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Gordon Docherty October 24

2014 Page 1

Personal Reflections on Recent News from the World of Fusion
(Hot and Cold)
By Gordon Docherty
Octoer !"
# !$%"

Following on from a recent article in the Guardian newspaper:
Has Lockheed Martin really made a breakthrough on nuclear fusion?
I put pen!to!paper in response to a re"uest from the article#s author $%arl &athiesen !
'arl(mathiesen(freelance)guardian(co(u'*+ with the thought that he might be interested in the
Hot Fusion
Firstly+ I often hear it said that fusion re"uires millions of degrees to wor'( ,ctually+ this claim is
somewhat misleading( It is the e"ui-alent of saying you need burning gasoline in an automobile
engine( .hile true+ an automobile engine is -ery far from being /ust one big ball of burning petrol(
Instead+ it is a comple0 machine+ at the heart of which a small amount of gasoline is mi0ed with air+
compressed and spar'ed to create a small e0plosion ! o-er and o-er again(
1o+ statements such as fusion re"uires millions of degrees to wor' are not really helpful( Instead+
a statement such as for fusion to occur+ the right conditions need to be in place for elements to
fuse is of much more use(
Further+ spontaneous fusion can and does occur in nature( 2hus+ a theoretical "uantity of deuterium
gas stored in a perfectly sealed /ar and left on a shelf to be bathed on and off in sunlight for the ne0t
few million years+ would reasonably be e0pected to e0perience one or two spontaneous reactions !
"uite by chance(
1o+ the statement for fusion would be better written as for useful le-els of fusion to occur+ the right
conditions need to be in place for elements to fuse at a rate that would pro-ide an ade"uate amount
of net+ usable energy ! and this means increasing the probability of fusion e-ents occurring+ that is+
the probability that two $or more* atoms will approach close enough together under conditions that
are fa-ourable for the nucleii to combine(
2he important phrase here is right conditions: the right conditions are those that allow each
atom to o-ercome the repulsi-e barrier present around all atoms $including the atom in "uestion*(
It is this barrier that stops atoms /ust falling in on one another+ to form massi-e+ unstable super!
atoms that would brea' apart and reform again and again+ in a continual cycle of fission!fusion!
fission( 3eedless to say+ life $as we 'now it* would not be possible in such a uni-erse( 2his barrier+
'nown as the 4oulomb barrier+ can be thought of as the edge of the positi-e charge around the
nucleus+ and it is one of the factors that allows us to e0ist(
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For fusion+ howe-er+ this barrier needs to be o-ercome( 5ut+ how can this be done6 .ell+ one way is
to lea-e it to chance but+ as we ha-e seen+ we would be waiting a -ery long time for e-en a single
e-ent+ so this is not a practical method+ especially if the end goal is to create a useful energy source(
,nother way is to heat things up( In hot fusion+ $heated+ high speed* atoms are collided to
effecti-ely crash the nucleii together( 4learly+ for this to happen+ the atomic nucleii ha-e to be on a
direct collision course( 3ow+ if two+ perfectly aligned guns could be engineered that shot out
indi-idual atoms directly at each other in perfect alignment and at high speed+ then this would do
the /ob(
5y repeatedly firing out atoms in synch to achie-e repeated and perfect collisions+ you would then
ha-e the basis of a useful energy source ! pro-ided you also had a collector 7 e/ector around the
crash site to collect the resultant energy and get rid of the fused atom and other material resulting
from the collision+ ready for the ne0t collision to occur(
2here is only one problem with this approach: we can#t build such a de-ice(
1o+ if we can#t build a nanoscale fusion gun+ what can be built6 .ell+ one way is to lea-e it to chance
by using a great many atoms+ accelerating them all at once+ and then trying to bring them together
in a pinch point in the hope that+ out of those billions and billions of atoms+ one or two may fuse
$remember the /ar in the sunlight ! by accelerating the atoms and pinching them together+ we
increase the chance of indi-idual atoms colliding together in the now pinching+ confining space*(
5y 'eeping the atoms spinning around a loop+ and repeatedly feeding this stream of particles
through one or more pinch points+ we hope to increase the number of collisions ! and hence energy
released ! until we get more energy out than we put in to accelerating the atoms and 'eeping them
together through the use of pinch!points(
5y speeding the atoms up+ we also ma'e them hot+ so stripping the electrons from the nucleii+
ma'ing it e-en easier to bring the nucleii into close pro0imity(
3ow+ I hope from the description gi-en+ it is clear why early fusion reactor designers loo'ed at
building race trac's around which accelerating atoms could be raced and pinched( 3ow+ these race
trac's were doughnut shaped+ leading to the name to'ama'+ as in to'ama' reactors: to'ama' is
/ust another name for doughnut!shaped( 2his is the type of reactor used by I289+ which is
attempting to do essentially what was /ust described(
3ow+ creating a to'ama' reactor is not "uite as easy is building a doughnut!shaped race trac' and
blowing a load of atoms around it with a big fan( For one thing+ blowing atoms around would mean
that they were mo-ing /ust too slowly to e-er o-ercome their natural repulsion of each other( For
another+ they would still be wearing their electrical shells+ ma'ing repulsion e-en more li'ely(
1o+ instead+ the atoms are accelerated to near light speed and super!heated( 2his is where the claim
millions of degrees needed comes from+ as it is en-isaged that the stream of particles are now li'e
those in the 1un( 2he problem is+ if you fire a super!heated stream of particles into a doughnut!
shaped ring+ the particles /ust crash straight into the side of the ring and+ e0actly li'e a welding flame
hitting metal+ the beam would super!heat the ring and "uic'ly burn a hole through it(
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1o+ something has to be done to stop this+ and this is where powerful magnets come in to
magnetically hold and guide the hot+ high speed atoms round the ring( Fortunately and
unfortunately+ these atoms do tra-el around in perfectly aligned orbits so that they don#t bump into
each other( Fortunately+ because if this were the case+ there would ne-er be any fusion e-ents(
:nfortunately+ the nucleii are continually running toward one another+ li'e stoc'!cars on a race trac'
! with drun' dri-ers at the wheel(
2his causes atoms to -eer and swer-e and try to e0it the loop( .e therefore need to create pinch
points to hold the magnetic maelstrom together and increase the chance of collision( .e also need
collectors 7 e0tractors to capture the energy and fused nucleii as they fly away from the trac' ! such
collision products are /ust too energetic and7or electromagnetically neutral to be held in the ring(
3ow+ as collisions can happen anywhere around the ring$though mostly at or near the pinch points*+
the collectors 7 e0tractors are pro-ided as a full!wrap blan'et around the whole of the ring( 2he
pinch points+ on the other hand+ are pro-ided as uniformly spaced discrete collars around the ring(
.ith such a design+ then+ it would seem that all is now ready to start fusing(
.e still ha-e one more problem+ howe-er( 2he beam inside the ring is continually in flu0+ so -ery
cle-er software has to be written for the system of pinch rings to continually bring the beam bac'
under control+ with+ as it happens+ a D!cross section pro-ing useful to maintain the stability of the
.ith much refinement of the software+ and a sufficiently large ring+ it is hoped that this nai-e
approach to fusion will e-entually deli-er energy for any longer period of time( 2his is what is being
done at I289( 8-en there+ though+ the engineering is a long way from producing a full!functioning+
continuously running commercial reactor(
.hat I ha-e /ust described+ howe-er+ is only one+ rather primiti-e way of getting nucleii to bump
together( ,nother way is to accelerate far smaller numbers of atoms in to a ball+ using the instability
energy created when the atoms come in close pro0imity to focus the reaction $shrin' the ball* still
2his approach is 'nown as inertial confinement: instead of using a ring $as a race trac'*+ the atoms
are now pac'ed into a small sphere+ a sphere that is sub/ect to intense heat and pressure and forced
to collapse in on itself( 1o+ now we ha-e high!energy atoms imploding to a single point( 2he result is
a high rate of fusion e-ents ! for the small sphere+ that is( 2he collapsing sphere shines li'e the 1un
for a split!second+ and then is gone(
2his slightly less primiti-e approach was the one adopted by the 3uclear Ignition Facility $3iF* in the
:1+ which used -ery high power lasers to sub/ect a tiny glass bead containing atoms to intense heat
and pressure in order to create a high!rate of fusion e-ents: by sending all the atoms toward a
central point+ many more atoms hit atoms coming the other way head on and so fused(
2here was a problem+ howe-er+ with the 3iF model+ namely+ how to 'eep the reactions coming at a
high enough rate to deli-er useful energy( 2he 3iF approach was definitely a flash!in!the!pan(
Flash; ,nd the ball was gone+ with no ball lined up to ta'e its place( 2his would ha-e re"uired a
$mechanical* load!fire!collect7e0tract cycle( It would also ha-e re"uired super!fast charging lasers+
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something else the 3iF could not deli-er( Finally+ it would ha-e re"uired some way to collect the
energy+ and this way simply does not e0ist(
In the case of the 3iF approach+ the almost instantaneous+ high!energy+ accurately timed
simultaneous deli-ery of energy by the lasers from all around the ball $needed to stop the ball /ust
wobbling around or e-en shooting off* re"uires a huge array of massi-e+ power!hungry lasers+ that
consume -ast amounts of energy at a high rate( 1o+ achie-ing net+ useful energy out of the 3iF as a
whole has not been achie-ed+ nor is it li'ely to be unless massi-e ad-ances in laser technology can
be made(
1o+ with either the doughnut or the 3iF approach+ each approach has costs many billions of dollars
and has not deli-ered a single .att of usable e0cess power ! nor are they li'ely to do so within the
ne0t <0 years( 2his has led to the /o'e that Fusion =ower is <0 years away+ and always will be(
2he problem with these two approaches is that they both use brute force to bring together two
nucleii at a nanoscale+ such that each o-ercomes the repulsi-e barrier put out by the other to fuse(
