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PDA Speaker Response With & Without Compensation

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Initial Speaker
Response
Compensated
Response
Biquad Filter
Compensation
Application Report
SLOA152–December 2010
Analog Active Audio Filters
Stephen Crump .......................................................................................................... Audio Products
ABSTRACT
Analog active audio filters can be used to compensate frequency response problems in a variety of
systems. Their responses are examined here to simplify the filter design task for design engineers.
Contents
1 Introduction .................................................................................................................. 1
2 First Order Filters ........................................................................................................... 2
3 Second Order Filters ....................................................................................................... 3
4 Biquadratic Filters ........................................................................................................... 4
5 Analog Filter Implementations: Second-Order Filters. ................................................................. 5
6 Analog Filter Implementations: Biquadratic Filters. ..................................................................... 7
1 Introduction
Active audio filters may be used to compensate problems in frequency response of audio systems and
loudspeakers. This paper deals with analog filters. These filters can produce a response that is
approximately the inverse of a system response or a loudspeaker acoustic response so that when the two
are summed the result is nearly flat. They may also be used to produce the difference of a target response
minus the system or loudspeaker response, so that when the two are summed the result is nearly the
target. In either case the final response is more accurate or more pleasing.
Cell phone and PDA speaker responses like the one shown below often have annoying peaks that reduce
intelligibility. This is compensated with the response of a biquad filter, also shown. The sum, the
compensated response, is much more pleasing and far more intelligible than the original.
1 SLOA152–December 2010 Analog Active Audio Filters
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Biquad
Valley
Filter
+
-
V
I
V
O
43 kW
22 nF 22 nF
10 kW 5.6 kW
1.2 kW 1.5 kW
First Order Filters www.ti.com
SPACER
The schematic for the biquad filter is at right.
This and other filters are discussed in detail in
this paper.
This paper begins with the relationship between filter singularities and their responses. Then it considers a
number of possible filter implementations. (It’s typically easier to adjust a set of filter singularities to
achieve the best result than to adjust the numerous component values in a circuit. Once the singularities
are decided the filter usually can be implemented relatively easily.) It provides equations for responses
and the parameters in them and discusses optimizing component choices.
Audio filters may be first, second or higher order. First and second order analog filters are generally well
understood and their audio uses are somewhat limited, so they are examined briefly. The paper also
examines biquadratic filters, or biquads, in more depth because they are more powerful tools for response
compensation or EQ. Bridged-T filters will be added in a later version.
2 First Order Filters
First-order filters implement responses with single poles as their denominators. They have limited
response bands, either low-pass or high-pass, which are described below.
• Low pass: H(s) = H
o
w
o
/ ( s + w
o
).
For small s, this is H
o
, flat low-frequency response; for large s, it is H
o
w
o
/ s, a first-order rolloff.
• High pass: H(s) = H
o
s / ( s + w
o
).
For large s, this is H
o
, flat high-frequency response; for small s, it is H
o
s / w
o
, a first-order rollup.
2 Analog Active Audio Filters SLOA152–December 2010
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2nd-ORDER FILTER RESPONSES, H = 1, = 0.2/0.5/1/2
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www.ti.com Second Order Filters
3 Second Order Filters
Second-order filters implement responses with quadratic terms as their denominators. They have limited
response bands, either low-pass, band-pass or high-pass, which are described below.
(1)
• Low pass: H(s) = H
o
w
o
2
/ (s
2
+ a w
o
s + w
o
2
).
For small s, this is H
o
, flat low-frequency response; for large s, it is H
o
w
o
2
/ s
2
, a second-order rolloff.
Response magnitude is G(w) = sqrt(H
o
2
w
o
4
/ (w
4
+ w
2
w
o
2
(a
2
– 2) + w
o
4
) ).
Phase is Φ(w) = p/2 – arctan( a w
o
w / (w
o
2
– w
2
)).
SPACER
• Band pass: H(s) = H
o
a w
o
s / ( s
2
+ a w
o
s + w
o
2
).
For small s, this is H
o
a s / w
o
, an increasing first-order response or rollup; for large s, it is H
o
a w
o
/ s, a
decreasing first-order response or rolloff. At s = jw
o
, it is H
o
, band-center response.
