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Tafila technical university

Faculty engineering

Mechanical Vibration

Prepared by: Mohammad Nashat Abu-Sabbah
Control Of Natural Frequency : Project subject
Supervised by: Dr. Nabil Shabattat

Date of doing the project: THURSDAY (4/5/2014).
Date of submission: THURSDAY (6/5/2014).








1-Introduction:
First of all we have to know the title meaning of this
project in order to have full understanding about it…
 Vibration: it could be simply defined as the rapid
motion that it repeats itself after an interval of
time.


Types of vibration
1-Free vibration:
Occurs when a mechanical system is set off with an
initial input and then allowed to vibrate freely.
Examples: pulling a spring back and then letting go or
hitting a tuning fork and letting it ring. The
mechanical system will then vibrate at one or more of
its "natural frequency" and damp down to zero.
2-Forced vibration:
Is when a time-varying disturbance (load,
displacement) is applied to a mechanical system,
The disturbance can be a harmonic, non-harmonic but
periodic, non-periodic, or a random.
Examples: shaking washing machine due to an
imbalance, transportation vibration (caused by truck
engine, springs, road, etc.), or the vibration of a building
during an earthquake.
 Control Definition: is to adjust or the ability to
manage a machine, vehicle, and other moving
object, or limiting or regulating something.
 Natural frequency: is the number of complete
cycles per second if a body is set to vibration and
left free, it will vibrate with a frequency natural to
that body called natural frequency, but if it is not
left free, and then it will vibrate in accordance with
the frequency of the vibrating agent. It is called
forced vibration.
Note: that if the frequency of forced vibration happens
to be the natural frequency, then Resonance will be set
up.

What it is resonance??
Mechanical resonance is the tendency of a mechanical
system to respond at greater amplitude when the
frequency of its oscillations matches the systems natural
frequency of vibration (its resonance frequency or
resonant frequency) than it does at other frequencies.
Why we worry about resonance occurring?
Because it may cause violent swaying motions and even
catastrophic failure in improperly constructed structures
including bridges, buildings and airplanes—a
phenomenon known as resonance disaster.
So we can obviously see that avoiding resonance
disasters is a major concern in every building, tower and
bridge construction project.
How we can avoid resonance occurrence?
It is well known that whenever the frequency of
excitation coincides with one of the natural frequencies
of the system, resonance occurs. The most prominent
feature of resonance is a large displacement. In most
mechanical and structural systems, large displacements
indicate undesirably large strains and stresses, which
can lead to the failure of the system; hence in any
system resonance conditions must be avoided.
In most cases, the excitation frequency cannot be
controlled, because it is imposed by the functional
requirements of the system or machine. We must
concentrate on controlling the natural frequencies of
the system to avoid resonance.
Fig (1): Increase of amplitude as damping decreases and frequency
approaches resonant frequency of a driven damped simple harmonic
oscillator.

2-Natural frequency controlling:
The natural frequency is related to the following
equation:
ω
n = (k/m)
1/2
As indicated in the previous equation, the natural
frequency of a system can be changed by varying either
the mass m or the stiffness k. In many practical cases,
however, the mass cannot be changed easily, since its
value is determined by the functional requirements of
the system.
For example, the mass of a flywheel on a shaft is
determined by the amount of energy it must store in
one cycle. Therefore, the stiffness of the system is the
factor that is most often changed to alter its natural
frequencies. For example, the stiffness of a rotating
shaft can be altered by varying one or more of its
parameters, such as materials or the number and
location of support points (bearings).
 Methods of controlling natural frequency:
We want to maximize the natural frequency in order to
be different from the excitation frequency.


Ways to vary the natural frequency by changing the
mass of the system:
1) Installing a fixed mass on the beam or the plate on
certain locations.
2) Making some notches or grooves in the plate





3) Corrugated the plate so it has a bigger mass.


4) Change the material type of the actuator with
another has a lighter mass.
Ways to vary the natural frequency by changing the
equivalent stiffness of the system:
1) Elastic supports (like springs)
2) Fixed support (or stiff springs)
3) Bearing and supporting the plates with beams

4) Maximizing the natural frequency of a beam with an
intermediate elastic support.

Fig. 1. A uniform cantilever beam with an intermediate support.

5) Changing the material type of the coil and diameter
and the number of them to the equivalent stiffness of
the helical spring.
K = (d
4
G)/ (8D
3
n)
G is the modulus of rigidity of the material.
N is number of coils.

4-Conclusion:
For vibration many important applications in our
practical life and one of important phenomena is
resonance , avoiding resonance can be with a lot of
methods and one of them minimizing or maximizing the
natural frequency.
And in this report we have studied the effects of
changing natural frequency with the previous discussed
methods.












5-References:
 Mechanical Vibration Singresu, S.Rao
 Mechanics of Solids (Bela I. Sandor, University of
Wisconsin-Madison)
 G.F. Franklin et al. "Feedback Control of Dynamic
Systems", 5th Edition. Upper Saddle River,NJ ,
2006, Pearson Education, Inc.
 Wikipedia.com
 Journal of Sound and Vibration 291 (2006) 1229–
1238
 www.elsevier.com/locate/jsvi