2he problem with currently funded and reported approaches is that they are the e"ui-alent of
building a planet!si>ed hammer to crac' a peanut!si>ed nut+ and then trying to ta'e aim( ( (
3ow+ a group of scientists wor'ing on an early to'ama' design reali>ed that there was another way
to achie-e confinement than a race!trac' ring( 2his form of confinement was another e0ample of
inertial confinement+ only this time using a collapsing powerful electromagnetic field( 9emember+
the problem scientists and engineers ha-e been trying to sol-e is:
"for useful levels of fusion to occur, the right conditions need to be in place for elements to fuse at a
rate that would provide an adequate amount of net, usable energy"
3otice+ no mention of millions of degrees+ or giant!si>ed e"uipment ! these were actually part of
answers put forward o-er ?0 years ago that erroneously slipped into the problem statement( 2his
misunderstanding came about because+ when scientists loo'ed to the nearest e0ample of a fusion
de-ice ! the 1un ! they only thought about replicating how that wor'ed here on 8arth+ rather than
how to achie-e fusion( 2hat was their big mista'e(
2he 1un is /ust too big to replicate here on 8arth( 2oo big+ and too hot( It is also e0tremely
inefficient $than' goodness*+ e-en as stars go( It has been burning for billions of years+ yet is barely
half way through its life( Other stars+ hundreds of times bigger+ last only a few million years( 2hey
are able to burn their fuel more "uic'ly and+ e-en though they ha-e much more of it+ they wor'
their way through it at a rate far in e0cess of that seen with the 1un( 3ot+ of course+ that this is much
help to us here on 8arth+ rather it does show that there are other ways(
,nyway+ bac' to fusion here on 8arth+ remember that /ar of deuterium that would $at least+
statistically spea'ing+*+ witness one or more spontaneous fusion e-ents o-er a -ery long period of
time6 .ell+ it got some scientists to wonder how else fusion might be achie-ed( 1o+ they went bac'
to the problem statement+ and restated the problem thus:
2o achie-e fusion we need:
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1( a way to achie-e confinement+ to much increase density ! and hence the probability of
2( a way of o-ercoming the 4oulomb barrier
@( a way to "uic'ly e0tract the products of the reaction ! energy and matter ! ready to allow
the ne0t reaction to ta'e place
4( a way to continuously achie-e fusion e-ents so that many small+ rapidly occurring energy
releases can be summed up to produce an apparent large release of energy in human time
frames ! the nuclear e"ui-alent of the internal combustion engine+ as it were(
Out of this wor' came two ma/or branches that ha-e+ until now+ been all but ignored ! e-en ridiculed
! by the serious scientific community: that of inertial confinement using a collapsing powerful
electromagnetic field and confinement inside crystalline structures 'nown to aid in reactions(
Aoo'ing firstly at inertial confinement using a collapsing powerful electromagnetic field+ this
collapsing powerful electromagnetic field+ when unleashed inside a gaseous cloud+ super!heats and
traps part of the cloud as a dense plasma ball+ a'in to the glass ball of the 3iF+ only held together
by a $shrin'ing* electromagnetic field arranged as a ball( Due to the presence of the dense plasma
ball+ this form of fusion is 'nown as Dense =lasma( 2o "uote .i'ipedia $as of October 2014*:
1e-eral groups ha-e contro-ersially proposed that fusion power based on the D=F could be
economically -iable+ possibly e-en with low!neutron fuel cycles li'e p!511 $ordinary atomic
hydrogen and 5oron!11*( 2he feasibility of net power from p!511 in the D=F re"uires that
the bremsstrahlung losses be reduced by "uantum mechanical effects induced by the
powerful magnetic field( 2he high magnetic field will also result in a high rate of emission of
cyclotron radiation+ but at the densities en-isioned+ where the plasma fre"uency is larger
than the cyclotron fre"uency+ most of this power will be reabsorbed before being lost from
the plasma( ,nother ad-antage claimed is the capability of direct con-ersion of the energy of
the fusion products into electricity+ with an efficiency potentially abo-e ?0B( 80periments
and computer simulations to in-estigate the capability of D=F for fusion power are
underway at Aawrence-ille =lasma =hysics $A==* under the direction of 8ric Aerner+ who
e0plained his Focus Fusion approach in a 200? Google 2ech 2al'( On 3o-ember 14+ 200C+
Aerner recei-ed funding for continued research+ to test the scientific feasibility of Focus
Fusion( On October 1<+ 200D+ the D=F de-ice Focus Fusion!1 achie-ed its first pinch( On
Eanuary 2C+ 2011+ A== published initial results including e0perimental shots with considerably
higher fusion yields than the historical D=F trend( In &arch+ 2012+ the company announced
that it had achie-ed temperatures of 1(C billion degrees+ beating the old record of 1(1 billion
that had sur-i-ed since 1D?C(
Aawrence-ille =lasma =hysics $A==*+ in other words+ ha-e achie-ed temperatures and plasma
stabilities much higher and longer than those achie-ed by any to'ama'+ and ha-e established a
stable load!fire!collect7e0tract cycle+ one that in-ol-es no mo-ing parts( 5etter yet+ A==#s de-ices
operate -ia aneutronic fusion ! they produce no dangerous+ fast mo-ing neutrons( 2he ideal
aneutronic fuel is a mi0ture of hydrogen and boron( ,t e0tremely high temperaturesFbillions of
degreesFhydrogen nucleii $protons* fuse with boron!11 nucleii to -ery briefly form carbon nucleii(
5ut each carbon nucleus has too much energy to stay together+ so in an instant it brea's up into
three helium nuclei( 2hese nuclei+ and an electron stream in the re-erse direction+ carry the energy
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released by the reaction to create electricity more or less directly( ,nother ma/or ad-antage is that+
e-en with collectors and e0tractors in place+ the D=F reactor is only about G!10 foot s"uare $2!@
metres s"uared*+ so would easily fit in a garage!si>ed room(
2o "uote the A== .ebsite:
2he dense plasma focus de-ice consists of two cylindrical metal electrodes nested inside
each other( 2he outer electrode is generally no more than G!? inches in diameter and a foot
long( 2he electrodes are enclosed in a -acuum chamber with a low pressure gas filling the
space between them(
, pulse of electricity from a capacitor ban' $an energy storage de-ice* is discharged across
the electrodes( For a few millionths of a second+ an intense current flows from the outer to
the inner electrode through the gas( 2his current starts to heat the gas and creates an
intense magnetic field( Guided by its own magnetic field+ the current forms itself into a thin
sheath of tiny filamentsH little whirlwinds of hot+ electrically!conducting gas called plasma(
2his sheath tra-els to the end of the inner electrode where the magnetic fields produced by
the currents pinch and twist the plasma into a tiny+ dense ball only a few thousandths of an
inch across called a plasmoid( ,ll of this happens without being guided by e0ternal magnets(
2he magnetic fields -ery "uic'ly collapse+ and these changing magnetic fields induce an
electric field which causes a beam of electrons to flow in one direction and a beam of ions I
atoms that ha-e lost electrons! in the other( 2he electron beam heats the plasmoid to
e0tremely high temperatures+ the e"ui-alent of billions of degrees 4 $particles energies of
100 'eJ or more*(
2he collisions of the electrons with the ions generate a short pulse of highly!intense K!rays( If
the de-ice is being used to generate K!rays for our K!ray source pro/ect+ conditions such as
electrode si>es and shapes and gas fill pressure can be used to ma0imi>e K!ray output(
If the de-ice is being used to produce fusion energy+ other conditions can minimi>e K!ray
production+ which cools the plasma( Instead+ energy can be transferred from the electrons
to the ions using the magnetic field effect( 4ollisions of the ions with each other cause fusion
reactions+ which add more energy to the plasmoid( 1o in the end+ the ion beam contain more
energy than was input by the original electric current( $2he energy of the electron beam is
dissipated inside the plasmoid to heat it(* 2his happens e-en though the plasmoid only lasts
10ns $billionths of a second* or so+ because of the -ery high density in the plasmoid+ which is
close to solid density+ ma'es collisions -ery li'ely and they occur e0tremely rapidly(
2he ion beam of charged particles is directed into a decelerator which acts li'e a particle
accelerator in re-erse( Instead of using electricity to accelerate charged particles+ they
decelerate charged particles and generate electricity( 1ome of this electricity is recycled to
power the ne0t fusion pulse while the e0cess $net* energy is the electricity produced by the
fusion power plant( 1ome of the K!ray energy produced by the plasmoid can also be directly
con-erted to electricity through the photoelectric effect $li'e solar panels*(
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2he only obstacles now standing in A==#s way are the switch away from deuterium!deuterium fuel
that they are currently using for testing to 5oron!hydrogen + and an increase in the density of the
fuel inside the reaction chamber( 2o do this+ part of the current reactor they ha-e built has been re!
engineered to reduce unwanted discharges between parts of the reactor that were dowsing the
formation of the plasma balls ! and hence reactions ! and are currently $as of October 2014* fitting
their test reactor with the newly re!engineered parts( Once this is done+ A== intend to increase fuel
density and e-entually change o-er to 5oron ! hydrogen( .hen they do that+ A== are li'ely to
achie-e continuous+ useful+ net power generation by fusion ! rendering the to'ama' design obsolete(
3ow+ Dense =lasma Fusion+ although radically different from the to'ama' designs and conceptually
and technically -ery far ahead in e-ery sense+ is still a form of Lot Fusion+ albeit with the heat now
being created in a -ery small sphere ! and this I1 the point( 2he reactions are at billions of degrees+
yet the de-ice itself inside which the dense plasma balls are being created is wor'ing at only
hundreds of degrees: further+ the products produced by the reactor need only minimum shielding
and are already self organi>ed into beams $electrons and helium nucleii* that can be readily dealt
with without the need for e0cessi-e ray!shielding( 5etter yet+ the products produced by the reactor
can be used directly to generate electricity+ so the D=F design is e0tremely efficient( Finally+ there is
enough hydrogen and boron on 8arth alone for hundreds of millions of years of reactor operations(

