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How we can control the natural frequency and avoid resonance phenomenon from happening in the real life.

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Faculty engineering

Mechanical Vibration

Prepared by: Mohammad Nashat Abu-Sabbah

Control Of Natural Frequency : Project subject

Supervised by: Dr. Nabil Shabattat

Date of doing the project: THURSDAY (4/5/2014).

Date of submission: THURSDAY (6/5/2014).

1-Introduction:

First of all we have to know the title meaning of this

project in order to have full understanding about it…

Vibration: it could be simply defined as the rapid

motion that it repeats itself after an interval of

time.

Types of vibration

1-Free vibration:

Occurs when a mechanical system is set off with an

initial input and then allowed to vibrate freely.

Examples: pulling a spring back and then letting go or

hitting a tuning fork and letting it ring. The

mechanical system will then vibrate at one or more of

its "natural frequency" and damp down to zero.

2-Forced vibration:

Is when a time-varying disturbance (load,

displacement) is applied to a mechanical system,

The disturbance can be a harmonic, non-harmonic but

periodic, non-periodic, or a random.

Examples: shaking washing machine due to an

imbalance, transportation vibration (caused by truck

engine, springs, road, etc.), or the vibration of a building

during an earthquake.

Control Definition: is to adjust or the ability to

manage a machine, vehicle, and other moving

object, or limiting or regulating something.

Natural frequency: is the number of complete

cycles per second if a body is set to vibration and

left free, it will vibrate with a frequency natural to

that body called natural frequency, but if it is not

left free, and then it will vibrate in accordance with

the frequency of the vibrating agent. It is called

forced vibration.

Note: that if the frequency of forced vibration happens

to be the natural frequency, then Resonance will be set

up.

What it is resonance??

Mechanical resonance is the tendency of a mechanical

system to respond at greater amplitude when the

frequency of its oscillations matches the systems natural

frequency of vibration (its resonance frequency or

resonant frequency) than it does at other frequencies.

Why we worry about resonance occurring?

Because it may cause violent swaying motions and even

catastrophic failure in improperly constructed structures

including bridges, buildings and airplanes—a

phenomenon known as resonance disaster.

So we can obviously see that avoiding resonance

disasters is a major concern in every building, tower and

bridge construction project.

How we can avoid resonance occurrence?

It is well known that whenever the frequency of

excitation coincides with one of the natural frequencies

of the system, resonance occurs. The most prominent

feature of resonance is a large displacement. In most

mechanical and structural systems, large displacements

indicate undesirably large strains and stresses, which

can lead to the failure of the system; hence in any

system resonance conditions must be avoided.

In most cases, the excitation frequency cannot be

controlled, because it is imposed by the functional

requirements of the system or machine. We must

concentrate on controlling the natural frequencies of

the system to avoid resonance.

Fig (1): Increase of amplitude as damping decreases and frequency

approaches resonant frequency of a driven damped simple harmonic

oscillator.

2-Natural frequency controlling:

The natural frequency is related to the following

equation:

ω

n = (k/m)

1/2

As indicated in the previous equation, the natural

frequency of a system can be changed by varying either

the mass m or the stiffness k. In many practical cases,

however, the mass cannot be changed easily, since its

value is determined by the functional requirements of

the system.

For example, the mass of a flywheel on a shaft is

determined by the amount of energy it must store in

one cycle. Therefore, the stiffness of the system is the

factor that is most often changed to alter its natural

frequencies. For example, the stiffness of a rotating

shaft can be altered by varying one or more of its

parameters, such as materials or the number and

location of support points (bearings).

Methods of controlling natural frequency:

We want to maximize the natural frequency in order to

be different from the excitation frequency.

Ways to vary the natural frequency by changing the

mass of the system:

1) Installing a fixed mass on the beam or the plate on

certain locations.

2) Making some notches or grooves in the plate

3) Corrugated the plate so it has a bigger mass.

4) Change the material type of the actuator with

another has a lighter mass.

Ways to vary the natural frequency by changing the

equivalent stiffness of the system:

1) Elastic supports (like springs)

2) Fixed support (or stiff springs)

3) Bearing and supporting the plates with beams

4) Maximizing the natural frequency of a beam with an

intermediate elastic support.

Fig. 1. A uniform cantilever beam with an intermediate support.

5) Changing the material type of the coil and diameter

and the number of them to the equivalent stiffness of

the helical spring.

K = (d

4

G)/ (8D

3

n)

G is the modulus of rigidity of the material.

N is number of coils.

4-Conclusion:

For vibration many important applications in our

practical life and one of important phenomena is

resonance , avoiding resonance can be with a lot of

methods and one of them minimizing or maximizing the

natural frequency.

And in this report we have studied the effects of

changing natural frequency with the previous discussed

methods.

5-References:

Mechanical Vibration Singresu, S.Rao

Mechanics of Solids (Bela I. Sandor, University of

Wisconsin-Madison)

G.F. Franklin et al. "Feedback Control of Dynamic

Systems", 5th Edition. Upper Saddle River,NJ ,

2006, Pearson Education, Inc.

Wikipedia.com

Journal of Sound and Vibration 291 (2006) 1229–

1238

www.elsevier.com/locate/jsvi

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