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Comunicarea academica (Academic Writing) –

general overview of topics and notes
Course paper
Diploma paper
Conference participation – adnotare, PPT/oral presentation
Choice of Topic. Narrowing down the topics. Deciding on the empirical
material – selecting sources/volume and identifing e!amples. "tructure
standards – naming all elements.
"tructure: theoretical and practical chapter (50%-50%, 60%-40%).
Table of Contents
Glossary (ey ter!s, rele"ance#alphabetical order, $%5)
• &ntrod'ction
o Chapter & ( theoretical
o Chapter && ( practical (abt )0-50 e*a!ples analysed)
N# concl'sion- +ini-concl'sions for each chapter.
• ,iblio-raphy
Corp's .in-'istics ( eep it for the graduation thesis/paper (GrTh)
$ntroduction
- area#/eld of research (0hich /eld of lin-'istics)
- s'b1ect of st'dy: research !aterial
- rele"ance
- hypothesis (for GrTh)
- -oal (-lobal for the entire GrTh)
- ob1ecti"es ()-2 theoretical, )-2 practical)
- !ethods and tools#techni3'es of research (in detail)
- str'ct're of the GrTh (only in GrTh)
- for!attin- criteria
Collecting %i%liograph.
Cons'ltin- the library. ,rin-in- so'rce titles.
)6 act'al pa-es (%2-%2, %6-%0) ( entire thesis (only Ch%4Ch))
&nitial reference for!attin- ( (Galperin, %56%: 46)
7inal reference for!attin- ( 859 46:
&lanning Chapter $
;ct'al 0or in class only on %.%.
<'otin-: => direct and only indirect references. ;"oidin- pla-iari?in-. @'!!arisin-
and paraphrasin-. Aara-raph#topic sentence.
&lanning Chapter $$
Classifyin- e*a!ples. A'ttin- the! into sche!es, charts, ill'strations.
&ll'stration -B co!!ent
Co0 to co!!ent: characteristic and non-characteristic feat'res, fre3'ency of
occ'rrence, ) !ost typical e*-s, % least typical.
Co0 to concl'de on the practical chapter: 0hat is the !ost characteristic feat're
7inal concl'sion: % para-raph ( % pa-e
'inal editing ( title pa-e, p'nct'ation, 'sin- +@ Dord.
Eni"ersity .ect'rer, @enior Eni"ersity .ect'rer, ;ssociate Arofessor.
7irst title, then na!e.
2
rd
year st'dent, -ro'p ---, st'dent /rst na!e, last na!e
Dritin- an abstract. Fey ele!ents of an abstract.
(a)ing a &&T presentation. Dhat is a -ood slide.
*esult of the course+ drafting the course paper.
Genres in academic writing
Your first decision when faced with a new piece of academic writing is to decide
which genre family you are expected to write.
1. Essays
2. Reports
3. Case Studies
4. Research proposals
. !oo" re#iews
$. !rief research reports
%. &iterature re#iews
'. Reflecti#e writing
(. )ntroductions
1*. Research methods
11.Research results
12. Research discussions
13. +riting conclusions
14. Research a,stracts
1. Research dissertations - theses
n research conducted ,etween 2**4 and 2**%. /ilary 0esi and Sheena 1ardner
20esi - 1ardner. 2*123 at the 4ni#ersity of Co#entry proposed fi#e purposes for
student writing in higher education.
Students might write to show that5
a. they are aware of and undestand the latest "nowledge in their su,6ect
area7
,. they can argue a particular point of #iew ma"ing use of different "inds of
e#idence7
c. they can plan and carry out research
d. they are ready for employment in a particular profession7
e. they can reflect on how they and other people feel and thin".
0esi - 1ardner call these purposes5
a. 8emonstrating 9nowledge - 4nderstanding 28943
,. 8e#eloping :owers of )ndependent Reasoning 28:)R3
c. !uilding Research S"ills 2!RS3
d. :reparing for :rofessional :ractice 2:::3
e. +riting for ;neself and ;thers 2+;;3
8ecide which of these purposes is yours for a specific piece of wor". 1o ,ac" to
your ,rief or <uestion if necessary.
;nce you ha#e chosen the primary purpose of your writing. you can narrow that
down to the genre family re<uired.
0esi - 1ardner di#ide the primary purposes up in the following way5
Primary Purpose Genre Family
8emonstrating 9nowledge - 4nderstanding
Explanations
Exercises
8e#eloping :owers of )ndependent Reasoning
Essays
Criti<ues
!uilding Research S"ills
&iterature Sur#eys
=ethodology Recounts
Research Reports
:reparing for :rofessional :ractice
Case Studies
8esign Specifications
:ro,lem >uestions
:roposals
+riting for ;neself and ;thers
E#ent Recounts
:u,lic Engagement
• +hen you write an explanation. you are demonstrating or de#eloping an
understanding of the o,6ect of study. and the a,ility to descri,e and ? or
account for its significance.
• @he purpose of an exercise is to gi#e you practice in "ey s"ills 2e.g. the
a,ility to interrogate a data,ase. perform complex calculations or explain
technical terms or procedures3. and to consolidate "nowledge of "ey
concepts.
• )n an essay. you will demonstrate or de#elop your a,ility to construct a
coherent argument and ma"e use of critical thin"ing.
• @he purpose of a critique is to show or de#elop an understanding of the
o,6ect of study and the a,ilty to e#aluate and?or assess its significance.
• )n a literature survey. you demonstrate and?or de#elop your familiarity with
the literature rele#ant to your area of study.
• Methodology recounts demonstrate your familiarity with paricular
disciplinary procedures. methods and con#entions for recording
experimental findings.
• +hen you write a research report. you will demonstrate or de#elop your
a,ility to underta"e a complete piece of research. including research
design. and an understanding of its significance in the field.
• @he purpose of a case study is to demonstrate or de#elop an
understanding of professional practice through the analysis of a single
case.
• )n a design specification. you will demonstrate or de#elop your a,ility to
design a product or procedure that could ,e manufactured or implemented.
• Problem questions pro#ide practice in applying specific methods in
response to professional pro,lems.
• @he purpose of a proposal is to demonstrate or de#elop your a,ility to
ma"e a case for future action.
• +hen you write an event recount. you will ,e expected to demonstrate or
de#elop your awareness of the moti#es and?or ,eha#iour of indi#iduals.
including yourself.
• Public engagement writing demonstrates or de#elops an understanding -
appreciation of the rele#ance of academic ideas ,y translating them into
nonAacademic register. so you can communicate to a nonAspecialist
readership.
1o ,ac" to your ,rief or <uestion and you should now ,e a,le to decide which
genre family is rele#ant in your context.
Genres in academic writing: Essays
Introduction
Blmost all students will at some time ,e expected to write an essay. or some
other "ind of argument. e.g. a re#iew or discussion section. in a longer piece of
writing. )n English. an essay is a piece of argumentati#e writing se#eral
paragraphs long written a,out one topic. usually ,ased on your reading. @he aim
of the essay should ,e deduced strictly from the wording of the title or <uestion
2See Bcademic +riting5 4nderstanding the >uestion3. and needs to ,e defined
at the ,eginning. @he purpose of an essay is for you to say something for
yourself using the ideas of the su,6ect. for you to present ideas you ha#e learned
in your own way. @he emphasis should ,e on wor"ing with other peopleCs ideas.
rather than reproducing their words. ,ut your own #oice should show clearly. @he
ideas and people that you refer to need to made explicit ,y a system of
referencing.
Bccording to &inda Dlower 21((*. p. #3. Estudents are reading to create a text of
their own. trying to integrate information from sources with ideas of their own.
and attempting to do so under the guidance of a purpose.E
Organisation
Your essay should ha#e the following sections5
%.
Areli!inaries
Title pa-e
). +ain te*t
&ntrod'cti
on
+ain body
Concl'sio
n
2. Gnd
!atter
Heference
s
F
1. Preliminaries
!efore you start the main part of your essay or assignment. there should ,e a
title page. @he title page should contain information to ena,le your lecturer and
departmental office or other reader to identify exactly what the piece of wor" is. )t
should include your name and course7 the title of the assignment and any
references7 the lecturer it is for etc. Chec" with your department for clear
information.
F
2. Main text
English essays are linear5
A they start at the ,eginning and finish at the end. with e#ery part contri,uting to
the main line of argument. without digressions or repetition. +riters are
responsi,le for ma"ing their line of argument clear and presenting it in an orderly
fashion so that the reader can follow. Each paragraph discusses one ma6or point
and each paragraph should lead directly to the next. @he paragraphs are tied
together with an introduction and a conclusion.
@he main text of the essay has three main parts5
). Bn introduction
)). B main ,ody
))). B conclusion
I. The introduction.
@he introduction consists of two parts5
a. )t should include a few general statements a,out the su,6ect to
pro#ide a ,ac"ground to your essay and to attract the readerCs
attention. )t should try to explain why you are writing the essay. )t
may include a definition of terms in the context of the essay. etc.
,. )t should also include a statement of the specific su,di#isions of the
topic and?or indication of how the topic is going to ,e tac"led in order
to specifically address the <uestion.
)t should introduce the central idea or the main purpose of the writing.
II. The main ody.
@he main ,ody consists of one or more paragraphs of ideas and
arguments. Each paragraph de#elops a su,di#ision of the topic. @he
paragraphs of the essay contain the main ideas and arguments of the
essay together with illustrations or examples. @he paragraphs are lin"ed in
order to connect the ideas. @he purpose of the essay must ,e made clear
and the reader must ,e a,le to follow its de#elopment.
III. The conclusion.
@he conclusion includes the writerCs final points.
a. )t should recall the issues raised in the introduction and draw
together the points made in the main ,ody
,. and explain the o#erall significance of the conclusions. +hat general
points can ,e drawn from the essay as a wholeG
)t should clearly signal to the reader that the essay is finished and lea#e a
clear impression that the purpose of the essay has ,een achie#ed.
F
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1eneral Statement
;rganisation Statement