Response magnitude is G(w) = sqrt(H
o
2
a
2
w
2
w
o
2
/ (w
4
+ w
2
w
o
2
(a
2
– 2) + w
o
4
) ).
Phase is Φ(w) – arctan( a w
o
w / (w
o
2
– w
2
)).
SPACER
• High pass: H(s) = H
o
s
2
/ (s
2
+ a w
o
s + w
o
2
).
For large s, this is H
o
, flat high-frequency response; for small s, it is H
o
s
2
/ w
o
2
, a second-order rollup.
Response magnitude is G(w) = sqrt(H
o
2
w
4
/ (w
4
+ w
2
w
o
2
(a
2
– 2) + w
o
4
) ).
Phase is Φ(w) = p – arctan( a w
o
w / (w
o
2
– w
2
)).
SPACER
H
o
scales response magnitude, while w
o
sets the characteristic frequency, the frequency at which the filter
operates. The variable a sets the sharpness of the peak the filter produces, which varies inversely with a
(sharper peak with smaller a).
(1)
Reference: Operational Amplifiers, Design and Applications, Graeme, Tobey and Huelsman, Burr-Brown, McGraw-Hill Book Company,
1971, ISBN 07-064917-0, pages 284-286.
3 SLOA152–December 2010 Analog Active Audio Filters
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BIQUAD RESPONSES vs. FILTER FORM
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Single Peak
Single Valley
Low Frequency Boost High Frequency Boost
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Biquadratic Filters www.ti.com
4 Biquadratic Filters
Biquadratic or biquad filters implement responses with quadratic terms for both their numerators and their
denominators. They have wide responses, with a single peak or valley or with low or high frequency boost
with or without peaking. Their responses have the following form.
H(s) = H
o
( s
2
+ a
Z
w
Z
s + w
Z
2
) / ( s
2
+ a
P
w
P
s + w
P
2
).
Filter response is influenced by relationships between w
Z
and w
P
and between a
Z
and a
P
.
• Single peak or valley. The filter produces this response when w
Z
and w
P
are equal.
If a
Z
is greater than a
P
the filter produces a peak. If a
P
is greater than a
Z
the filter produces a valley.
SPACER
• Low frequency boost. The filter produces this response when w
Z
is greater than w
P
.
If a
Z
is less than about 1, the response includes a valley above the boost frequency. If a
P
is less than
about 1, the response includes a peak below the boost frequency.
SPACER
• High frequency boost. The filter produces this response when w
P
is greater than w
Z
.
If a
Z
is less than about 1, the response includes a valley below the boost frequency. If a
P
is less than
about 1, the response includes a peak above the boost frequency.
SPACER
Response magnitude is G(w) = sqrt( (w
4
+ w
2
w
z
2
(a
z
2
– 2) + w
z
4
) / (w
4
+ w
2
w
p
2
(a
p
2
– 2) + w
p
4
) ).
Phase is Φ(w) = arctan( a
Z
w
Z
w / (w
Z
2
– w
2
) ) – arctan( a
P
w
P
w / (w
P
2
– w
2
) ).
Traces in the graph that follows illustrate something of the range of responses a biquad filter can
generate. The responses are arranged as follows for clarity.
• Single peak and valley responses are presented in the order of decreasing peaks, or decreasing a
Z
with respect to a
P
. For all these responses H
o
is 1 and w
Z
and w
P
are 1 kHz.
SPACER
• Low and high frequency boost responses are presented in the order of decreasing peaks and valleys,
or increasing a
Z
and a
P
. Also, a
Z
and a
P
are made equal, w
Z
and w
P
are placed symmetrically around
1kHz, and H
o
is set to 0.5 for low frequency boost and 2 for high frequency boost, to make the
responses symmetrical around zero dB and 1kHz.