Cold Fusion
2he second ma/or branch being considered is that of nuclear reactions confined in a crystal lattice(
2he most famous ! and infamous ! e0ample of this branch was 4old Fusion(
In 1DCD+ a claim appeared+ apparently out of nowhere+ that Fusion had been achie-ed in a bottle(
2his story became infamous due to the way in which the e-idence was collated and reported( 2o
"uote e0tracts from .i'ipedia again $as of October 2014*:
4old fusion is a hypothetical type of nuclear reaction that would occur at+ or near+ room
temperature+ compared with temperatures in the millions of degrees that are re"uired for
hot fusion+ which ta'es place naturally within stars( 2here is currently no accepted
theoretical model which would allow cold fusion to occur(
In 1DCD &artin Fleischmann $then one of the world#s leading electrochemists* and 1tanley
=ons reported that their apparatus had produced anomalous heat $e0cess heat*+ of a
magnitude they asserted would defy e0planation e0cept in terms of nuclear processes( (((
&any scientists tried to replicate the e0periment with the few details a-ailable( ((( In 1DCD+ a
re-iew panel organi>ed by the :nited 1tates Department of 8nergy $DO8* found that the
e-idence for the disco-ery of a new nuclear process was not persuasi-e enough to start a
special program+ but was sympathetic toward modest support for e0periments within the
present funding system( , second DO8 re-iew+ con-ened in 2004 to loo' at new research+
reached conclusions similar to the first( 1upport within the then!present funding system did
not occur(
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2he problem was that not enough details were in place to accurately replicate the e0periment+ and
as billions of dollars going into hot fusion were at sta'e and hot fusion physicists were the ones
being as'ed to replicate the e0periments of the two world!renowned electrochemists+ the dice were
loaded from the start for negati-e replications+ which+ of course+ is e0actly what was then claimed !
no positi-e replications(
3o one had been able to see what =ons and Fleischmann had seen( 2his fact+ howe-er+ was later
pro-en false when it emerged that the e0perimental results that pro-ed no e0cess heat had been
produced had actually been ad/usted to remo-e any anomalies that showed the production of
e0cess heat( 2hese ad/ustment led to the resignation of 8ugene &allo-e+ the chief science writer at
&I2#s news office at the time of the =ons and Fleischmann replication attempts at &I2(
In his words+ he resigned from the &I2 3ews Office+ to protest the outrageous beha-ior of the =F4
$=lasma Fusion 4enter* and others at &I2 against cold fusion(( Le further went on to say 5y Eune
of 1DCD+ the hot fusion community and the physics establishment were -ery satisfied that they had
debun'ed cold fusion( ,ny of the growing numbers of positi-e reports could readily be dismissed by
reporters and other+ less in-ol-ed scientists( ,fter all+ the plasma physicist authorities at &I2 had
spo'en( In fact+ so con-inced were the =F4 people that they had 'illed off cold fusion+ they held a
celebratory party F billed as a M.a'e for 4old FusionN on Eune 2G+ 1DCD(
2he humorous poster for the party noted: M5rought to you by the 4enter for 4ontri-ed Fantasies F
5lac' ,rmbands Optional(N .hat is most interesting about this anything!but!funny moc'ery by the
=F4 is that at the time the party was held+ the data for the =hase!II calorimetry e0periments had not
yet been analy>ed; 1o+ &I2 held a wa'e before any e0perimental replication data had been
produced( 1trange indeed(
Fortunately+ a small community of researchers went underground to continue in-estigations into
cold fusion: remember+ there had been positi-e reports of replications( 9esearchers in Eapan and
Italy+ in particular+ too' up the torch discarded by mainstream scientists in the :1(
3ow+ =ons and Fleischmann had been wor'ing on what appeared+ superficially+ to be a form of
electrolytic cell( ,s =ons and Fleischmann and others realised+ howe-er+ after further study of the
4old Fusion phenomena and the e0perimental apparatus+ was that the cell being used only wor'ed
with a particular batch of palladium $the cathode used in the cell*: their cell contained hea-y water
$water formed using deuterium rather than the lighter normal form of hydrogen+ protium*+ which+
when current was passed through the hea-y water from the palladium cathode+ caused the
palladium to absorb the deuterium atoms+ which then+ within the confines of the palladium lattice+
fused+ generating heat and neutrons(
2he only problem was that this only wor'ed some of the time+ and only when one particular source
of palladium used in the cathode was formed( In particular+ an e0periment carried out by 8dmund
1torms in 1DD2 to e0amine the beha-iour of a =ons!Fleischmann type electrolytic cell using
palladium sheets found that one sheet produced a steady increase in e0cess power that reached ?(<
. $20B of input power*+ while a second similar sheet from a different batch of palladium did not
produce any measurable e0cess power(
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1o+ it became increasingly clear that the =ons!Fleischmann type cell could produce e0cess power
$although not enough to ma'e a commercial reactor*+ but that there was something in the cell+ and
the palladium sample in particular+ that was not well understood that was re"uired for this e0cess
power to be generated(
From these e0periments+ it was reali>ed that the palladium had to become totally saturated with
deuterium before any useful heat!generating reactions occurred( It was also reali>ed that the
surface of the palladium was somehow important+ the more bumpy the palladium+ the more li'ely
a reaction would occur upon saturation( , pattern was beginning to emerge( 1aturation of the
metallic crystal lattice was re"uired+ and a bumpy surface that also increased the e0posed surface
area in a gi-en -olume was re"uired(
From 1DD2 to 2011+ much further co-ert research was carried out into what now came to be 'nown
as Aattice ,ssisted 3uclear 9eactions $A,39*+ Aow 8nergy 3uclear 9eactions $A839*+ or Ouantum
8ffects $O8*+ the last being due to theories that were increasingly seeing "uantum tunnelling as li'ely
being in-ol-ed in these systems( In fact+ in many laboratories around the world+ following different
lines of research+ and often on a shoestring budget+ the e-idence for A839 $the name generally
settled on* became more and more o-erwhelming+ as e0perimental techni"ues and understanding
of what caused e0cess energy to be produced emerged: since 1DCD+ o-er 1?00 papers ha-e been
published around the world on research that has reliably demonstrated e0cess heat form the -arious
phenomena 'nown collecti-ely as A839(
2hen+ in Eanuary 2011+ a new brea'through was announced( ,n A839 system+ the si>e of a small
mineral!water bottle+ was producing 10%. of heat continuously+ and capable of doing so for up to G
months( 2his de-ice was 'nown as the e!4at $energy cataly>er* and+ ama>ingly+ now used nic'el
$instead of palladium*+ protium or normal hydrogen $instead of deuterium* and a secret catalyst(
2he era of A839P $A839 plus* had arri-ed(
3ow+ in A839P+ it must be stressed that the e0act theoretical mechanisms in-ol-ed ha-e not been
fully identified+ but there are plenty of clues as to what is going on ! and e0perimental A839P
systems are deli-ering large "uantities of e0cess energy+ in the form of heat+ from -ery small fuel
samples $the last ha-ing deli-ered an estimated @%. of heat o-er @2 days from one gram of fuel+
ma'ing the energy density in these A839P systems now one million times that of gasoline ! and that
despite their prototype nature and being early in their de-elopment cycle(*(
Despite the wealth of e-idence now in fa-our of A839 and A839P+ as with =ons and Fleischmann+ the
scientific community is saying that what is being claimed by the A839P ad-ocates is not allowed by
the well!accepted laws of physics(
In parallel with the A839 systems+ one researcher+ 9andell &ills+ was loo'ing into e0ploiting a
different phenomenon he had become aware of through his early wor'+ namely the creation of
states of $ordinary* hydrogen where the electron was orbiting the nucleus below the generally
accepted ground state that electrons occupy around a single proton nucleus $that is+ a hydrogen
nucleus*( Lis wor' led to the identification $through e0amination of spectral absorption lines
amongst other means*+ of the identification of what Dr(&ills termed the hydrino+ and he has
Gordon Docherty October 24
2014 Page 10