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)). =B)0 !;8Y

B. )ntroductory Sentence
:oint 1
:oint 2
:oint 3
...
Concluding Sentence

!

!. )ntroductory Sentence
:oint 1
:oint 2
:oint 3
...
Concluding Sentence

!

C. )ntroductory Sentence
:oint 1
:oint 2
:oint 3
...
Concluding Sentence

!
))). C;0C&4S);0

Recall issues in introduction7
draw together main points7
final comment.

,
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". End Matter
Bt the end of the essay. there should ,e a list of references. @his should gi#e full
information a,out the materials that you ha#e used in the assignment.
See +riting a list of references for more information on the reference list.
#ays o$ organising essays.
Essays are organised differently according to their purpose. Essays can ,e
di#ided into the following main types.
1. The descripti%e essay
a. 8escription of o,6ect or place
,. 8escri,ing a se<uence of e#ents.
c. 8escri,ing a process
d. 8escri,ing and explaining
2. The argument essay
a. @he ,alanced #iew
,. @he persuasi#e essay
c. @he to what extent essay.
". &ompare and contrast essays
a. @he contrast essay
,. @he compare essay
c. @he compare and contrast essays
1. The descripti%e essay
a. Description of object or place
Describe essays re<uire you to state the appearance of something. or to state
the ma6or characteristics of it. 0ote the word state i.e. you are not as"ed to
comment on the su,6ect or to gi#e your personal point of #iew on it. >uestions
are often introduced ,y5
Describe ....
Narrate...
Tell....
:lan5
)ntroduction
ma6or aspects of the su,6ect.
!
description of aspect B
!
description of aspect !
!
etc.
!
Conclusion
b. Describing a sequence of events.
8escri,ing a se<uence of e#ents is simply telling a story.
State clearly when e#ents happened or how one e#ent caused another.
>uestions may ,e introduced ,y5
Give an account of...
Trace...
Examine developments in...
)ntoduction
!
Dirst situation
!
then B happened
!
then ! happened
!
etc.
!
Dinal situation
!
Conclusion
See5 Bcademic +riting5 Dunctions A Reporting - narrating
c. Describing a process
@his is li"e telling a story ,ut here the connections ,etween the facts must ,e
clearly shown and explained. 1roup the e#ents into steps or stages.
Examples of such <uestions are 5
Explain/What is the connection between...
Describe the procedures by which...
8efinition of process
=ain e<uipment?=ain steps
!
Step ;ne
leads to
!
Step @wo
leads to
!
Step @hree
!
Conclusion
Summary of process
d. Describing and explaining
Some of the words and phrases which introduce this type of description are5
Explain the causes/reasons....
Account for....
Analyse the causes....
omment on !the reasons for"....
#how that....
#how why...
Examine the effect of....
#u$$est reasons for....
Why did...%
What are the implications of...%
Discuss the causes of....
Discuss the reasons for....
+hen we are as"ed to descri,e or explain causes. factors. functions or results.
the examiner wants us to group our facts. Similar causes are put together. for
instance the economic causes of a situation. @here are ,asically two main ways
to organise this type of essay.
@he <uestion is E8escri,e the causes of B. )llustrate your answer ,y specific
examples.E
i.
)ntroduction to causes of B
!
Cause 1 H example
!
Effects 1
!
Cause 2 with example
!
Effects 2
!
Cause 3 with examples
!
Effects 3
!
Cause 4 with example
!
Effects 4
!
etc.
!
Conclusion
ii.
)ntroduction to causes of B
!
Causes H examples
!
@ransition
!
Effects
!
Conclusion
See5 Bcademic +riting5 Dunctions A Expressing reasons and explanations ?
cause and effect
2. The argument essay
@here are two main methods of presenting an argument. and in general the one
you choose will depend on exactly how the essay title is worded.
a. The balanced view
)f the essay title ,egins with something li"e5
Give the ar$uments for and a$ainst....
Assess the importance of....
Examine the ar$uments for and a$ainst....
What are the advanta$es and disadvanta$es of...%
Evaluate....
ritically examine the statement that....
To what extent is...true%
or e#en 6ust the word
Discuss....
then it is clear that a ,alanced essay is re<uired. @hat is to say you should
present ,oth sides of an argument. without necessarily committing yourself to
any points of #iew. which should always ,e ,ased on e#idence. until the final
paragraph.
Bt its simplest your essay plan will ,e as follows5
)ntroduce the argument to the reader.
e.g. why it is particularly rele#ant topic nowadays
or refer directly to some comments that ha#e ,een #oiced on it recently.
!
Reasons against the argument
!
Reasons in fa#our of the argument
!
Bfter summarising the two sides.
state your own point of #iew.
and explain why you thin" as you do
See5 Bcademic +riting5 Dunctions A Brguing and discussing7 A Expressing
degrees of certainty7 A 1eneralising7 A Comparing and contrasting5 similarities
and differences7 A 1i#ing examples
b. The persuasive essay
@his second type of argumentati#e essay in#ol#es stating your own point of #iew
immediately. and trying to con#ince the reader ,y reasoned argument that you
are right. :erhaps the essay title will ,egin with something li"e5
Give your views on....
What do you thin& about...%
Do you a$ree that...%
onsider whether....
;r perhaps the title itself will ,e so contro#ersial that e#eryone will hold a definite
opinion in one direction or another.
@he form of the essay will ,e. in outline. as follows5
)ntroduce the topic ,riefly in general terms.
and then state your own opinion.
Explain what you plan to pro#e in the essay.
!
Reasons against the argument.
8ispose ,riefly of the main o,6ections to your case.
!
Reasons for your argument
the arguments to support your own #iew.
with e#idence and examples.
!
Conclusion A 8o not repeat your point of #iew again.
End your essay with something memora,le
e.g. a <uotation or a direct <uestion.
See5 Bcademic +riting5 Dunctions A Brguing and discussing7 A Expressing
degrees of certainty7 A 1eneralising7 A Comparing and contrasting5 similarities
and differences7 A 1i#ing examples
c. The to what extent essay
)n this type of essay the examiner is gi#ing you a statement. )t is o,#iously true
,ut truth is ne#er 1**I. You must decide how true it isG Bre there some areas
where you disagree with the statement. )f so. descri,e how far you agree. and
your points of agreement and disagreement. +ords used in the <uestion are5
To what extent ....
'ow true ....
'ow far do you a$ree....
B possi,le answer structure is5
)ntroduction to pro,lem
!
Bspect 1 A true
!
Bspect 1 A false
!
Bspect 2 A true
!
Bspect 2 A false
!
Bspect 3 A true
!
Bspect 3 A false
!
etc
!
Conclusion
a Jsu,tractionK sum
See5 Bcademic +riting5 Dunctions A Brguing and discussing7 A Expressing
degrees of certainty7 A 1eneralising7 A Comparing and contrasting5 similarities