SPACER
4 Analog Active Audio Filters SLOA152–December 2010
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BIQUAD RESPONSES vs. H , , , ,
o z z p p
a v a v
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a a z 1 p 0.18
a a z 3 p 2
a a z 2 p 3
a a z 0.18 p 1
a a z 0.28 p 0.28
a a z 0.75 p 0.75
a a z 0.4 p 0.4
a a z 1.5 p 1.5
a a z 0.28 p 0.28
a a z 0.75 p 0.75
a a z 0.4 p 0.4
a a z 1.5 p 1.5
-
+
V
I
V
O
R1 R2
C1
C2
Inverting
R3
+
-
V
I
V
O
R1 R2
C2
C2
Rs Rf
Non-Inverting
K = 1 + Rf/Rs
V +
I
V -
O
R1 R2
C1
C2
Differential
R3
+
-
V -
I
R4 R5
R6
C3
+
-
V +
O
R4 = R1; R5 = R2; R6 = R3; C3 = C2
R3
R1
R3
R1
f
s
R
K = 1+
R
æ ö
ç ÷
è ø
1
(R1 R2 C1 C2) ´ ´ ´
1
(R2 R3 C1 C2) ´ ´ ´ ( )
1
R2 R3 (C1 2) C2 ´ ´ ´ ´
R1 C1 R2 C2 R1 C2
(1-K)
R2 C2 R1 C1 R2 C1
´ ´ ´
´ + +
´ ´ ´
( )
( )
R2 R3
C2 R2 R3
+ +
C1 2 R3 R2 R1
é ù
´
æ ö ê ú
´
ç ÷
ê ú
´ è ø
ê ú
ë û
( )
( )
R2 R3
C2 R2 R3
+ +
C1 R3 R2 R1
é ù
´
ê ú
´
ê ú
ê ú
ë û
www.ti.com Analog Filter Implementations: Second-Order Filters.
Note that a
Z
and a
P
do not have to be equal! Varying a
Z
and a
P
can create responses that range among
and beyond the extremes in the graph.
5 Analog Filter Implementations: Second-Order Filters.
Second-order filters may be non-inverting or inverting. The schematics below show single-ended forms,
both non-inverting and inverting, and an inverting, differential form, with equations for their H
o
, a and w
o
.
Low-Pass Filters
Non-Inverting Inverting Differential Inverting
H
o
w
o
a
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-
+
V
I
V
O
R1
C1
C2
Inverting
R3
R
2
+
-
V
I
V
O
R1
C2
C1
Rs Rf
R2
Non-Inverting
K = 1 + Rf/Rs
R
3
Differential
-
+
+
-
R1
R
2
R3
R4 R5
C1
C2
C3
C4
V -
O
V +
O
V +
I
V -
I
R4 = R1; R5 = R3; C3 = C1; C4 = C2
f
s
R
K = 1+
R
æ ö
ç ÷
è ø
R3 / R1
C2
1+
C1
æ ö
ç ÷
è ø
R3 / R1
C2
1+
C1
æ ö
ç ÷
è ø
1
R1 R2 C1 C2 ´ ´ ´
1
R3 C1 C2 R1 R2
R1+R2
´ ´ ´ ´ æ ö
ç ÷
è ø ( )
1
R3 C1 C2 R1 R2/2
R1+R2/2
æ ö
´ ´ ´ ´
ç ÷
ç ÷
è ø
R1 C1 R2 C2 R1 C2
(1-K)
R2 C2 R1 C1 R2 C1
´ ´ ´
´ + +
´ ´ ´
( ) ( )
C1 C2 R1×R2
C2 C1 R1+R2 R3
æ ö
é ù
ç ÷ + ´
ê ú
ç ÷
ê ú
ë û
è ø
( ) ( )
C1 C2 R1×R2/2
C2 C1 R1+R2 R3
æ ö
é ù
ç ÷ + ´
ê ú
ç ÷
ê ú
ë û
è ø
-
+
Inverting
R
1
R2
C1 C2
C3
V
O
V
I
+
-
Rs Rf
Non-Inverting
K = 1 + Rf/Rs
R1
R
2
V
O
C1
C2
V
I
Differential
-
+
+
-
R
1
R2
R3
C1 C2
C3
C4
C5
C6
V -
O
V +
O
V -
I
V +
I
C4 = C1; C5 = C2; C6 = C3; R3 = R2
C1
C3
f
s
R
K = 1+
R
æ ö
ç ÷
è ø
R3 / R1
C2
1+
C1
æ ö
ç ÷
è ø
1