continued to research into the possibility of producing wor'ing energy systems based on the release
of energy as the electrons around hydrogen nucleii are+ using the apparatus he is de-eloping+ forced
below the ground state(
,gain+ as with =ons and Fleischmann+ the scientific community came out in force against his wor'+
saying it was not allowed according to the well!accepted laws of physics ! despite copious
"uantities of measured e0cess energy emerging from his -arious in-entions+ in-entions that share
much in common with the A839P systems such as the e!4at mentioned abo-e(
1till+ the mainstream scientific community sits in denial+ waiting to be impressed( ,s they are oft
heard to repeat+ e0traordinary claims re"uire e0traordinary proof( In the meantime+ with appro-al
of the mainstream scientific community+ public funding goes on being poured into the to'ama'
reactor designs such as I289 and the 3iF approach+ despite there being no good reason to belie-e
that either of these approaches will e-er deli-ering a single .att of useful+ e0cess energy ! that is+
e-er deli-er a single+ useful+ commercially rele-ant reactor(
,nyway+ bac' to the e!4at+ on October Cth 2014+ the following report was released:
8!4at 9eport 9eleased: Q3ot a 4on-entional 1ource of 8nergyR $4old Fusion7A839 4onfirmed*
$ http:77www(e!catworld(com7201471070C7e!cat!report!released7 *
1i0 days later+ Aoc'heed &artin announced its brea'through system+ a system that hasn#t actually
been built or tested yet( 2he purpose of the Aoc'heed press release appears to ha-e been a general
plea to not cancel our program because of the awesome research deli-ering through D=F+ A839P
and Lydrinos
2he "uestion that really has to be as'ed is why the mainstream scientific community and
mainstream media ha-e not encouraged reporting on D=F+ A839P and Lydrino wor'( For e0ample+
the Dense =lasma Fusion wor' of Aawrence-ille =lasma =hysics is way ahead in the hot fusion field in
terms of concepts and de-elopment( It is also pri-ately funded+ including ma'ing use of the crowd!
funding mechanism+ and publishes many peer!re-iewed papers( Set+ no reports(
It is now in the process of fitting a new set of electrodes that will allow their D=F de-ice to surmount
its one remaining obstacle ! density ! for a net coefficient of performance $or 4O= ! energy out 7
energy in* way abo-e 1( ,s the de-ice produces electricity directly+ anything abo-e 1 $or+ with losses+
say 1(2* is e0cess energy to use( Set+ no reports in the mainstream outlets(
2he story is the same for 5lac'Aight =ower#s latest de-elopment+ the 1un4ell+ 5rillouin 8nergy#s A839
5oiler system and the 8!4at mentioned abo-e+ as well as any other A839 wor' that is going on+ all of
which is way further ahead than to'ama's+ the 3iF approach+ and the Aoc'heed proposal+ in terms
of 9TD+ design+ cost reduction+ high 4O=+ and nearness to entering the mar'et( Set+ we see in the
mainstream rather announcements such as the non!brea'through made by Aoc'heed(
1o+ what could be reported6
.ell+ for A839P+ aside from publication of the report+ on 8lfors'#s web!site and in the 1wedish
science and technology maga>ine 3yte'ni'+ 8lfors'#s 48O &agnus Oloffsson wrote an article
responding to the 8!4at testing report published by the independent 8uropean research team :
Gordon Docherty October 24
2014 Page 11