and differences7 A 1i#ing examples
". &ompare and contrast essays.
a The Contrast essay
Contrast or distinguish between <uestions usually present you with two or more
terms. instruments. concepts or procedures that are closely connected. and
sometimes confused. @he purpose of the essay is to explain the differences
,etween them. @he <uestion may ,e of the form5
ontrast ....
Distin$uish between ...
What is the difference between....
What are the differences between....
'ow are ... and ... different%
B suita,le answer structure would ,e5
)ntroduction to differences ,etween B and !
!
Contrast B - ! in terms of first difference
!
Contrast B - ! in terms of second difference
!
Contrast B - ! in terms of third difference
!
etc
!
Conclusion
See5 Bcademic +riting5 Dunctions A Comparing and contrasting5 similarities and
differences7 A 8efining7 A 1eneralising7 A 1i#ing examples
b. The Compare essay
Compare <uestions usually present you with two or more terms. instruments.
concepts or procedures that are closely connected. and sometimes confused.
@he purpose of the essay is to explain the similarities ,etween them. +ords
used are5
ompare ....
What features do ... and ... have in common%
What are the similarities between....
'ow are ... and ... similar%
B suita,le answer structure would ,e5
)ntroduction to similarities ,etween B and !
!
Compare B - !
in terms of first similarity
!
Compare B - !
in terms of second similarity
!
Compare B - !
in terms of third similarity
!
etc.
!
Conclusion
See5 Bcademic +riting5 Dunctions A Comparing and contrasting5 similarities and
differences7 A 8efining7 A 1eneralising7 A 1i#ing examples
c. The compare and contrast essay
Compare and contrast essays re<uire you to indicate areas in which the things to
,e compared are similar and different.
ompare and contrast....
@here are two main ways to answer such <uestions5
i.
)ntroduction to differences and similarities ,etween B and !
!
8ifference 1
!
8ifference 2
!
8ifference 3
!
etc.
!
@ransition
!
Similarity 1
!
Similarity 2
!
Similarity 3
!
etc.
!
Conclusion
ii.
)ntroduction to differences and similarities ,etween B and !
!
Bspect 1 A similarities
!
Bspect 1 A differences
!
Bspect 2 A similarities
!
Bspect 2 A differences
!
Bspect 3 A similarities
!
Bspect 3 A differences
!
etc
!
Conclusion
Genres in academic writing: 'eports
=any students. particularly science and ,usiness students. will at some time ,e
expected to write a report.
Example
Your report should ha#e the following sections5
1. :reliminaries
@itle page
B,stract
Contents
). +ain te*t
)ntroduction
=ethodology
Dindings?Results
8iscussion
Conclusion
2. Gnd !atter
Heferences
;ppendices
F
1. Preliminaries
!efore you start the main part of your report. there should ,e a title page. @he
title page should contain information to ena,le your lecturer and departmental
office to identify exactly what the piece of wor" is. )t should include your name
and course7 the title of the assignment and any references7 the lecturer it is for
etc. Chec" with your department for clear information. B report should also
normally include an a,stract and a contents page. @he a,stract should gi#e
some ,ac"ground information. clearly state the principal purpose of the report.
gi#e some information a,out the methodology used. state the most important
results and the conclusion. See5 +riting an a,stract. @he contents page will gi#e
page num,ers for the main sections.
2. The main text
@he main ,ody consists of se#eral paragraphs of ideas. data and argument.
Each section de#elops a su,di#ision of the report purpose. @he introduction
gi#es ,ac"ground "nowledge that supports the reason for writing the report and
an organisation statement. @he methodology section gi#es details of how the
information in the report was o,tained. Dindings and results gi#e the data that
has ,een collected. while the discussion argues that the results lead to the
clearly expressed conclusion. @he sections are lin"ed in order to connect the
ideas. @he purpose of the report must ,e made clear and the reader must ,e
a,le to follow its de#elopment.
). )ntroduction
)). =ethodology
))). Dindings?Results
)L. 8iscussion
L. Conclusion
). @he introduction.
@he introduction consists of three parts5
a. )t should include a short re#iew of the literature to pro#ide a
,ac"ground to your report and to attract the readerCs attention. )t may
include a definition of terms in the context of the report. etc.
,. )t should try to explain why you are writing the report. You need to
esta,lish a gap in current "nowledge.
c. )t should also include a statement of the specific su,di#isions of the
topic and?or indication of how the topic is going to ,e tac"led in order
to specifically address the <uestion.
)t should introduce the central idea or the main purpose of the writing.
See5 +riting )ntroductions
II. Methodology.
@he methodology section gi#es details of how the information in the report
was o,tained. )t may gi#e details of the materials and procedures used. )n
any "ind of experimental report. details of the people in#ol#ed will need to
,e included. See5+riting Research =ethods
III. Findings('esults.
@he findings and results gi#e the data that has ,een collected. @his may ,e
shown in the form of ta,les. graphs or diagrams. )n all cases. reference
must ,e made to the location of the information. the main details of the
data and any comments on this. See5 +riting Research Results
I). *iscussion.
@he main purpose of the discussion is to show that the results lead clearly
to the conclusion ,eing drawn. @his may include any limitations that might
cause pro,lems with any claims ,eing made as well as any possi,le
explanations for these results. See5 +riting Research 8iscussions
). The conclusion.
@he conclusion includes the writerCs final points.
a. )t should recall the issues raised in the introduction and draw
together the points made in the results and discussion
,. and come to a clear conclusion.
)t should clearly signal to the reader that the report is finished and lea#e a
clear impression that the purpose of the report has ,een achie#ed.
See5 +riting Conclusions
F
AHG.&+&=;H&G@
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!ac"ground
)dentification of 1ap
;rganisation Statement

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)ntroductory Sentence A ;#er#iew
:rocedures
=aterials
...
Concluding Sentence

!
))). D)08)01S?RES4&@S

)ntroductory Sentence
&ocating Results
Dindings
Comment
...
Concluding Sentence

!
)L. 8)SC4SS);0

)ntroductory Sentence A ;#er#iew
Re#iew of Dindings
:ossi,le Explanations
&imitations
...
Concluding Sentence

!
L. C;0C&4S);0

Recall )ssues in )ntroduction A Report :urpose7
8raw @ogether =ain :oints7
Dinal Comment A Clear Conclusion.

