Chanakya Niti - Chapter One

1. Humbly bowing down before the almighty Lord Sri Vishnu, the Lord
of the three worlds, I recite maxims of the science of political ethics
(niti selected from the !arious satras (scriptures
". #hat man who by the study of these maxims from the satras
ac$uires a %nowledge of the most celebrated principles of duty, and
understands what ought and what ought not to be followed, and what
is good and what is bad, is most excellent.
&. #herefore with an eye to the public good, I shall spea% that which,
when understood, will lead to an understanding of things in their
proper perspecti!e.
'. (!en a pandit comes to grief by gi!ing instruction to a foolish
disciple, by maintaining a wic%ed wife, and by excessi!e familiarity
with the miserable.
). * wic%ed wife, a false friend, a saucy ser!ant and li!ing in a house
with a serpent in it are nothing but death.
+. ,ne should sa!e his money against hard times, sa!e his wife at the
sacrifice of his riches, but in!ariably one should sa!e his soul e!en at
the sacrifice of his wife and riches.
-. Sa!e your wealth against future calamity. .o not say, /0hat fear
has a rich man, of calamity1/ 0hen riches begin to forsa%e one e!en
the accumulated stoc% dwindles away.
2. .o not inhabit a country where you are not respected, cannot earn
your li!elihood, ha!e no friends, or cannot ac$uire %nowledge.
3. .o not stay for a single day where there are not these fi!e persons4
a wealthy man, a brahmin well !ersed in Vedic lore, a %ing, a ri!er and
a physician
15. 0ise men should ne!er go into a country where there are no
means of earning one6s li!elihood, where the people ha!e no dread of
anybody, ha!e no sense of shame, no intelligence, or a charitable
11. #est a ser!ant while in the discharge of his duty, a relati!e in
difficulty, a friend in ad!ersity, and a wife in misfortun.
1". He is a true friend who does not forsa%e us in time of need,
misfortune, famine, or war, in a %ing6s court, or at the crematorium
1&. He who gi!es up what is imperishable for that which is perishable,
loses that which is imperishable7 and doubtlessly loses that which is
perishable also.
1'. * wise man should marry a !irgin of a respectable family e!en if
she is deformed. He should not marry one of a low8class family,
through beauty. 9arriage in a family of e$ual status is preferable.
1). .o not put your trust in ri!ers, men who carry weapons, beasts
with claws or horns, women, and members of a royal family
1+. (!en from poison extract nectar, wash and ta%e bac% gold if it has
fallen in filth, recei!e the highest %nowledge (:rsna consciousness
from a low born person7 so also a girl possessing !irtuous $ualities
(stri-ratna e!en if she were born in a disreputable family.
1-. 0omen ha!e hunger two8fold, shyness four8fold, daring six8fold,
and lust eight8fold as compared to men
Chanakya Niti - Chapter Two
Chapter Two
1. ;ntruthfulness, rashness, guile, stupidity, a!arice, uncleanliness and
cruelty are a woman6s se!en natural flaws
". #o ha!e ability for eating when dishes are ready at hand, to be
robust and !irile in the company of one6s religiously wedded wife, and
to ha!e a mind for ma%ing charity when one is prosperous are the
fruits of no ordinary austerities.
&. He whose son is obedient to him, whose wife6s conduct is in
accordance with his wishes, and who is content with his riches, has his
hea!en here on earth.
'. #hey alone are sons who are de!oted to their father. He is a father
who supports his sons. He is a friend in whom we can confide, and she
only is a wife in whose company the husband feels contented and
). *!oid him who tal%s sweetly before you but tries to ruin you behind
your bac%, for he is li%e a pitcher of poison with mil% on top.
+. .o not put your trust in a bad companion nor e!en trust an ordinary
friend, for if he should get angry with you, he may bring all your
secrets to light.
-. .o not re!eal what you ha!e thought upon doing, but by wise
counsel %eep it secret, being determined to carry it into execution.
2. <oolishness is indeed painful, and !erily so is youth, but more
painful by far than either is being obliged in another person6s house.