Sesterday+ astounding results from month!long measurements on a so!called Menergy
catalyserN were reported( 2he report+ written by researchers from :ppsala :ni-ersity+ %2L
and the :ni-ersity of 5ologna+ describes a release of heat that cannot be e0plained by
chemical reactions alone( Isotope changes in the analy>ed fuel instead indicate that nuclear
reactions might ha-e occurred at low temperatures( It implies that we may be facing a new
way to e0tract nuclear energy possibly without ioni>ing radiation and radioacti-e waste( 2he
disco-ery could potentially become -ery important for the world#s energy supply(
2he central part of the reactor is a narrow cylinder that is 20cm long( In the e0periments+ the
reactor operated at temperatures up to about 1 400 degrees 4elsius( , net energy release of
1 <00 '.h was obser-ed( 2he thermal energy output was three to four times the electrical
energy input( 2he reactor was filled with 1 gram hydrogen!loaded nic'el powder and some
In recent years+ 8lfors' has followed the de-elopment of what has come to be called A839 I
Aow 8nergy 3uclear 9eactions( 8lfors' has published an o-er-iew summary of A839( 8lfors'
has co!funded the wor' described in the report in addition to earlier measurements that
showed an anomalous e0cess of energy(
If it is possible to safely operate and control these reactions that are now belie-ed to be
nuclear reactions+ we may see a fundamental transformation of our energy system(
8lectricity and heat could then be produced with relati-ely simple components+ facilitating a
decentrali>ation of energy supply that could be both ine0pensi-e and part of a solution for
global climate change(
&ore research is needed to understand and e0plain( Aet us engage researchers in trying to
-alidate and then e0plaining how it wor's(
3ow+ it must be remembered+ this is coming from the 48O of 8lfors'+ the 1wedish 8lectrical :tilities#
9 T D 4ompany+ an organi>ation not 'nown for its flights of fancy(
2he results being tal'ed about by &agnus Oloffsson are summari>ed as follows:
1( 2esting was performed in 5arbengo $Augano*+ 1wit>erland+ in a laboratory placed at Uthe
testers#V disposal by Officine Ghidoni 1,(


4i-il 7 &echanical 8ngineering 7 &aterials 1cience 7 Ouality 4ontrol I strap!line MOuality+
competence and fle0ibility are our prerogati-esN(
2( 9eactor ma'eup 7 si>e I alumina cylinder+ 2 cm in diameter and 20 cm in length+ ending on
both sides with two cylindrical alumina bloc's $4 cm in diameter+ 4 cm in length*(