,
G=I +;TTGH
F
". End Matter
Bt the end of the report. there should ,e a list of references. @his should gi#e full
information a,out the materials that you ha#e used in the report. See +riting a
list of references for more information on the reference list. @he appendices may
contain full details of data collected.
F
Genres in academic writing: &ase studies
B caseAstudy is the most difficult to gi#e you clear ad#ice a,out as it may contain
many other genres. @he main ad#antage of a case study is that it gi#es you a
chance to study one aspect of a realAworld pro,lem in detail from many different
#iewpoints. @hat is its main ad#antage. )t doesnKt 6ust restrict itself to a single
research procedure such as a li,rary search or inter#iew data M ,ut it could use
either.
Bt the ,eginning. therefore. you need a pro,lem to sol#e. You will then lead the
reader through the stages of the in#estigation. which you will descri,e and
e#aluate. to the solution.
B caseAstudy can. for example. ma"e use of5
• &i,rary research.
• )nter#iews
• >uestionnaires
• ;,ser#ation
• 8iaries
• /istorical documents
• Collection of current documents
Dirst you need to identify a pro,lem. @his could ,e. for example. the introduction
of a new wor"ing practice in a factory or office. You would then descri,e the new
practice. what it is. how it wor"s. why it was introduced7 then o,ser#e how it
wor"s. tal" to people who are affected ,y it. tal" to managers and then e#aluate
the results and come to a conclusion.
@he way you would write up a caseAstudy depends on the purpose of the caseA
study. Yin 21((4. pp. 4A$3 identified three different types of case studies. which
you could choose from according your purpose. @hey are exploratory.
explanatory and descripti#e case studies
• Bn exploratory caseAstudy is initial research that tries to loo" for patterns in
the data and come up with a model within which to #iew this data. )n this
"ind of research you would collect the data first. You would then try to
ma"e sense of it. doing any reading you needed to. Research <uestions
for this "ind of caseAstudy can focus on NwhatO <uestions5 +hat are the
ways of increasing salesG
• 8escripti#e caseAstudies ta"e this further and try to o,tain information on
the particular features of an issue. @his type of case study will re<uire a
theory to point the data collection in the correct direction. Research
<uestions here can again focus on NwhatO ,ut lead to <uestions such as5
+hat ha#e ,een the effects of a particular sales acti#ityG
• Explanatory research continues this e#en further ,y trying to analyse or
explain why or how something happens or happened. Research <uestion
in this case are more li"ely to ,e of the NhowO or NwhyO type5 +hy did a
particular promotion acti#ity lead to increased salesG
/e then distinguishes six different types of case study report that can ,e used for
the different types of caseAstudy 2p. 13'3.
1. +inear ,nalysis
@his is the typical ,usiness or scientific research report structure.
organised in the )=RB8 style. See a,o#e5 +riting a report.
2. &omparati%e
B comparati#e study loo"s at the same issues se#eral times from different
points of #iew.
". &hronological
B third type of report is to present the e#idence in chronological order.
gradually ,uilding up the descripti#e and analytical structure.
-. Theory.uilding
)n this structure. each new section of the report will show a new part of the
theory ,eing presented.
/. 0uspense
)n this case. the outcome or conclusion is presented initially. @he
remainder of the report will then de#elop the explanation.
1. 2nse3uenced
@his is useful when the case study consist of many small sections or
studies. )t is important. though. at the end of this stage to pull e#erything
together.
Yin 2p. 13'3 then offers the following ta,le to suggest ways in which you could
write up the #arious "inds of case study.
Type of Structure Purpose of Case Study
ExploratoryDescriptiveExplanatory
1. &inear Bnalysis
J J J
2. Comparati#e
J J J
3. Chronological
J J J
4. @heoryA,uilding
J J
. Suspense
$. 4nAse<uenced
J

@he following se<uence would pro,a,ly ,e appropriate. with the sections
changed round as necessary. depending on the type of study.
&ase 0tudy 'eport
Preliminaries
P
Introduction
)ntroduce the situation
8escri,e the pro,lem M why the study was underta"en
P
4ac5ground reading
8escri,e pre#ious research
1i#e examples
E#aluate pre#ious research
P
Methodology
Report what methods you used
Explain why you used each method
P
'esults
Report what you found from each method
P
0ummary
Summarise all results
Compare and contrast the different results
P
E%aluation
E#aluate findings in light of ,ac"ground reading.
P
&onclusion
Summarise the main findings
1eneralise from the findings

'ecommendations
=a"e recommendations for the future

End matter
Genres in academic writing: 'esearch proposals
Bt undergraduate le#el. you may ,e as"ed to write a research proposal ,efore a
ma6or piece of writing such as an end of year pro6ect or a final year dissertation.
@he purpose of the proposal is to show how you intend to tac"le the study and
whether or not you ha#e thought through the practicalities. Your lecturer will want
to see that you ha#e planned your research carefully in order for you to succeed.
)t will pro,a,ly include the following5
• Preliminary title. +hat is the topicG +hat exactly is the research
<uestionG
• #hat exactly do you hope to show6 +hat is the purpose of your wor"G
8escri,e your research pro,lem.
• #hy the research is importantG Bn argument as to why that pro,lem is
important. what pro,lems still need to ,e sol#ed.
• #hat do you already 5now aout this topic6 @he proposal should ,egin
,y gi#ing the ,ac"ground to the su,6ect area in which the research is
situated. )t will descri,e the important theoretical and practical issues it
plans to address. @his should ,e supported ,y some reference to recent
literature. )t should finish ,y indicating a pro,lem that your research will
sol#e.
• 7ow will the research e conducted6 B description of the proposed
research methodology. B pro#isional wor" schedule in teh form of a time
line or 1antt chart may ,e re<uired.
• #hat resources will e needed6 +hat resource implications are there
for the prposed research with regard to materials. e<uipment. li,ary
recources etcG
• 7ow will the $inding e use$ulG B description of how the research
findings will ,e used and?or communicated to others.
• , preliminary reading list. @his gi#es some idea of the reading you ha#e
already done is also re<uired.
@he typical stages in#ol#e in a research proposal would ,e the following5
Title
!rief description of research proposal
!
Purpose
8escri,e in detail what you what to find out
P
8usti$ication
:resent an argument to 6ustify your research.
Explain why it is important
P
+iterature re%iew
Report any pre#ious research
1i#e examples of pre#ious research
E#aluate any pre#ious research
)dentify any gaps
8escri,e how you intend to fill the gaps
P
Method
8escri,e your proposed research methodology
8escri,e your time frame
8escri,e how you intend to do this in the time a#aila,le
8escri,e your resources
8escri,e how you intend to do your research with the
a#aila,le resources.
P
*issemination
8escri,e how the findings will ,e used
E#aluate this use
8escri,e how the research findings will ,e
disseminated.
P
'eading list
&ist the ,oo"s and articles you might find useful

End matter
Genres in academic writing: 4oo5 re%iews
You may ,e as"ed to write a ,oo" re#iew or a re#iew of a 6ournal article. @his
may ,e a simple summary of the discussion in a ,oo" or article. /owe#er. it is
more li"ely to ,e e#aluati#e.
Dor a ,oo" re#iew. you will pro,a,ly include the following stages5
• #hat9s the text aout6 )ntroduce the ,oo". +hat is the su,6ect of the
textG +ho is it written forG +hat is the purpose of the ,oo"G
• #hat has een written(pulished e$oreG :ut the text in the wider
context.
• #hat is the text aoutG Summarise the ,oo". 8escri,e its general
organisation. and the contents of each chapter.
• Is it any good6 8raw attention to parts of the ,oo" and comment on them
positi#ely and?or negati#ely M refer to other pu,lications that ha#e done
something similar if you can. &oo" at the purpose of the ,oo". and whether
or not it succeeds. )s it appropriate for the audience. for example.
• #hat aout the design etc6 =a"e any other comments on. for example.
price. production. proofAreading. siQe. colour
• Is it appropriateG Conclude discussing whether it is appropriateness for
audience. and ma"e a recommendation.
B re#iew or commentary on an article would include similar information.
@he ,oo" re#iew could ha#e the following stages.
Preliminaries

Introduction
1i#e the title of the ,oo". the author. the pu,lisher. the price

The o%erall text
8escri,e the su,6ect of the text
8escri,e the purpose
!
4ac5ground
8escri,e what has ,een written?pu,lished ,eforeG
E#aluate this pre#iously pu,lished wor".
!
&ontent
Summarise the ,oo"
8escri,e its general organisation. contents of each chapter.
!
E%aluation
E#aluate the text
Compare and contrast with other pu,lications
:resent your point of #iew
!
+oo5s
8escri,e and e#aluate design. price. production. proofA
reading. siQe. colour etc
!
&onclusion
Summarise discussion
Conclude discussing whether it is appropriate for audience
Recommend or not.