3. #here does not exist a pearl in e!ery mountain, nor a pearl in the
head of e!ery elephant7 neither are the sadhus to be found
e!erywhere, nor sandal trees in e!ery forest.
=>ote4 ,nly elephants in royal palaces are seen decorated with pearls
(precious stones on their heads?.
15. 0ise men should always bring up their sons in !arious moral ways,
for children who ha!e %nowledge of niti-sastra and are well beha!ed
become a glory to their family.
11. #hose parents who do not educate their sons are their enemies7
for as is a crane among swans, so are ignorant sons in a public
1". 9any a bad habit is de!eloped through o!er indulgence, and many
a good one by chastisement, therefore beat your son as well as your
pupil7 ne!er indulge them. (/Spare the rod and spoil the child./
1&. Let not a single day pass without your learning a !erse, half a
!erse, or a fourth of it, or e!en one letter of it7 nor without attending
to charity, study and other pious acti!ity.
1'. Separation from the wife, disgrace from one6s own people, an
enemy sa!ed in battle, ser!ice to a wic%ed %ing, po!erty, and a
mismanaged assembly4 these six %inds of e!ils, if afflicting a person,
burn him e!en without fire
1). #rees on a ri!erban%, a woman in another man6s house, and %ings
without counsellors go without doubt to swift destruction.
1+. * brahmin's strength is in his learning, a %ing6s strength is in his
army, a vaishya's strength is in his wealth and a shudra's strength is in
his attitude of ser!ice
1-. #he prostitute has to forsa%e a man who has no money, the
subAect a %ing that cannot defend him, the birds a tree that bears no
fruit, and the guests a house after they ha!e finished their meals.
12. Brahmins $uit their patrons after recei!ing alms from them,
scholars lea!e their teachers after recei!ing education from them, and
animals desert a forest that has been burnt down.
13. He who befriends a man whose conduct is !icious, whose !ision
impure, and who is notoriously croo%ed, is rapidly ruined.
"5. <riendship between e$uals flourishes, ser!ice under a %ing is
respectable, it is good to be business8minded in public dealings, and a
handsome lady is safe in her own home.
1. In this world, whose family is there without blemish1 0ho is free
from sic%ness and grief1 0ho is fore!er happy1
". * man6s descent may be discerned by his conduct, his country by
his pronunciation of language, his friendship by his warmth and glow,
and his capacity to eat by his body.
&. Bi!e your daughter in marriage to a good family, engage your son
in learning, see that your enemy comes to grief, and engage your
friends in dharma. (:rsna consciousness.
'. ,f a rascal and a serpent, the serpent is the better of the two, for
he stri%es only at the time he is destined to %ill, while the former at
e!ery step.
). #herefore %ings gather round themsel!es men of good families, for
they ne!er forsa%e them either at the beginning, the middle or the
+. *t the time of the pralaya (uni!ersal destruction the oceans are to
exceed their limits and see% to change, but a saintly man ne!er
-. .o not %eep company with a fool for as we can see he is a two8
legged beast. Li%e an unseen thorn he pierces the heart with his sharp
2. #hough men be endowed with beauty and youth and born in noble
families, yet without education they are li%e the palasa flower, which is
!oid of sweet fragrance.
3. #he beauty of a cuc%oo is in its notes, that of a woman in her
unalloyed de!otion to her husband, that of an ugly person in his
scholarship, and that of an ascetic in his forgi!eness.
15. Bi!e up a member to sa!e a family, a family to sa!e a !illage, a
!illage to sa!e a country, and the country to sa!e yourself.
11. #here is no po!erty for the industrious. Sin does not attach itself to
the person practicing japa (chanting of the holy names of the Lord.
#hose who are absorbed in maunam (silent contemplation of the Lord
ha!e no $uarrel with others. #hey are fearless who remain always
0hat is too hea!y for the strong and what place is too distant for
those who put forth effort1 0hat country is foreign to a man of true
learning1 0ho can be inimical to one who spea%s pleasingly1
1'. *s a whole forest becomes fragrant by the existence of a single
tree with sweet8smelling blossoms in it, so a family becomes famous
by the birth of a !irtuous son.