(R1 R2 C1 C2) ´ ´ ´
1
(R1 R2 C2 C3) ´ ´ ´
1
R1
R2 C2 C3
2
æ ö
´ ´ ´
ç ÷
è ø
( ) ( ) ( )
R1 C1 R2 C2 R1 C2
(1-K)
R2 C2 R1 C1 R2 C1
æ ö æ ö æ ö
´ ´ ´
´ + + ç ÷ ç ÷ ç ÷
ç ÷ ç ÷ ç ÷
è ø è ø è ø
( ) R1 / 2 C1 C2 C3
+ +
C3 C2 R2 C2 C3
æ ö é ù
´ ç ÷ ê ú
ç ÷
´ ê ú
ë û è ø
C1 C2 C3 R1
+ + ×
C3 C2 R2 C2xC3
é ù
ê ú
ë û
Analog Filter Implementations: Second-Order Filters. www.ti.com
Band-Pass Filters
Non-Inverting Inverting Differential Inverting
H
o
w
o
a
High-Pass Filters
Non-Inverting Inverting Differential Inverting
H
o
w
o
a
6 Analog Active Audio Filters SLOA152–December 2010
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-
+
R1
R2
R3
R4
C1 C2
V
O
V
I
R5
K = -R5/R4
Inverting
-
+
+
-
R1
R4
C1 C2
V -
O
V +
O
V -
I
V +
I
C1 C2
R1
R5
2

*

R
3
R2
R4
R2
R5
K = R5/R4
Differential
+
-
R1
R2
R3
R
4
C1 C2
Rs Rf
V
O
V
I
K = 1 + Rf/Rs
Non-Inverting
R5
(NEGATIVE)
R4
-
R5
R4
f
s
R
1+
R
R3
(R2 R3) +
1
(R1 DR2 C1 C2)
1
R1DR2 R4 C1C2
R1+R4
æ ö
ç ÷
è ø
( )
(R1 + R4) DR2 (C1 +C2)+R1R4C2 (1-KD)
R1 DR2 R4 C1 C2 × (R1 + R4)
( ) C1 + C2 DR2
(R1 C1 C2)
www.ti.com Analog Filter Implementations: Biquadratic Filters.
6 Analog Filter Implementations: Biquadratic Filters.
Biquadratic filters also may be non-inverting, inverting, or differential inverting. The schematics below
show all these forms with equations for their H
o
, a and w
o
. The equations begin with a factor K, the gain of
the inner opamp circuit, for each of the filter forms. The remaining quantities, D, H
o
, w
Z
, a
Z
, w
P
and a
P
, are
common to all the filter forms. D is a multiplier used to simplify the following equations.
Biquad Filters – High Frequency Boost
Non-Inverting Inverting Differential Inverting
K
D Multplier for R2 and K
H
o
K Response at high frequency
w
z
w
P
a
z
a
p
Schematics for low frequency boost filters follow. The input circuit in each filter includes a series chain of
capacitors to ground or virtual ground. This load could destabilize either the opamp in the filter or an
opamp driving the input, so a small value resistor, maybe 100Ω, is added in series with the final cap in the
chain. Also, feedback elements in the inverting and differential filters are capacitors. These provide no
path for DC bias, so a large value resistor, maybe 1 to 10 M, is added in parallel with the feedback cap. Of
course, these resistances will have a small effect on filter responses, but they should not degrade them
significantly.