End matter
Genres in academic writing: 4rie$ reports
=any newspapers and magaQines regularly include short reports of current
research that may ,e of interest to the educated reader. You may ,e as"ed to
write one as part of your course.
Dor a ,rief research report. you will pro,a,ly include the following stages5
• 0hort summary. @his summarises the main points of the research. )t will
include the names of the researchers. where they wor" and where the
main report is pu,lished.
• General ac5ground. @his puts the research in the wider context ,y
gi#ing ,rief details of the su,6ect and the state of present research.
• Purpose. @his explains the purpose of the in#estigation. and explains why
it was carried out.
• Procedure. @his explains how the research was carried out. )t gi#es
details of who the su,6ects were. how the data was gathered and any
special e<uipment that was used.
• 'esults. @his gi#es details of any new information that came from an
anaysis of the data. +hat was foundG
• &onclusions. @he report concludes ,y relating the findings to the wider
context and explains why the research is rele#ant today.
B ,rief research report could ha#e the following stages.
Title
,
0ummary
1i#e the main points of the research. the names of the authors.
where they wor" and where the results were pu,lished.
,
4ac5ground
8escri,e the present state of "nowledge in the area.
!
Purpose
Explain the purpose of the in#estigation.
+hy was it was carried outG
!
Procedure
Explain how the research was carried out.
1i#e details of who the su,6ects were and how the data was
gathered.
!
'esults
1i#e details of any new information that came from an anaysis
of the data.
!
&onclusion
Conclude ,y explain why the research is rele#ant in the modern
world.
xample
Tired drivers as risky as drinkers
-ealth correspondent
SleepAdepri#ed
dri#ers are less alert
than those who
ha#e drun" more
than the legal limit of
alcohol. according to
new research.
B study pu,lished
today in the
6ournalccupational
and Environmental
Medicine found that
fatigue can reach
dangerous le#els at
a much earlier stage
than has ,een
assumed.
@he authors. from
Bustralia and 0ew
Realand. tested
responses of 3(
#olunteers after
sleep depri#ation
and after drin"ing
alcohol e<ui#alent to
the legal dri#ing limit
in Scandina#ia.
@hey found that
those who had ,een
up since $am
performed worse in
tests ,etween
1*.3*pm and
midnight than those
who were
tested in the
morning with
*mg of
alcohol in their
,loodstream
2the 49 limit is
'*mg3.
@he
researchers
suggest that
countries
which set
drin"Adri#ing
limits should
consider
setting
restrictions to
pre#ent
people who
ha#e ,een
awa"e for
more than 1'
hours from
dri#ing.
piloting
aircraft. or
operating
machinery.
@iredness is
estimated to
play a part in
,etween 1$I
and $*I of
road accidents
in the 4nited
States. they
say. ,ut few
well.O write
Bndrew
+illiamson of
the School of
:sychology
4ni#ersity of
0ew South
+ales. and
BnneA=arie
Deyer from the
4ni#ersity of
;tago.
8unedin.
@he #olunteers
A lorry dri#ers
and mem,ers
of the
transport corps
of the
Bustralian
army A were
put through
tests to
measure
thin"ing speed
and physical
reactions.
coordination
and attention
span. @hey
carried out the
tests after a
day and night
of wa"efulness
and after
drin"ing
attempts ha#e
,een made to
wor" out at
what point in
the day or
night that
tiredness
reaches
serious le#els.
N@he
implications of
fatigue for
safe
performance
are well
recognised
particularly in
road safety.
,ut in other
settings as
alcohol.
@he
researchers
found that
commonly
experienced
le#els of sleep
depri#ation A
staying awa"e
for 1% to 1(
hours A
depressed
performance in
the same way
as drin"ing a
couple of
glasses of
alcohol.
Genres in academic writing: +iterature re%iews
You may ,e as"ed to write a literature re#iew. @his may either ,e part of a larger
piece of wor" such as an extended essay. report or dissertation. ;r it may ,e a
separate peice of wor". )f it is part of a report. it may ,e part of the introduction or
it may ,e a section to itself. )f so it usually comes after the introduction and
,efore the methods.
Bny study you carry out. whether it is la,oratory or li,rary ,ased. cannot depend
completely on your own data. ,ut must ,e situated in a context of what is already
"nown a,out the topic in <uestion. @his context is pro#ided in the literature
re#iew.
• So firstly you need to read around to find the information and studies that
are rele#ant to your topic.
• You must then summarise these studies. properly cited. You need to
include5 who found out what. when. and how this de#eloped the study of
the topic.
• Remem,er that the reader will want to "now why you ha#e included any
particular piece of research here.
• )t is not enough 6ust to summarise what has ,een said5 you need to
organise and e#aluate it.
• You must also 6ustify its inclusion.
• You also re#iew here methods that ha#e ,een used that are rele#ant to
your own study.
• You will finish with a conclusion. explaining the gaps in "nowledge that you
ha#e identified and how your research will fill these gaps left ,y pre#ious
research.
@he main purpose of the literature re#iew is to 6ustify your research. You do this
,y summarising the literature with the intention of showing that there is a gap in
the "nowledge. which you will fill.
B possi,le structure is5
Preliminaries

Introduction
8escri,e the context to the reader.
Explain why it is particularly important
P
4ac5ground
Summarise the studies you ha#e read
Sustify their inclusion
P
E%aluation
E#aluate the studies
Support your e#aluation
P
8usti$ication
)dentify a gap in "nowledge
Sustify your research
P
&onclusion
Come to a conclusion a,out you ha#e read. identifting gaps
Explain how you will fill the gap2s3

End matter
Genres in academic writing: 'e$lecti%e writing
@he purpose of reflecti#e writing is to help you learn from a particular practical
experience. )t will help you to ma"e connections ,etween what you are taught in
theory and what you need to do in practice. You reflect so that you can learn.
)n reflecti#e writing. you are trying to write down some of the thin"ing that you
ha#e ,een through while carrying out a particular practical acti#ity. such as
writing an essay. teaching a class or selling a product. @hrough reflection. you
should ,e a,le to ma"e sense of what you did and why and perhaps help
yourself to do it ,etter next time.
You might reflect for many reasons in many ways. for example. in a diary or
personal log. !ut here we are interested in the "ind of writing that you do for
assessment. You are often as"ed to pro#ide a record of what you did plus a
reflection of how you did it and how you are using what you are taught in your
classes and any practical experience you are gaining to do this.
Reflecti#e writing gi#es you the chance thin" a,out what you are doing more
deeply and to learn from your experience. You ha#e the opportunity to disco#er
how what you are taught in class helps you with your realAworld or academic
tas"s. +riting your thoughts down ma"es it easier for you to thin" a,out them
and ma"e connections ,etween what you are thin"ing. what you are ,eing taught
and what you are doing. Your written reflection will also ser#e as a source of
reference and e#idence in the future.
)t is not sufficient simply to ha#e an experience in order to learn. +ithout reflecting upon this
experience it may <uic"ly ,e forgotten. or its learning potential lost. )t is from the feelings
and thoughts emerging from this reflection that generalisations or concepts can ,e
generated. Bnd it is generalisations that allow new situations to ,e tac"led effecti#ely.
21i,,s. 1(''. p. (3
You might want to or ,e as"ed to reflect on5
• how to choose a su,6ect for your dissertation.
• how to approach your dissertation.
• what your essay title means.
• how you are going to approach the essay.
• how well you wrote a piece of wor".
• how you prepared for a lecture.
• how you listened to a lecture.
• how you undertoo" a reading assignment.
• how you performed in a recent examination.
• how you contri,uted to some group wor".
• how others reacted.
• how you did in a practical situation.
• what experiences you gained in some partAtime or #oluntary wor" you did.
• how you sol#ed a particular pro,lem.
• how you can impro#e your study.
)n your reflection. you could write a,out5
• what you did and why you did it.
• what was good and ,ad a,out it.
• why you found it good or ,ad.
• what you found easy or difficult.
• why you found it easy or difficult.
• what you li"ed a,out what you did.
• why you felt li"e that.
• how you might want to follow it up.
• what other people did and why they did it.
• how did you feel a,out what others did.
• how you used what you ha#e ,een taught in class.
• what other information do you need.
• what you are going to do differently in this type of situation next time.
• what steps you are going to ta"e on the ,asis of what you ha#e learned.
• what you are going to do next.
Reflecti#e writing often in#ol#es an action plan in which you should write a,out5
• what you are going to do differently in this type of situation next time
• what steps you are going to ta"e on the ,asis of what you ha#e learned .
9ol,Cs 21('43 experiential learning cycle is useful here5
)n this case Concrete Experience is the acti#ity A what you did. Reflecti#e
;,ser#ation is thin"ing a,out how you did it. how you felt and how you might
ha#e done it differently. B,stract Conceptualisation is thin"ing a,out what you
were taught in class. what you ha#e read a,out how to do this stage and why.
Bcti#e Experimentation is thin"ing a,out what you learned from your reflection
and conceptualisation and planning how you might do it differently next time.
&et us assume that you are reflecting on something that you ha#e done in class.
You will pro,a,ly start ,y descri,ing what you did. You might then want to write
a,out how you did the acti#ity. what methods you used. You might then want to
e#aluate your performance. /ow well did you doG )n order to do this. you need to
consider what you ha#e ,een taught. You might want to descri,e what the
experts say. You may then to consider your reactions. /ow did you?do you feelG
You might finish ,y considering how you would do it next time.
)n reflecti#e writing it is common to use the first person M J)K A when necessary.
!ased on 9ol,Cs wor". 1i,,s 21(''. p. 4%3 suggests the following stages to
encourage deeper reflection5
*escription: +hat happenedG +hat are you going to reflect onG 8onCt ma"e
6udgements yet or try to draw conclusions.
Feelings: +hat were your reactions and feelingsG
E%aluation: +hat was good or ,ad a,out the experienceG =a"e #alue 6udgements.
,nalysis: +hat sense can you ma"e of the situationG !ring in ideas from outside
the experience to help you. +hat was really going onG
&onclusions
:general;:
+hat can ,e concluded. in a general sense. from these experiences and
the analyses you ha#e underta"enG
&onclusions
:speci$ic;:
+hat can ,e concluded a,out your own specific. uni<ue. personal
situation or ways of wor"ingG
Personal action
plans:
+hat are you going to do differently in this type of situation next timeG
+hat steps are you going to ta"e on the ,asis of what you ha#e learntG
,ased on this pattern. a possi,le structure of a reflecti#e report is5
Preliminaries
P
Description Introduction
8escri,e your situation