1). *s a single withered tree, if set aflame, causes a whole forest to
burn, so does a rascal son destroy a whole family.
1+. *s night loo%s delightful when the moon shines, so is a family
gladdened by e!en one learned and !irtuous son.
1-. 0hat is the use of ha!ing many sons if they cause grief and
!exation1 It is better to ha!e only one son from whom the whole
family can deri!e support and peacefulness.
12. <ondle a son until he is fi!e years of age, and use the stic% for
another ten years, but when he has attained his sixteenth year treat
him as a friend.
13. He who runs away from a fearful calamity, a foreign in!asion, a
terrible famine, and the companionship of wic%ed men is safe.
"5. He who has not ac$uired one of the following4 religious merit
(dharma, wealth (artha, satisfaction of desires (kama, or liberation
(moksa is repeatedly born to die
"1. La%shmi, the Boddess of wealth, comes of Her own accord where
fools are not respected, grain is well stored up, and the husband and
wife do not $uarrel.
Chapter Four
1. #hese fi!e4 the life span, the type of wor%, wealth, learning and the
time of one6s death are determined while one is in the womb.
". ,ffspring, friends and relati!es flee from a de!otee of the Lord4 yet
those who follow him bring merit to their families through their
&. <ish, tortoises, and birds bring up their young by means of sight,
attention and touch7 so do saintly men afford protection to their
associates by the same means.
'. *s long as your body is healthy and under control and death is
distant, try to sa!e your soul7 when death is imminent what can you
). Learning is li%e a cow of desire. It, li%e her, yields in all seasons.
Li%e a mother, it feeds you on your Aourney. #herefore learning is a
hidden treasure.
+. * single son endowed with good $ualities is far better than a
hundred de!oid of them. <or the moon, though one, dispels the
dar%ness, which the stars, though numerous, cannot.
-. * stillborn son is superior to a foolish son endowed with a long life.
#he first causes grief for but a moment while the latter li%e a blaCing
fire consumes his parents in grief for life.
2. Desiding in a small !illage de!oid of proper li!ing facilities, ser!ing a
person born of a low family, unwholesome food, a frowning wife, a
foolish son, and a widowed daughter burn the body without fire.
3. 0hat good is a cow that neither gi!es mil% nor concei!es1 Similarly,
what is the !alue of the birth of a son if he becomes neither learned
nor a pure de!otee of the Lord1
15. 0hen one is consumed by the sorrows of life, three things gi!e
him relief4 offspring, a wife, and the company of the Lord6s de!otees.
11. :ings spea% for once, men of learning once, and the daughter is
gi!en in marriage once. *ll these things happen once and only once.
1". Deligious austerities should be practiced alone, study by two, and
singing by three. * Aourney should be underta%en by four, agriculture
by fi!e, and war by many together.
1&. She is a true wife who is clean (suci, expert, chaste, pleasing to
the husband, and truthful.
1'. #he house of a childless person is a !oid, all directions are !oid to
one who has no relati!es, the heart of a fool is also !oid, but to a
po!erty8stric%en man all is !oid.
1). Scriptural lessons not put into practice are poison7 a meal is poison
to him who suffers from indigestion7 a social gathering is poison to a
po!erty8stric%en person7 and a young wife is poison to an aged man.
1+. #hat man who is without religion and mercy should be reAected. *
guru without spiritual %nowledge should be reAected. #he wife with an
offensi!e face should be gi!en up, and so should relati!es who are
without affection.
1-. Eonstant tra!el brings old age upon a man7 a horse becomes old
by being constantly tied up7 lac% of sexual contact with her husband
brings old age upon a woman7 and garments become old through
being left in the sun.
12. Eonsider again and again the following4 the right time, the right
friends, the right place, the right means of income, the right ways of
spending, and from whom you deri!e your power.