,lumina+ synthetically produced aluminum o0ide+ ,l2O@+ a white or nearly colourless
crystalline substance that is used as a starting material for the smelting of aluminum metal( It
also ser-es as the raw material for a broad range of ad-anced ceramic products and as an
acti-e agent in chemical processing(

MLidden energy inputsN chec'ed and ruled out I including hidden wires+ D4 offset+ magnetron+
Gordon Docherty October 24
2014 Page 12

batteries+ death ray $it would ha-e to be*W all en-ironmental measurements underta'en by
testers e0perienced in their fields W at an independent site(
@( .eight of acti-e powder sample used : 1g $0(01 'g*
4( 2o "uote:

M:pon completion of the gradual startup process procedure+ the thermal camera indicated an
a-erage temperature for the body of the reactor of 12G0X4+ while the =48 recorded an electric
power input to the 8!4at fluctuating at around C10 .( W ,fter this initial period+ we noticed
that the feedbac' system had gradually cut bac' the input current+ which was yielding about
?D0 .( .e therefore decided to increase the power+ and set it slightly abo-e D00 .( 2hereby+
we also obtained an important second measurement point( In a few minutes+ the reactor body
reached a temperature close to 1400X4( 1ubse"uent calculation pro-ed that increasing the
input by roughly 100 watts had caused an increase of about ?00 watts in power emitted(N


M.e also chose not to induce the O37OFF power input mode used in the &arch 201@ test+ W
$to a-oid ma'ing* W calculations troublesome and rendered analysis of the ac"uired data
<( Initial dummy test run below <00.+ followed by @2 day main 2est run with continuous higher
input power $C00 I D00.+ as abo-e*( e!4at not run in pulsed mode $which would ha-e
increased 4O= but made calculations and e0perimental e-idence gathering much+ much more
G( 2he measured energy balance between input and output heat yielded a 4O= factor of about
@(2 and @(G for the 12G0Y4 and 1400Y4 runs+ respecti-ely( 2he total net energy obtained during
the @2 days run was about 1(<&.h(
?( 1ample of fuel carefully e0amined with respect to its isotopic composition before and after the
run+ using se-eral standard methods: K=1+ 8D1+ 1I&1+ I4=!&1 and I4=!,81( From these
combined analysis methods+ significant "uantities of Ai+ ,l+ Fe and L in addition to 3i were
found in the fuel( Further+ protium but no deuterium was seen by 1I&1 $so+ non!radiati-e
protium main hydrogen isotope*

2he isotope composition in Aithium and 3ic'el was found to agree with a Mnatural
compositionN before the run+ while after the run it was found to ha-e been changed
C( Lowe-er+ no radioacti-ity+ alpha particles+ fast neutrons or other high!energy e/ecta detected+
despite rigorous obser-ations(
D( 9emar'able change in ash as compared to initial fuel samples:

Aithium content in unused fuel found to be in natural ratios : GAi ? B and ?Ai D@ B( Lowe-er at
the end of the run a depletion of ?Ai in the ash was re-ealed by both the 1I&1 and the I4=!&1
methods( In the 1I&1 analysis the ?Ai content was only ?(DB and in the I4=!&1 analysis it was
42(< B(

3ic'el content in unused fuel also found to be in natural ratios: i(e( <C3i $GC(1B*+ G03i $2G(2B*+
Gordon Docherty October 24
2014 Page 13

G13i $1(1B*+ G23i $@(GB*+ and G43i $0(DB*+ whereas the ash composition from 1I&1 is: <C3i
$0(C(B*+ G03i $0(<B*+ G13i $0B*+ G23i $DC(?B*+ G43i $0B*+ and from I4=!&1: <C3i $0(CB*+ G03i
$0(@B*+ G13i $0B*+ G23i $DD(@B*+ G43i $0B*(

1o+ the fuel is indeed changed at the nuclear le-el( 4all it what you will+ there are definitely
nuclear reactions going on(
10( =erformances obtain do not reflect the &,KI&:& potential of the reactor+ e-en at this point
in its de-elopment: the net production of the reactor after @2 daysR operation was $<C2< Z
10B* U&EV+ the density of thermal energy $if referred to an internal charge weighing 1 g* was
$<(C [ 10G Z 10B* U&E7'gV+ while the density of power was e"ual to $2(1 [ 10G Z 10B* U.7'gV(
2hese -alues place the 8!4at 2.O O9D891 OF &,G3I2:D8 $on a 9agone plot* beyond any
'nown con-entional energy source( 8-en if conser-ati-ely repeating the same calculations
using the weight of the whole reactor $including the casing* rather /ust the powder+ the results
confirm the non!con-entional nature of the form of energy generated by the 8!4at+ namely
$1(@ [ 104 Z 10B* U&E7'gV for thermal energy density+ and $4(? [ 10@ Z 10B* U.7'gV for power
1o+ the news is truly remar'able I and J89S positi-e(

Finally+ we li-e in an era of man!made climate change+ with the release of 4arbon Dio0ide o-er the
last 1<0 years being one of the prime culprits for global warming( 1o+ will fossil fuels melt the global
economy6 In fact+ they are already destroying it+ and not /ust in terms of global warming( 1adly+ the
current status "uo with fossil fuel usage is not /ust about energy but about political power ! as we
see li-ed out on our tele-ision screens e-ery wee' of the year(
Set+ there are alternati-es+ and many more than those in power would want to admit to( 3ow+
.ind+ .a-e+ Lydro and 1olar are all possibilities+ but they do ha-e their limitations ! including the
geopolitical ones of ownership of 1upply $5uilding a power array in the 1ahara might loo' appealing+
but it would be in politically unstable countries ! and the desert is a harsh and dirty en-ironment+
especially for solar panels*+ as well as cost+ continuity of supply $for which an alternati-e such as gas
is re"uired* and damage to the en-ironment(
1o+ the time is now right to spread the argument to loo' at what else is $or soon will be* out there !
an energy source that will wor' anywhere+ anyplace+ anytime+ and not be sub/ect to the instabilities
and whims of despotic regimes+ an energy source that can be used to eliminate fossil reser-es as
fuels altogether ! after all+ the chemical industry needs fossil reser-es for ma'ing much!needed
substances such as medicines+ plastics+ high!tech materials+ and fertili>ers+ so why burn them6
Of course+ there is traditional fission power+ but that produces long!li-ed radioacti-e waste+
something that has to!date caused many problems of its own( 2his+ howe-er+ is where A839
technology first comes into its own+ as &itsubishi Lea-y Industries has been granted a patent by the
8uropean =atent Office for a M3uclide transmutation de-ice and nuclide transmutation methodN
that+ as the introduction to the patent states+ will allow for the transformation of long!li-ed
radioacti-e waste into short!li-ed radioacti-e nuclides or stable nuclides and the transmutation of
abundant elements into rare earth elements $the patent application was filed in 2001+ but was only
Gordon Docherty October 24
2014 Page 14