Personal report
Report what you did and?or what happened.
P
Feelings Personal report
Report how you felt.
+hat did you li"e or disli"eG
P
Evaluation 'e$lection on action
Report what was good?,ad. easy?difficult. pleasant?unpleasant etc
Compare and contrast your experiences
Explain why
!
Analysis 'e$lection on teaching
Report what ha#e you ,een taught
8escri,e what you "now
!
&onnections
E#aluate your practice. drawing on your "nowledge - experience
!
Conclusions Identi$y gaps
8escri,e any gaps in your "nowledge
Explain how you can fill them
1eneralise to the future
!
Action ,ction plan
:roduce action plan for future 2learning H practice3
Sustify your action plan

End matter
Genres in academic writing: #riting introductions
@he purpose of the introduction is to show your reader what you are doing in
your writing. )t is also helpful to explain why you are doing it and how you are
doing it.
Dor that reason. there are usually three main parts in the introduction. @he most
useful description is gi#en ,y Swales 21((*. pp. 13%A1$35
'esearch 'eport Introductions
1. Estalish a research territory
show that the general research area is important. central. interesting. pro,lematic. or
rele#ant in some way.
introduce and re#iew items of pre#ious research in the area.
,
2. Estalishing a niche
indicate a gap in the pre#ious research ,y raising a <uestion a,out it. or extending pre#ious
"nowledge in some way.
,
". <ccupying the niche
outline purposes or stating the nature of the present research.
indicate the structure of the R:.
,nalysis
)dentify the mo#es in the following introduction5
Use Of A Writing We!"ite #y Pre!$asters "tudents On An Englis% for Academic Purposes
Course&
A& '& (illett) University of *ertfords%ire
+ntroduction
1
During the past 10 years, the availability of computers in educational institutions has increased
dramatically (James, 1999).

!rogress in computer development has been made to the point that
po"erful, ine#pensive computers "ith large capacities are available in many classrooms and
libraries for student use.
$
%any students also have purchased and are purchasing computers for
their o"n use at home.
&
%ost studies seem to agree that the microcomputer "ill continue to hold
an important role in education in the future.
'
(or e#ample, James (1999) and )mith (000)
suggest large increases in the numbers of computers both in educational institutions and the
home in the near future.
*
+s far as education is concerned, )ha" (001) identified three main
uses of computers, the ob-ect of a course, an administrative tool, and a means of providing
instruction.
.
(ish and /heam (00) cite four uses of computers as a means of providing
instruction, e#ercise, tutorial, simulation and problem solving.
0
+ "ide range of computer
programmes are no" therefore available in all these areas for individual and classroom use.
9
1o"ever, even though many studies have reported an increased use of computers in education,
there has been very little research reported on the effectiveness of such use.
10
2he purpose of the
present study is therefore to ascertain the effectiveness of using computer3assisted instruction as
compared to traditional classroom instruction in an 4+! "riting class.
)dentify the information elements you find in each sentence of the text.
G.G+G=T
@entence %
@entence )
@entence 2
@entence 4
@entence 5
@entence 6
@entence 6
@entence K
@entence 5
@entence %0
5
Mo%e 1: Estalishing a research territory
0ote particularly the language used in the first two sentences to express =o#e
la.
• The increasin- interest in ... has hei-htened the need for ....
• >f partic'lar interest and co!ple*ity are ....
• Hecently, there has been -ro0in- interest in ....
• The de"elop!ent of ... has led to the hope that....
• The ... has beco!e a fa"o'rite topic for analysis ....
• The st'dy of ... has beco!e an i!portant aspect of ....
• ; central iss'e in ... is ....
• The ... has been e*tensi"ely st'died in recent years.
• +any recent st'dies ha"e foc'sed on ....
Mo%e 2: Estalishing a niche
)n many ways. =o#e 2 is the "ey mo#e in )ntroductions. )t connects =o#e 1
2what has ,een done3 to =o#e 3 2what the present research will do3. =o#e 2
thus esta,lishes the reason for the study. !y the end of =o#e 2. the reader
should ha#e a good idea of what is going to come in =o#e 3.
=o#e 2s esta,lish a niche ,y indicating a gap. :ro,a,ly the most common way
to indicate a gap is to use a Enegati#eE su,6ect. :resuma,ly. negati#e su,6ects
are chosen ,ecause they signal immediately to the reader that =o#e 1 has come
to an end. 0ote the following uses of little and few!
• Co0e"er, little infor!ation#attention#0or#data#research ....
• Co0e"er, fe0 st'dies#in"esti-ations#researchers#atte!pts ....
;f course. not all R: )ntroductions express =o#e 2 ,y indicating an o,#ious gap.
You may prefer. for #arious reasons. to a#oid negati#e comment altogether. )n
such cases. a useful alternati#e is to use a contrasti#e statement.
• The research has tended to foc's on ...,rather than on ....
• These st'dies ha"e e!phasised ...,as opposed to ....
• ;ltho'-h considerable research has been de"oted to ... , rather less
attention has been paid to ....
• The pre"io's research ... has concentrated on ....
• +ost st'dies ha"e been content to ....
• @o far, in"esti-ations ha"e been con/ned to ...
Mo%e ": <ccupying the =iche
@he third and final step is to show you want to fill the gap 2or answer the
<uestion3 that has ,een created in =o#e 2.
• The p'rpose of this paper is to ...
• The p'rpose of this in"esti-ation is to ...
• The ai! of this paper is to ...
• This paper reports on the res'lts obtained ....
• This st'dy 0as desi-ned to ...
• &n this paper, 0e -i"e res'lts of ...
• &n this paper, 0e ar-'e that ....
• This paper ar-'es that ....
• De ha"e or-anise the rest of this paper in the follo0in- 0ay ....
• This paper is str'ct'red as follo0s ....
• The re!ainder of this paper is di"ided into /"e sections ....
Genres in academic writing: 'esearch report methods
@he method descri,es the steps that you followed in conducting your study and
the materials you used in each step.
'esearch 'eport Methods
@he method descri,es the steps that you followed in conducting your study and
the materials you used in each step. @he methods section of the report clearly
descri,es these materials and procedures. )t should show your reader that your
reserach has ,een carried out appropriately and. therefore. that the results can
,e ,elie#ed. @he elements included in the method section and the order in which
they are presented may differ from department to department. /owe#er. the list
in the following ,ox is typical and pro#ides you with a good model 2+eiss,erg -
S. !u"er. 1((*. p. (23.
E&E=E0@S )0C&48E8 )0 =E@/;8S SEC@);0
• >"er"ie0 of the Hesearch
• Theoretical L'sti/cation
• Aop'lation#@a!ple
• .ocation
• Hestrictions#.i!itin- Conditions
• @a!plin- Techni3'e
• Aroced'resM
• +aterialsM
• Nariables
• @tatistical Treat!ent
2T always included3
Genres in academic writing: 'esearch report results
!resenting "esults
@he results section of the report clearly descri,es the findings of the study. )t is
usually presented ,oth in diagrams and text.
'esearch 'eport 'esults
@he results section of the report clearly descri,es the findings of the study. )t is
usually presented ,oth in diagrams and text. @he elements included in the
method section text and the order in which they are presented may differ from
department to department. /owe#er. the list in the following ,ox is typical and
pro#ides you with a good model. You might need to repeat this se#eral times if
you ha#e different diagrams and charts.
=a"e sure. though. that you do not start to interpret the results. @his will ta"e
place in the dicussion section. which comes next.
E&E=E0@S )0C&48E8 )0 RES4&@S SEC@);0
• introd'ction to the res'lts
,
• state!ent sho0in- 0here the res'lts can be fo'nd
,
• state!ent presentin- the !ost i!portant /ndin-s
,
• state!ent co!!entin- on the res'lts this !ay incl'de:
o s'!!ary of the res'lts
o re-or-anisation of the res'lts to sho0 trends and
tendencies
o concl'sion fro! the res'lts