13. <or the twice born the fire (*gni is a representati!e of Bod. #he
Supreme Lord resides in the heart of His de!otees. #hose of a!erage
intelligence (alpa-buddhi or kanista-adhikari see Bod only in His sri-
murti, but those of broad !ision see the Supreme Lord e!erywhere.
Chapter Five
1. *gni is the worshipable person for the twice born7 the brahmana for
the other castes7 the husband for the wife7 and the guest who comes
for food at the midday meal for all.
". *s gold is tested in four ways by rubbing, cutting, heating and
beating 88 so a man should be tested by these four things4 his
renunciation, his conduct, his $ualities and his actions.
&. * thing may be dreaded as long as it has not o!erta%en you, but
once it has come upon you, try to get rid of it without hesitation.
'. #hough persons be born from the same womb and under the same
stars, they do not become ali%e in disposition as the thousand fruits of
the badari tree.
). He whose hands are clean does not li%e to hold an office7 he who
desires nothing cares not for bodily decorations7 he who is only
partially educated cannot spea% agreeably7 and he who spea%s out
plainly cannot be a decei!er.
+. #he learned are en!ied by the foolish7 rich men by the poor7 chaste
women by adulteresses7 and beautiful ladies by ugly ones
-. Indolent application ruins study7 money is lost when entrusted to
others7 a farmer who sows his seed sparsely is ruined7 and an army is
lost for want of a commander.
2. Learning is retained through putting into practice7 family prestige is
maintained through good beha!iour7 a respectable person is
recognised by his excellent $ualities7 and anger is seen in the eyes.
3. Deligion is preser!ed by wealth7 %nowledge by diligent practice7 a
%ing by conciliatory words7 and a home by a dutiful housewife.
15. #hose who blaspheme Vedic wisdom, who ridicule the life style
recommended in the satras, and who deride men of peaceful
temperament, come to grief unnecessarily.
11. Eharity puts and end to po!erty7 righteous conduct to misery7
discretion to ignorance7 and scrutiny to fear.
1". #here is no disease (so destructi!e as lust7 no enemy li%e
infatuation7 no fire li%e wrath7 and no happiness li%e spiritual
1&. * man is born alone and dies alone7 and he experiences the good
and bad conse$uences of his karma alone7 and he goes alone to hell or
the Supreme abode.
1'. Hea!en is but a straw to him who %nows spiritual life (:rsna
consciousness7 so is life to a !aliant man7 a woman to him who has
subdued his senses7 and the uni!erse to him who is without
attachment for the world.
1). Learning is a friend on the Aourney7 a wife in the house7 medicine
in sic%ness7 and religious merit is the only friend after death.
1+. Dain which falls upon the sea is useless7 so is food for one who is
satiated7 in !ain is a gift for one who is wealthy7 and a burning lamp
during the daytime is useless.
1-. #here is no water li%e rainwater7 no strength li%e one6s own7 no
light li%e that of the eyes7 and no wealth more dear than food grain.
12. #he poor wish for wealth7 animals for the faculty of speech7 men
wish for hea!en7 and godly persons for liberation.
13. #he earth is supported by the power of truth7 it is the power of
truth that ma%es the sunshine and the winds blow7 indeed all things
rest upon truth.
"5. #he Boddess of wealth is unsteady (chanchala, and so is the life
breath. #he duration of life is uncertain, and the place of habitation is
uncertain7 but in all this inconsistent world religious merit alone is
"1. *mong men the barber is cunning7 among birds the crow7 among
beasts the Aac%al7 and among women, the malin (flower girl.
"". #hese fi!e are your fathers7 he who ga!e you birth, girdled you
with sacred thread, teaches you, pro!ides you with food, and protects
you from fearful situations.
"&. #hese fi!e should be considered as mothers7 the %ing6s wife, the
preceptor6s wife, the friend6s wife, your wife6s mother, and your own
1. Fy means of hearing one understands dharma, malignity !anishes,
%nowledge is ac$uired, and liberation from material bondage is gained.
". *mong birds the crow is !ile7 among beasts the dog7 the ascetic
whose sins is abominable, but he who blasphemes others is the worst
@&. Frass is polished by ashes7 copper is cleaned by tamarind7 a
woman, by her menses7 and a ri!er by its flow.
