 8ut, be
observed ln good numbers near vlllages, ad[olnlng roads, and boundarles ol agrlcultural llelds,
communlty places and even backyard ol houses ln the block area.
Llements to deslgn a basellne data collectlon ol blologlcal envlronment.
1. launa, terrestrlal & aquatlc
2. llora, terrestrlal & aquatlc
3. Lndangered specles
4. 8adlologlcal analyses
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A descrlptlon ol the llora and launa ln the vlclnlty ol the slte, thelr habltats and thelr
descrlptlon ls necessary to help ldentlly potentlal lmpacts on each specles. Specles that are
crltlcal to the structure and lunctlon ol the ecologlcal system or a blologlcal lndlcator ol
radlonuclldes or chemlcal pollutants ln the envlronment need to be ldentllled.
Aspects ol the blologlcal envlronment:
uescrlbe the habltats, communltles and vegetatlon/launa specles wlthln them, notlng
slgnlllcance ol the blologlcal dlverslty (as per the Conventlon on 8lologlcal ulverslty),
and current condltlon,
Conservatlon status ol specles or assoclatlons to be dlsturbed by the proposal (lncludlng
specles and communltles)
Cther sensltlve envlronments or areas ol speclal slgnlllcance (breedlng sltes, seasonal
habltats, wetlands, reluges, etc), ecologlcal relatlonshlps and lnterdependencles,
lncludlng recognlzed lood chalns, and
8adlatlon dose lrom exlstlng envlronment lor both the surroundlng ecosystems and the
local communlty,
lnsect specles ol present concern lrom a nulsance and health perspectlve,
lntroduced llora and launa.
Areas ol natural envlronment wlth ldentllled speclal values lncludlng:
Cammon 8anges natlonal Þark,
Areas llsted on the reglster ol the natlonal Lstate,
Areas lmportant to obllgatlons under relevant lnternatlonal agreements to whlch
Australla ls a party, and
Areas ol wllderness, wllderness quallty, and wlld rlvers values
IN 8kILI CCMÞLL1L UNI1
Water envlronment Alr envlronment 8lologlcal envlronment
uellnltlon
lt deals wlth the wlth
Cuallty and Cuantlty ol
Surlace and
Croundwater sources/
contamlnatlon.
lt deals wlth the wlth
Cuallty and Cuantlty ol
atmospherlc
contamlnatlon.
lt deals wlth the wlth
Cuallty (betterment)
and Cuantlty ol all
llvlng organlsms (llora
and launa).
Components ol
envlronments
Mlcroorganlsms
ulslnlectants
ulslnlectlon 8yproducts
lnorganlc Chemlcals
Crganlc Chemlcals
8adlonuclldes
ma[or
Sullur oxldes (SC
x
)
Carbon monoxlde
Carbon dloxlde (CC
2
) -
Þartlculate matter -
volatlle organlc
compounds -
1oxlc metals,
Chlorolluorocarbons (ClCs
Ammonla (nP
3
)
Cdors
8adloactlve pollutants -
Secondary
Lcologlcal specles
reproductlve specles
lsolatlon specles
Cenetlc specles
Coheslon specles
Lvolutlonarlly
Slgnlllcant unlt (LSu)
Morphologlcal specles
Þhenetlc specles
Mlcrospecles
8ecognltlon specles
Mate-recognltlon
specles
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Cround level ozone (C
3
)
Þeroxyacetyl nltrate (ÞAn)
blologlcal
Þerslstent organlc
pollutants (ÞCÞs)
uata collectlon or
monltorlng/ 8asellne
data preparatlon
Chem|ca| assessment
ulssolved oxygen (uC)
nltrate-n
Crthophosphates
Chemlcal oxygen
demand (CCu)
8lochemlcal oxygen
demand (8Cu)
Þestlcldes
Metals
Þhys|ca| assessment
pP
1emperature
1otal suspended sollds
(1SS)
1urbldlty
1otal dlssolved sollds
(1uS)
8|o|og|ca| assessment
Five principaI types
of industriaI dust
coIIectors are:
Ìnertial separators:
Fabric filters:
Wet scrubbers:
Electrostatic
precipitators:
Unit collector:
8eglstratlon ol Cther
sensltlve envlronments
or areas ol speclal
slgnlllcance (breedlng
sltes, seasonal
habltats, wetlands,
reluges, etc),
ecologlcal relatlonshlps
and
lnterdependencles,
lncludlng recognlzed
lood chalns, and
LlA ol pro[ect ln three segments
Larller the pro[ect
starts
uurlng the pro[ect
Alter the pro[ect
ln three segments
Larller the pro[ect starts
uurlng the pro[ect
Alter the pro[ect
ln three segments
Larller the pro[ect
starts
uurlng the pro[ect
Alter the pro[ect
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