*iagrams
+hen the information has ,een collected. it is usually analysed using #arious
statistical techni<ues. )t is then presented in ta,les. graphs or charts.
1 Tales
&ountry o$ <rigin o$ 0tudents on Foundation &ourse

Female Male
China 3* 4*
Sapan 2 '
)ndia 1 %
:a"istan 1 4
@hailand 3 1
=alaysia 2 1
@a,les5
• are efficient. ena,ling the researcher to present a large amount of data in a
small space
• show exact numerical #alues
• present <uantitati#e data A they need interpreting
• they emphasise the discrete rather than the continuous.
@hey do not easily show5
• the num,er of students on the course
• the percentage of female students
• the percentage of female students from China
• relationships or trends.
F
2 Pie charts
:ie charts can ,e used to show the siQes of #arious parts of the results in
relation to each other and in relation to the whole sample.
)n the pie chart a,o#e5
• the circle represents the total num,er of students on the course
• each segment represents the num,er of students from one country. )t
shows that there are students from $ countries
• it clearly shows the largest num,er of students come from China
• it also shows that a,out 1*I of the students come from Sapan
• it shows that fewer students are from =alaysia than )ndia
• it shows that a similar num,er of students come from )ndia and Sapan.
• it does not show how many students there are altogether.
• it does not show how many students there are from a particular country.
• it does not show small differences ,etween countries.
F
" 7istograms
/istograms 2or ,ar or column graphs3 can also ,e also used to descri,e results.
/owe#er. they more clearly show the relationship of different parts of the
sample to each other. @hey do not clearly show the parts in relation to the whole.
&oo" at the histogram a,o#e. @his clearly shows5
• the proportion of male to female students
• which country has the most students
• which country has the fewest women
• the num,er of students from )ndia.
)t does not easily show5
• the num,er of students on the course.
• the percentage of female students.
• the percentage of female students from China.
F
- +ine graphs
1raphs are often used to show the results of studies. especially when they
in#ol#e some "ind of change o#er time. @his usually in#ol#es two groups of
measurements which are "nown as variables.
@he graph a,o#e shows the differences in the English test score of the students
on the course.
• @he two #aria,les are the length of time the students ha#e studied English
and the studentsC test scores.
• @he length of study causes the change. 2@his is called
the independent #aria,le and the other A the test score A
thedependent #aria,le.3
• @he length of study is on the horiQontal 2x3 axis.
• @he test score is on the #ertical 2y3 axis
&ine graphs show well5
• trends - tendencies A you can see that the test score generally increases
as the length of study increases.
• that a typical student who has studied for 12 months has a score of 4 on
the test.
• that a typical student who has scored $ on the test will ha#e studied for 1'
months.
&oo" at the second graph ,elow5
• @he independent #aria,le is now the test score.
• @he dependent #aria,le is the num,er of students who o,tained a
particular score.
• @he highest score is % the lowest score is 1.
• @he most common score is
• ' students achie#ed a score of 4.
F
/ The a%erage
@he a#erage is a measure of central tendency. )t is related to the middle point in
a range of scores and is found in many different "inds of research. )t can ,e
calculated in three main ways. =ost commonly. it refers to what mathematicians
call the mean" @his is calculated ,y adding all the scores together and then
di#iding ,y the num,er of scores. Dor example. if fi#e students o,tain the
following test scores5 2.. 3. 3. 4 - . then the a#erage test score 2the mean3 is
1%. 2the total3 di#ided ,y 2num,er of students3 U 3.. You can see in this case.
though. that none of the students actually o,tained a score of 3..
Sometimes it is not useful to calculate the a#erage in this way. Dor example. we
may want to see which score on the test was most fre<uently o,tained. @his "ind
of a#erage. referring to the most fre<uent score. is called the mode# and is also a
#ery useful a#erage. )n this case the mode is . 1* students o,tained a score of
3.
@he third useful a#erage is the median A this is the middle score o,tained ,y the
students on the test. )n this case the median is 3.
F
1 *ispersion
8ispersion is the spread of scores. +hereas the #arious a#erages will gi#e us
information a,out central tendency. it does not gi#e #ery much information a,out
the group as a whole. +e need to "now more a,out a set of scores than the
mean can tell us.
;ne useful piece of information is the range from the ,ottom to the top score. )n
the example a,o#e when fi#e students o,tain the following test scores5 2.. 3. 3.
4 - . the range is the difference ,etween the ,ottom score and the top score.
inclusi#e of ,oth scores. i.e. 3..
)t is common to plot the range of scores on a graph. @his can show easily the
range of scores 2from the lowest to the highest3 as well as the num,er of
students who o,tained each score. Dor example. if the scores of $( students are
plotted on a graph. it would loo" something li"e the diagram ,elow.
)f the sample of sixtyAnine students was representati#e of the students at the
uni#ersity as a whole. then the most common score of uni#ersity students would
,e *I. and the ma6ority of students would ha#e scores around *I. with a few
students at either extreme. See the diagram ,elow. )dealised cur#es such as the
one shown ,elow are called normal distribution curves. @he num,er of people on
one side of the centre is the same as on the other side. with a,out *I of the
students near the centre.
;ne common measure of how much the scores are spread is the standard
deviation 2S83. @his shows how much the range of scores de#iate from the
mean. )n a normal distri,ution $'I of the population will get scores within one
standard de#iation of the mean and so 32I of the population will ha#e scores
more than one standard de#iation away from the mean. (I of the population
will ha#e scores within two standard de#iations of the mean.
>
,nalysis
Read the following example of part of a results section from the field of computer
assisted language learning and teaching. @he study in#estigated the use of the
+orldA+ideA+e, for teaching writing in a !ritish uni#ersity. )dentify the
information elements you find in each sentence of the selection. :=<TE: Some
sentences may contain more than one element.3
Use Of A Writing We!"ite #y Pre!$asters "tudents On An Englis% for Academic Purposes
Course&
A& '& (illett) University of *ertfords%ire
,esults
1
2"o groups of )tudents in 1igher 4ducation 3 6roup + and 6roup 7 3 on a one3year !re3
%asters 4nglish for +cademic !urposes course, each comprising '0 students "ere taught
academic "riting by different methods and compared.