'. #he %ing, the brahmana, and the ascetic yogi who go abroad are
respected7 but the woman who wanders is utterly ruined.
). He who has wealth has friends. He who is wealthy has relati!es. #he
rich one alone is called a man, and the affluent alone are respected as
+. *s is the desire of Gro!idence, so functions one6s intellect7 one6s
acti!ities are also controlled by Gro!idence7 and by the will of
Gro!idence one is surrounded by helpers.
-. #ime perfects all li!ing beings as well as %ills them7 it alone is
awa%e when all others are asleep. #ime is insurmountable.
2. #hose born blind cannot see7 similarly blind are those in the grip of
lust. Groud men ha!e no perception of e!il7 and those bent on
ac$uiring riches see no sin in their actions.
3. #he spirit soul goes through his own course of karma and he himself
suffers the good and bad results thereby accrued. Fy his own actions
he entangles himself in samsara, and by his own efforts he extricates
15. #he %ing is obliged to accept the sins of his subAects7 the purohit
(priest suffers for those of the %ing7 a husband suffers for those of his
wife7 and the guru suffers for those of his pupils.
11. * father who is a chronic debtor, an adulterous mother, a beautiful
wife, and an unlearned son are enemies ( in one6s own home.
1". Eonciliate a co!etous man by means of a gift, an obstinate man
with folded hands in salutation, a fool by humouring him, and a
learned man by truthful words.
1&. It is better to be without a %ingdom than to rule o!er a petty one7
better to be without a friend than to befriend a rascal7 better to be
without a disciple than to ha!e a stupid one7 and better to be without
a wife than to ha!e a bad one.
1'. How can people be made happy in a petty %ingdom1 0hat peace
can we expect from a rascal friend1 0hat happiness can we ha!e at
home in the company of a bad wife1 How can renown be gained by
instructing an unworthy disciple1
1). Learn one thing from a lion7 one from a crane7 four a coc%7 fi!e
from a crow7 six from a dog7 and three from an ass.
1+. #he one excellent thing that can be learned from a lion is that
whate!er a man intends doing should be done by him with a whole8
hearted and strenuous effort.
1-. #he wise man should restrain his senses li%e the crane and
accomplish his purpose with due %nowledge of his place, time and
12. #o wa%e at the proper time7 to ta%e a bold stand and fight7 to
ma%e a fair di!ision (of property among relations7 and to earn one6s
own bread by personal exertion are the four excellent things to be
learned from a coc%.
13. ;nion in pri!acy (with one6s wife7 boldness7 storing away useful
items7 watchfulness7 and not easily trusting others7 these fi!e things
are to be learned from a crow.
"5. Eontentment with little or nothing to eat although one may ha!e a
great appetite7 to awa%en instantly although one may be in a deep
slumber7 unflinching de!otion to the master7 and bra!ery7 these six
$ualities should be learned from the dog.
"1. *lthough an ass is tired, he continues to carry his burden7 he is
unmindful of cold and heat7 and he is always contented7 these three
things should be learned from the ass.
"". He who shall practice these twenty !irtues shall become in!incible
in all his underta%ings.
1. * wise man should not re!eal his loss of wealth, the !exation of his
mind, the misconduct of his own wife, base words spo%en by others,
and disgrace that has befallen him.
". He who gi!es up shyness in monetary dealings, in ac$uiring
%nowledge, in eating and in business, becomes happy.
&. #he happiness and peace attained by those satisfied by the nectar
of spiritual tran$uillity is not attained by greedy persons restlessly
mo!ing here and there.
'. ,ne should feel satisfied with the following three things7 his own
wife, food gi!en by Gro!idence and wealth ac$uired by honest effort7
but one should ne!er feel satisfied with the following three7 study,
chanting the holy names of the Lord (japa and charity.
). .o not pass between two brahmanas, between a brahmana and his
sacrificial fire, between a wife and her husband, a master and his
ser!ant, and a plough and an ox.