finally granted on December @ 201@: the in-entors are listed as Sasuhiro Iwamura+ 2a'ehi'o Itoh and
&itsuru 1a'ano with the applicant being &itsubishi Lea-y Industries+ Atd(*( 2he implications of this
alone are enormous+ as it finally means a process can be de-eloped to clean!up fissile waste
material+ brea'ing waste products with half!li-es of thousands of years down into products with only
a -ery short half!life waste of the order of a decade or so( &uch of the waste in 1ellafield has
already been there 20 years or more+ so this is good news for dealing with a problem we already
2he best bit is yet to come+ howe-er+ as the process in-ol-ed is a metal deuteride 7 metal hydride
process ! the same basis as A839 and similar de-elopments(
2o understand why the best bit is yet to come+ it is necessary to loo' bac' twenty fi-e years: on
&arch 2@rd 1DCD+ 1tanley =ons and &artin Fleischmann announced to the world their disco-ery of a
new form of energy+ one that "uic'ly became 'nown as 4old Fusion( 2he world reacted with
surprise+ s'epticism and+ ultimately+ derision+ as famous names in science sought to replicate the
success( :nfortunately for the world+ these famous names+ in their haste to grab the crown+ failed in
their attempts( ,t the time+ it was claimed =ons and Fleischmann had been mista'en+ that there was
no effect or that worse they were charlatans and frauds( 4old fusion disappeared as "uic'ly as it had
come( 2hose whose li-elihoods and go-ernment grants depended on maintaining the status "uo in
energy and energy research breathed a collecti-e sigh of relief(
3ow+ howe-er+ twenty fi-e years on+ the world faces a perfect storm as climate change+ energy
security+ energy demand+ demand for water and demand on scarce resources combine to threaten
not /ust our way of life but our -ery sur-i-al( 2he need for a safe+ secure+ clean+ ine0pensi-e+
plentiful+ reliable supply of energy has ne-er been more pressing+ yet the options on the table ha-e
apparently remained+ after 2< years+ oil+ coal+ gas and fission $namely+ uranium*+ often from
politically unstable regions of the world+ with some renewables: e-en the renewables are coming
under pressure+ howe-er+ as their cost+ need for energy storage 7 augmentation+ need for land and
green credentials $solar and wind generators in particular re"uiring materials that despoil the 8arth
in a big way to e0tract* all come under fire(
1o+ is there another way6 2wenty fi-e years on+ is there nothing that can be done to resurrect the
promise of 4old Fusion6 ,ccording to popular mythology+ and the -ested powers that be+ 4old
Fusion is dead( 3othing could be further from the truth+ howe-er( In fact+ 4old Fusion sur-i-ed the
initial sa-aging it recei-ed at the hands of the famous names+ albeit in small+ out of the way
laboratories well off the beaten trac'( 2hese small laboratories continued to wor' on ! and+ more
importantly+ understand+ the wor' underta'en by =ons and Fleischmann( 2his time+ through careful
replication $the de-il is in the details*+ reflection and ad/ustment ! that is+ using proper 98!search
techni"ues ! they not only replicated the effects+ they enhanced and impro-ed on them: li'e some
long lost secret of the ancients+ the secrets of 4old Fusion ha-e been slowly re-ealing themsel-es+ as
dedicated indi-iduals ha-e searched+ searched and searched again $the origin of the word research:
98!search* by trial and error to find out what wor'ed and what did not( ,s a result of this wor'+ a
whole new set of research a-enues into Aow 8nergy 3uclear 9eactions $A839*+ Aattice ,ssisted
3uclear 9eactions $A,39*+ 4ontrolled 8lectron 4apture 9eaction $4849*+ 2ransmutation+ 4old
Fusion and Lydrino formation+ all under the umbrella of 4ondensed &atter 3uclear 1cience
$4&31* ha-e opened up( 2he result has been the de-elopment of competing theories and models
Gordon Docherty October 24
2014 Page 15

that+ whilst appearing superficially different+ share many of the same effects and are indeed now
being seen as different combinations of these same effects in different proportions( &ost
interestingly+ from the initial wor' of =ons and Fleischmann $which+ by their own admission+ they
partly misunderstood at the time+*+ where only a small amount of e0cess power was sporadically
detected+ reliable e0cess power production into the 'ilowatts and beyond is now being seen(
1o+ after twenty fi-e years+ and facing the perfect storm+ is it not time to open our minds and re-isit
the field of 4old Fusion in its many new forms of Aow 8nergy 3uclear 9eactions $A839*+ Aattice
,ssisted 3uclear 9eactions $A,39*+ 4ontrolled 8lectron 4apture 9eaction $4849*+ 2ransmutation+
Lydrino formation and Dense =lasma Fusion6 If you can suspend the pre/udice that has surrounded
this area of research for the last twenty fi-e years+ you may be pleasantly surprised with what you

)nd rememer# all these de*ices are H+GH,'N'RG- R)D+).+ON FR''# /roduce no lon0,term waste
and are fail,safe1
Further Resources
,s to Aithium+ the effects of Aithium in a nuclear reaction ha-e been o-erloo'ed once before:
and+ more factually:
On this last web!site+ we see: M5ut what if+ as 9ichter suggested+ lithium!? has some peculiar
properties of lattice assisted nuclear reactions+ or Mcold fusionN6N
2his suggestion was made bac' in the fifties+ and had rather dramatic conse"uences for the 4astle
5ra-o test( Fortunately+ with the configuration used in A839P+ run!away would cause melt!down
would cause the system to fail safe( 1o+ there is no need to run for the shelters with A839P(
2here is plenty more information on A839P at:
Ai'ewise+ for Lydrino theory+ more information is a-ailable at:
Finally+ for Aawrence-ille =lasma =hysics#s Dense =lasma Fusion wor':
all of which are rich -eins for news and stories on A839P+ Lydrinos and Dense =lasma Fusion(
Gordon Docherty October 24
2014 Page 16

and# rememer# all these de*ices are H+GH,'N'RG- R)D+).+ON FR''# /roduce no lon0,term waste
and are fail,safe1

Gordon Docherty October 24
2014 Page 17

1o+ instead of being doomed to li-e in a dying+ poisoned world+ where mass e0tinction $including
ours* is all that we ha-e left to loo' forward to+ I2 I1 2I&8 2O 4L,3G8 2L8 ,9G:&832 5S 59I3GI3G
I32O 2L8 8O:,2IO3 1O&82LI3G 38.+ something that would:
1( eliminate the need for oil+ coal+ gas+ uranium+ plutonium as fuel sources
2( address the global warming issue ! with a concerted effort+ carbon dio0ide emissions could
be all but eliminated
@( address the water shortage issue ! after all+ the real issue is not shortage of water but
shortage of clean water
4( redress imbalances in the geopolitical system+ reduce scarcity+ and increase stability
<( pro-ide enough fuel for o-er 1+<00+000+000 $1(< billion* years $at present demand* on
8arth alone(((and remember+ e-en something as ancient as G^be'li 2epe is only 12+000
years old+ so 1(< billion years should be more than enough time to pro-ide us with the
chance to mo-e beyond our current limitations(