(igure $ displays the mean percentile
scores on the five subsections of the academic "riting test.
$
)tudents in 6roup 7, "hich used the
computer assisted facilities, performed considerably better than their non computer3assisted peers
on all five subsections of the test by more than t"o to one in terms of scores attained in each of
the subcategories.
&
(or e#ample, in the tas8 achievement subcategory, 6roup + scored an average
of 00 percent, "hile 6roup 7 students scored an average of 1& percent.
Exercise
)dentify the information elements you find in each sentence of the text.
G.G+G=T
@entence %
@entence )
@entence 2
@entence 4
F
+anguage
'e$erring to a diagram? chart etc.
+s can be seen
from
in
the
chart,
diagram,
table,
graph,
figures,
statistics,
...
9t can be seen
:e can see
that ...
+s can be seen
from
in
2able 1,
(igure ,
6raph $,
;
9t can be seen
:e can see
(rom
2able 1
(igure
it
can
may
be
seen
concluded
sho"n
estimated
calculated
inferred
that ...
the
figures
chart
diagram
2he graph
(igure 1
sho"s that ...
=arrating
Generalising
Genres in academic writing: 'esearch report discussions
@he main purpose of the discussion is to show that the results lead clearly to the
conclusion ,eing drawn. @his may include any limitations that might cause
pro,lems with any claims ,eing made as well as any possi,le explanations for
these results.
'esearch 'eport *iscussions
@he discussion section of the report ta"es a ,road #iew of the research and puts
it in a wider context. @he discussion section mo#es from the narrow specific
focus of the research to a more general #iew. )t must clearly show how the
results found lead to the conclusions ,eing drawn and therefore how these
conclusions should ,e understood. @his should include any limitations that might
cause pro,lems with any claims ,eing made as well as any possi,le
explanations for these results.
@he elements included in the discussion section text and the order in which they
are presented may differ from department to department. /owe#er. the list in the
following ,ox is typical and pro#ides you with a good model 2adapted from5
+eiss,erg - !u"er. 1((*. p. 13'7 /op"ins - 8udleyAE#ans. 1(''7 Swales -
Dea". 1((43.
E&E=E0@S )0C&48E8 )0 8)SC4SS);0 SEC@);0
• a reference to the !ain p'rpose of the st'dy
,
• a -eneralised re"ie0 of the !ost i!portant /ndin-s - s'!!ary of res'lts
,
• possible e*planations for the /ndin-s in -eneral
,
• co!parison 0ith e*pected res'lts and other st'dies
,
• li!itations of the o"erall st'dy that restrict the e*tent to 0hich the /ndin-s can
be -eneralised
F
,nalysis
Read the following example of part of a discussion section from the field of
computer assisted language learning and teaching. @he study in#estigated the
use of the +orldA+ideA+e, for teaching writing in a !ritish uni#ersity. )dentify the
information elements you find in each sentence of the selection. :=<TE: Some
sentences may contain more than one element.3
Use Of A Writing We!"ite #y Pre!$asters "tudents On An Englis% for Academic Purposes
Course&
A& '& (illett) University of *ertfords%ire
Discussion
1
2he purpose of the study "as to investigate "hether )tudents in 1igher 4ducation on an 4+!
"riting course "ould benefit from computer assisted instruction.

2he findings clearly suggest
that they do.
$
2he students "ho too8 part in the computer assisted element of the "riting course
outperformed those "ho follo"ed the traditional course in every aspect as sho"n by their
performance on the <niversity of 1ertfordshire :riting test.
&
2hey sho"ed particular strengths in
the tas8 achievement element of the assessment, suggesting that the computer assisted materials
really help the students to understand and focus on the purpose of their "riting.
'
9t also seems to
be the case that the individually directed nature of the on3line materials helps the students to
focus on their o"n specific needs as "ell as allo"ing them to access their materials in their o"n
time.
*
+nother reason for the success of the materials may be that it allo"s students to spend
more time on the course than is normally the case in a classroom based programme.
.
2his
supports and adds to the findings of Jones = )mith (199.) and 1arris (00), "ho sho"ed
similar results for an on3line grammar course.
0
2his study has ta8en a step in the direction of
-ustifying the inclusion of "eb3based materials in 4+! "riting courses for post3graduates on
4nglish language preparation course.
9
9t did ho"ever loo8 at a narro" range of sub-ect areas 3
mainly business, computer science, engineering life3sciences and la" 3 ta8en by students from
only a fe" countries 3 particularly /hina, Japan , >orea and 2hailand.
10
9t may be the case that
students from other countries intending to study different sub-ects 3 for e#ample, medicine or
humanities 3 "ould not benefit in the same "ay.
11
9t is also not clear "hether younger students
such as students preparing for undergraduate programmes "ould succeed to the same
e#tent.
1
2he approach outlined in this study should be replicated "ith other students in other
sub-ect areas, as "ell as at other levels in order to be able to recommend the use of on3line
materials for all students in all sub-ect areas.
Exercise
)dentify the information elements you find in each sentence of the text.
G.G+G=T
@entence %
@entence )
@entence 2
@entence 4
@entence 5
@entence 6
@entence 6
@entence K
@entence 5
@entence %0
@entence %%
@entence %)
F
+anguage
Generalising
&ertainty
&ause and E$$ect
&omparing and &ontrasting
,rguing and *iscussing
Genres in academic writing: #riting conclusions
@he main purpose of the conclusion is to show that the main purpose of the
piece of writing has ,een achie#ed.
a. &t sho'ld recall the iss'es raised in the introd'ction - 0hat 0as the p'rpose of the
piece of 0ritin-O
,
b. and dra0 to-ether the points !ade in the !ain body of the piece of 0ritin-
,
c. and co!e to a clear concl'sion.
)t should clearly signal to the reader that the writing is finished and lea#e a clear
impression that the purpose has ,een achie#ed.
,nalysis
Read the following example of the conclusion from the field of computer assisted
language learning and teaching. @he study in#estigated the use of the +orldA
+ideA+e, for teaching writing in a !ritish uni#ersity.
Use Of A Writing We!"ite #y Pre!$asters "tudents On An Englis% for Academic Purposes
Course&
A& '& (illett) University of *ertfords%ire
Conclusion
1
During the past 10 years, the use of computers in education has increased dramatically and
a "ide range of educational computer programmes are no" "idely available for individual and
classroom use.

1o"ever, there has been very little research reported on the effectiveness of such
use.
$
2he purpose of the present study "as therefore to ascertain the effectiveness of using
computer3assisted instruction as compared to traditional classroom instruction in an 4+! "riting
class.
&
2he findings clearly suggest that the inclusion of "eb3based materials in 4+! "riting
courses for post3graduate students from 4ast3+sia on an 4nglish language preparation course is
effective.
'
(urther research is needed, ho"ever, before the use of such materials can be
recommended for all students in all sub-ect areas at all levels.
Examples
Read the following conclusions5
9n conclusion, therefore, it can be seen that millions of people continue to be affected by "ater3
related problems and, contrary to popular belief, future "ater supplies are not ine#haustible. )o
the situation is very serious, especially in vie" of the <? estimates of demand. +lthough pro-ects
to provide ever3increasing supplies of "ater indicate that a gro"ing number of countries are
a"are of the present problems and of those to come, these more often than not are highly
e#pensive and not very practical 3 and very time3consuming "hen time is a commodity in short
supply. )o, "hile research in these areas is important, the eventual solution "ould definitely
appear to be "orld"ide conservation and pollution control 3 in other "ords, a greater respect for
our most valuable natural resource.
+ltogether, it seems that "e cannot accept "ithout @uestion the dramatic increase in recorded
crime as corresponding to a real increase in victimiAation of the same proportions. 7ut, ho"ever
good it "ould be to e#plain a"ay all, or even most, of the increase as an artefact of recording
changes, this cannot be sho"n to be the case. :e can plausibly infer that crime has been
increasing in the last t"o to three decades, presenting a problem for e#planation and policy.
+anguage
9n short,
9n a "ord,
9n brief,
2o sum up,
2o conclude,
2o summarise
9n conclusion,
Bn the "hole,
+ltogether,
9n all,
...
9t is
generally
"idely
accepted
argued
held
believed
that .
2herefore,
2hus,
Bn this basis,
6iven this,
it
can
may
be
concluded
deduced
inferred
that .
2able 1
seen
9n conclusion,
(inally
"eCmay say
it canCmay be said
that .
+oldo"a @tate Eni"ersity
+odern .an-'a-es and .iterat'res Iepart!ent
Gn-lish Ahilolo-y Chair

Pear Hesearch Aaper#Grad'ation Thesis
.title – A// CA&"0
Dritten by
@econd year st'dent, -ro'p QnrB
Q /rst na!e, last na!eB
@cienti/c ad"iser
QtitleB, Q/rst na!e, last na!eB, +;
>AT&>=;l - Cons'ltant
QtitleB, Q/rst na!e, last na!eB
ChiRinS' )0%%