7 SLOA152–December 2010 Analog Active Audio Filters
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-
+
Inverting
S
R1
R2
C1 C2 C3 C4
V
O
V
I
L
R3
K = -C4/C3
L = Large-Value
Resistor 3 Places
Differential
-
+
+
-
R1
R2
2

*

R
3
C1 C2 C3
C4
V -
O
V +
O
V -
I
L
C4
L
S
S
C1 C2 C3
R2
R1
V +
I
K = C4/C3
+
-
Non-Inverting
R1
R2
R3
C1 C2
C3
Rs Rf
V
O
V
I
S = Small-Value
Resistor 4 places
S
K = 1 + Rf/Rs
C4
(NEGATIVE)
C3
-
C4
C3
f
s
R
1+
R
R3
(R2 R3) +
( )
K C1C2
C1C2+C1C3+C1C3
´
1
(R1 DR2 C1 C2)
( ) ( )
1
R1DR2 C1C2 + C1C3 + C1C3 ´
( ) ( )
DR2 (C1 + C2)+R1C3 + R1C2 (1-KD)
R1 DR2 C1 C2 + C1C3+C2C3
´ ´
´
( ) ( ) C1 + C2 DR2
(R1 C1 C2)
Analog Filter Implementations: Biquadratic Filters. www.ti.com
Biquad Filters – Low Frequency Boost
Non-Inverting Inverting Differential Inverting
K
D Multplier for R2 and K
H
o
Response at low frequency
w
z
w
P
a
z
a
p
8 Analog Active Audio Filters SLOA152–December 2010
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+
-
Non-Inverting
There are NO Inverting or
Differential versions
because each of these
loads the output of the
input network and
produces some low or
high frequency shelf.
R1
R2
R3
C1 C2
Rs Rf
V
O
V
I
K = 1 +Rf/Rs
f
s
R
1+
R
( )
R3
R2 + R3
1
(R1 DR2 C1C2)
1
(R1 DR2 C1 C2)
( )
DR2 (C1 + C2)+ R1 C2 (1-KD)
R1 DR2 C1 C2
´ ´ ( )
( )
C1 + C2 DR2
R1C1C2
´
www.ti.com Analog Filter Implementations: Biquadratic Filters.
Biquad Filters – Single Peak or Valley
Non-Inverting
K
D Multiplier for R2 and K
H
o
K Response at very low and high frequencies
w
z
w
P
(= w
z
)
a
z
a
p
The most complicated quantities are a
Z
and a
P
, so we will look at these in some detail. As we will see, it is
more difficult to achieve low values of a
Z
and a
P
than high, so we will concentrate on reducing these
quantities. We will consider how to produce values as small as about 0.5, a value that provides significant
peaking.
a
Z
is the same for all 3 filter configurations. The ratio (C1+C2) / √(C1C2) in a
Z
ranges from about 3.5 to 2
to about 3.5 again as (C1/C2) ranges from 0.1 to 1 to 10, so a
Z
is reduced by making C1 and C2 different
in value. So it is typically best to make C1 and C2 similar in value. a
Z
can be controlled by varying the
ratio √(DR2/R1). If R1 = 20×DR2 and C1 = C2, a
Z
= 2 / √(20) = 0.45, probably close to the lowest value
needed.
For a
P
we face similar constraints with the first term or two in the numerators, but we have the advantage
of the last term, which is negative in non-inverting and differential filters for any KD product greater than 1.
So we can use this term to reduce a
P
if we need to do so. (Beware, however: if KD is made large enough,
the last term will cancel the rest of the numerator, a
P
will equal zero and the filter will oscillate at w
P
!)
Note that we do NOT have this advantage in inverting biquads! In those, since K is negative, the sum (1-
KD) is always greater than 1. As a result, it is likely to be very difficult to achieve low values of a
P
. For this
reason inverting biquads are not likely to be generally useful in EQ work.
Single peak or valley filters are a special case. In these, a
P
= a
Z
+ R1C2×(1-KD) / √(R1DR2C1C2). If C1
and C2 are similar in value, a
P
~= a
Z
+ (1-KD) √(R1/DR2) ~= a
Z
+ 2×(1-KD)/a
Z
. If KD is less than 1, (1-KD)
is positive, a
P
is greater than a
Z
and the filter creates a valley. If KD equals 1, a
P
equals a
Z
and there is no
peak or valley. If KD is greater than 1, the second term is negative, a
P
is smaller than a
Z
and the filter
creates a peak.
Note that, for single peak or valley filters, reducing a
Z
increases the magnitude of the second term in a
P
.
So in valley filters, with KD < 1, reducing a
Z
tends to increase a
P
. This tends to make the resulting valley
broad and deep. Make (1-KD) smaller to narrow or reduce the valley. In peak filters, with KD > 1, reducing
a
Z
tends to reduce a
P
by making the last term in a
P
more negative. This tends to make the resulting peak
narrow and high. Make (1-KD) less negative to broaden or reduce the peak.
9 SLOA152–December 2010 Analog Active Audio Filters
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