Gordon Docherty October 24
2014 Page 18

9esonance is seen as a critical success factor in achie-ing Aow 8nergy 3uclear 9eactions ! and here#s
In tal'ing about the 4oulomb barrier+ there is a tendency to represent the barrier as a MwallN around
a nucleus+ which is itself represented as a MmarbleN( ,pproaching nucleii are li'ewise represented as
marbles $although+ strangely+ with no 4oulomb barrier* that need to climb the barrier of the first
for Fusion to occur( Low+ though+ can a sphere climb another sphere to get into the middle( 2his
representation is a result of thin'ing of nucleii as infinitely small points in space( 2his representation
is not accurate( 3ucleii are not /ust points( Instead+ nucleii sit toward the center of spherical field
wa-es that are generating by those nucleii( Further+ In form+ these generated wa-es are elastic( 2he
upshot of this is that any deformation in a wa-e around a nucleus will ta'e time to tra-el bac' in
toward the center( 2his point is -ery important to understanding Aow 8nergy 3uclear 9eactions
$A839*( 2he 4oulomb MbarrierN is not /ust a spherical wa-e around a nucleus+ it is one that is
e0ponentially attenuated $that is+ it starts off with a -ery high amplitude but "uic'ly reduces down to
bac'ground le-els*( ,ll $collections of* protons ha-e this barrier( 1o+ when one nucleus $including a
single proton* approaches another+ the highly attenuated spherical wa-es of each start to collide(
.hen this happens+ they interfere( 3ow+ if they are out of resonance+ their interference will cause
disturbances I the energy of each wa-es will be partly dissipated+ partly reflected bac' against the
nucleus( 2his rebound of energy will cause each nucleus to change direction( It is this that causes
the nucleii to mo-e apart+ and so not fuse(
3ow+ if you ram two nucleii together fast enough+ then the wa-es donRt ha-e enough time to reflect
energy bac' into the nucleus they surround before the nucleii approach each other sufficiently
closely that the two surrounding spherical wa-es Mreduce into chaosN ! before coalescing into a
single coherent wa-e( 2he result is that the two nucleii are now in the middle of the same+ larger
spherical wa-e( 2his is what hot fusion does( It is a messy process( 3ow+ if the fused nucleus
contains an e0cess of protons+ a part of the nucleus following fusion will be e/ected out of the center
to restore nuclear e"uilibrium in the middle( 2he part being e/ected will+ of course+ be surrounded
by a spherical wa-e ! its own 4oulomb barrier( 2his point is generally ignored when loo'ing at
Fusion( Set this e/ected part+ with its own field+ is able to cross the 4oulomb barrier of the larger
nucleus( .hy6 .ell+ as this smaller part of the nucleus was+ for a brief period+ a part of the larger
whole+ the field surrounding the smaller part would necessarily ha-e to be in harmony with the field
surrounding the larger whole I the field of the smaller part+ after all+ is emerging from the field of
the larger part(
2hus+ the field of the smaller part is in resonance with the field of the larger part I and here we see a
clue as to how A839 can wor'( If it is possible for a part of a nucleus to lea-e a nucleus due to
resonance+ why cannot two nucleii in resonance be brought together $e-en a small and large
2his is what is being proposed in A839( .hat+ though+ is so special about resonance6 .ell+ in
resonance+ as the two wa-e shells around two nucleii approach each other+ for any gi-en point on
the one shell+ in resonance+ that point is always going to be at the same le-el as the corresponding
$neighbouring* point on the other shell: to each opposing point+ the other loo's to be either
Gordon Docherty October 24
2014 Page 19

stationary or+ for a -ery short time window $delta!t*+ mo-ing a -ery small distance in the same
direction( For this to be the case+ not only do the wa-es ha-e to be resonant+ but the spin of each of
the nucleii has to be parallel to the other and mo-ing in the opposite direction I or >ero $the slower
the spin+ the longer the period delta!t can be*( 2o be able to -isuali>e this last point+ thin' first of an
aircraft landing gear( ,s the gear is lowered and brought into contact with the runway+ if the gear is
perpendicular to the surface+ the gear wor's as intended( If+ on the other hand+ the gear is not fully
lowered when it comes into contact with the runway $it is at an angle*+ the gear ris's s'idding
sideways $due to lateral force*+ with the possibility of collapse if the lateral force is great enough( ,s
a second analogy+ thin' of two wheels brought into contact+ such that their spin a0es are parallel and
their centers on a common plane $that is+ arranged so: !!I!! !!I!!*( If one of the wheels is spinning
and the other is not+ when the spinning wheel is brought into contact with the stationary one+ the
stationary wheel will start spinning+ in the same direction at the point of contact+ which+ on an
e0ternal frame of reference+ means that the two wheels will now be spinning in e"ual and opposite
directions+ one cloc'wise+ the other anti!cloc'wise( If those same two wheels+ howe-er+ are brought
together out of alignment $ _ 7 *+ then they will bounce off one another+ and a lot of heat and
friction generated+ especially if the wheels are free to mo-e in any direction(
1o+ the result of resonance and spin harmony is that the energy in the two wa-es can flow
seamlessly between the shells $there is no acceleration force anywhere*+ allowing the two wa-es to
combine and merge into one I ta'ing the nucleii at the center with them ! pro-iding the two nucleii
are still mo-ing together fast enough+ so that delta!t is 'ept -ery short(
1o+ any particle emitted from a nucleus+ must ta'e some of the field energy with it ! and what is
that field energy but some form of electromagnetic barrier $after all+ neutrons show no such barrier*(
2hat the magnetic field then collapses is li'ely a macro effect as the nucleii go out of resonance( It#s
still all there+ only in chaos( 5y applying a unifying field+ howe-er+ $re"uires energy*+ all will remain in
resonance: focus those em particles while letting them lose energy together+ you will ha-e created
an I9!laser( ,lternati-ely+ by passing the particles o-er a plate 7 through a tube+ the focused+
resonant particles should induce a current in the plate 7 tube( Do both+ and you can create
electricity -ia an induction collar and some form of I9!photocell $2hermo =hoto-oltaic or 2=J cell*(
3ow+ 2=Js are currently rather inefficient+ but it is li'ely only a matter of time before their efficiency
can be increased+ especially if the I9 source is an I9!laser( 2his resembles+ in some way+ the 1un4ell
setup of 5lac'light power(