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Department of Physics

Physics 12 Laboratory

Experiment 306│ Group No. 2│ June 17, 2014 1 of 7

ANALYS I S

In our current generation, almost everything is run by electricity. Electricity has

three components which are resistance, current and voltage. These components are

always part a simple circuits. There are two types of circuits, the series and the parallel

circuit. In a series circuit the components are arranged end to end and so the electric

current flows through the first component, then through the next component and so on,

until it reaches the battery again. On the other hand, in a parallel circuit, the current

splits as it reaches a branch so the current flows around both branches.

The relation of the three components mentioned above is governed by the Ohm’s

Law. The Ohm’s Law states that “the amount of electric current through a metal

conductor in a circuit is directly proportional to the voltage impressed across it, for any

given temperature”. This law is represented as,

**where I is the current
**

Fig.1 Experiment Proper of Experiment 306

Mapúa Institute of Technology

Department of Physics

Physics 12 Laboratory

Experiment 306│ Group No. 2│ June 17, 2014 2 of 7

through the conductor in units of amperes, V is the potential difference measured across

the conductor in units of volts, and R is the resistance of the conductor in units ohms.

In this experiment, we discovered how the current and voltage flows in the series

and the parallel circuits. We also investigated the relationship of the current and the

voltage to each resistor. Through this experiment we justified what the Ohm’s law says

with regards to the series and the parallel series. The following material shown below

are the materials needed in order to perform the experiment.

3 Batteries 3 Resistance Boxes

Ammeter

Mapúa Institute of Technology

Department of Physics

Physics 12 Laboratory

Experiment 306│ Group No. 2│ June 17, 2014 3 of 7

Connecting Wires

Multimeter / VOM

Mapúa Institute of Technology

Department of Physics

Physics 12 Laboratory

Experiment 306│ Group No. 2│ June 17, 2014 4 of 7

The experiment is divided into two

parts; the first part deals with resistors in

series. The first thing we did was we was

we connected the three batteries provided

to us. Using the three resistors, we built

the circuit through the use of the

connecting wires and we followed the

diagram shown in Fig. 2. Afterwards we

connected the VOM across the resistors one at a time to measure the following voltages:

**We did the same thing when we measured the current of each resistor.
**

After that we determined the equivalent resistance and computed for the total current

and voltage flowing through the circuit and each resistor by using the ohms laws. The

following data below is the data gathered after conducting the experiment.

Resistance 1, (

)

Resistance 2, (

)

Resistance 3, (

)

Total Resistance, (

)

Total Voltage, (

)

TABLE 1. SERIES CIRCUIT

Experimental Computed

Voltage Across Resistance 1, (

) 0.816 V 0.816 V

Voltage Across Resistance 2, (

) 1.226 V 1.224 V

Voltage Across Resistance 3, (

) 1.628 V 1.632 V

Current Flowing through Resistance 1, (

) 0.021 A 0.0204 A

Current Flowing through Resistance 2, (

) 0.021 A 0.0204 A

Current Flowing through Resistance 3, (

) 0.021 A 0.0204 A

Total Current, (

) 0.021 A 0.0204 A

Percentage Difference 2.90 %

Fig.2 Series circuit diagram shown in the lab manual

Mapúa Institute of Technology

Department of Physics

Physics 12 Laboratory

Experiment 306│ Group No. 2│ June 17, 2014 5 of 7

Fig.3 Experiment Proper for Series Circuit

Base on the gathered data, we can

observe that the voltage in each resistor

varies but the current in each resistor are

all the same. This justifies what the

Ohm’s Law says about series circuit that

“the current is constant among the loads

whereas the total voltage is the

summation of all the voltage in each

load. The overall resistance is also the

sum total of the individual resistance

between the loads”. This means that when we deal with a series circuit, we have to treat

each resistor as one. Why? It’s because the current that flows in these resistors only

goes through a single path. The current is not used up by the components in a circuit.

Thus the current will be the same all throughout even though more resistors will be

added because there is only one path for

the electrons to travel.

The second part of the experiment

deals with resistors in parallel series. We

did the same procedure done in the first

part of the experiment. What makes this

part different from the first one is that

we built the circuit by following the

diagram presented in Fig.4. The

gathered data is presented below.

Fig.4 Parallel circuit diagram shown in the lab manual

Mapúa Institute of Technology

Department of Physics

Physics 12 Laboratory

Experiment 306│ Group No. 2│ June 17, 2014 6 of 7

Fig.5 Experiment Proper for Series Circuit

Resistance 1, (

)

Resistance 2, (

)

Resistance 3, (

)

Total Resistance, (

)

Total Voltage, (

)

TABLE 2. PARALLEL CIRCUIT

Experimental Computed

Voltage Across Resistance 1, (

)

3.65 V 3.65 V

Voltage Across Resistance 2, (

)

3.65 V 3.65 V

Voltage Across Resistance 3, (

)

3.65 V 3.65 V

Current Flowing through Resistance 1, (

) 0.075 A 0.073 A

Current Flowing through Resistance 2, (

) 0.049 A 0.049 A

Current Flowing through Resistance 3, (

) 0.049 A 0.049 A

Total Current, (

) 0.173 A 0.171 A

Percentage Difference 1.16 %

Based on the gathered data, we can observe that the flow of the voltage in each

resistor is the same but the current varies. Compared to the series circuit, the parallel

circuit shows the opposite result of the first part of the experiment. The gathered data

further proves the Ohm’s Law that when it

comes to parallel circuits, “the voltage is

constant among the loads whereas the total

current is the summation of all the current

in each load. The reciprocal of the overall

resistance is the sum total of the

reciprocals of the individual resistance

between the loads”. To further explain why

it has the same voltage is because each end

of the resistors is connected with each

other, therefore establishing common points for voltages.

Mapúa Institute of Technology

Department of Physics

Physics 12 Laboratory

Experiment 306│ Group No. 2│ June 17, 2014 7 of 7

CONCLUS I ON

In the performance of the experiment, with the data gathered, it can be said that

the total current flowing through a series circuit is the same all throughout the

components; however, it is a different case in a parallel series, where the total current is

equal to the current flowing in each component.

The voltage reading in a series circuit varies but the summation of the voltage

reading in each component equals the voltage reading of the source; in a parallel series,

the voltage reading is the same in all components.

Hence, in a series circuit, the current that flows through resistors is the same in

each component; but the voltage across each individual resistor varies, but their sum is

equal to the voltage across the battery, and; the resistance of a series of resistors is equal

to the sum of each resistor. In a parallel circuit, the current flowing through the battery

is equal to the total of the current/s flowing through each component; but the voltage is

the same as the source and the components, and; the resistance is equal to the reciprocal

of the sum of the reciprocals of each resistor.

Among the many different ways a circuit can be assembled, the two simplest

types of circuits are the series and parallel circuits.

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