+. .o not let your foot touch fire, the spiritual master or a brahmana7
it must ne!er touch a cow, a !irgin, an old person or a child.
-. :eep one thousand cubits away from an elephant, a hundred from a
horse, ten from a horned beast, but %eep away from the wic%ed by
lea!ing the country.
2. *n elephant is controlled by a goad (ankusha, a horse by a slap of
the hand, a horned animal with the show of a stic%, and a rascal with a
3. Brahmanas find satisfaction in a good meal, peacoc%s in the peal of
thunder, a sadhu in seeing the prosperity of others, and the wic%ed in
the misery of others.
15. Eonciliate a strong man by submission, a wic%ed man by
opposition, and the one whose power is e$ual to yours by politeness or
11. #he power of a %ing lies in his mighty arms7 that of a brahmana in
his spiritual %nowledge7 and that of a woman in her beauty youth and
sweet words.
1". .o not be !ery upright in your dealings for you would see by going
to the forest that straight trees are cut down while croo%ed ones are
left standing.
1&. Swans li!e where!er there is water, and lea!e the place where
water dries up7 let not a man act so 88 and comes and goes as he
1'. *ccumulated wealth is sa!ed by spending Aust as incoming fresh
water is sa!ed by letting out stagnant water.
1). He who has wealth has friends and relations7 he alone sur!i!es
and is respected as a man.
1+. #he following four characteristics of the deniCens of hea!en may be
seen in the residents of this earth planet7 charity, sweet words,
worship of the Supreme Gersonality of Bodhead, and satisfying the
needs of brahmanas.
1-. #he following $ualities of the deniCens of hell may characterise
men on earth7 extreme wrath, harsh speech, enmity with one6s
relations, the company with the base, and ser!ice to men of low
12. Fy going to the den of a lion pearls from the head of an elephant
may be obtained7 but by !isiting the hole of a Aac%al nothing but the
tail of a calf or a bit of the hide of an ass may be found.
13. #he life of an uneducated man is as useless as the tail of a dog,
which neither co!ers its rear end, nor protects it from the bites of
"5. Gurity of speech, of the mind, of the senses, and a compassionate
heart are needed by one who desires to rise to the di!ine platform.
"1. *s you see% fragrance in a flower, oil in the sesamum seed, fire in
wood, ghee (butter in mil%, and Aaggery (guda in sugarcane7 so see%
the spirit that is in the body by means of discrimination.@
Chapter Eight
. Low class men desire wealth7 middle class men both wealth and
respect7 but the noble, honour only7 hence honour is the noble man6s
true wealth.
&. #he lamp eats up the dar%ness and therefore it produces blac%ened
lamp7 in the same way according to the nature of our diet (sattva,
rajas, or tamas we produce offspring in similar $uality.
'. , wise manH Bi!e your wealth only to the worthy and ne!er to
others. #he water of the sea recei!ed by the clouds is always sweet.
#he rainwater enli!ens all li!ing beings of the earth both mo!able
(insects, animals, humans, etc. and immo!able (plants, trees, etc.,
and then returns to the ocean where its !alue is multiplied a million
). #he wise who discern the essence of things ha!e declared that the
yavana (meat eater is e$ual in baseness to a thousand candalas (the
lowest class, and hence a yavana is the basest of men7 indeed there
is no one more base.
+. *fter ha!ing rubbed oil on the body, after encountering the smo%e
from a funeral pyre, after sexual intercourse, and after being sha!ed,
one remains a chandala until he bathes.
-. 0ater is the medicine for indigestion7 it is in!igorating when the
food that is eaten is well digested7 it is li%e nectar when drun% in the
middle of a dinner7 and it is li%e poison when ta%en at the end of a
2. :nowledge is lost without putting it into practice7 a man is lost due
to ignorance7 an army is lost without a commander7 and a woman is
lost without a husband.
3. * man who encounters the following three is unfortunate7 the death
of his wife in his old age, the entrusting of money into the hands of
relati!es, and depending upon others for food.
15. Ehanting of the Vedas without ma%ing ritualistic sacrifices to the
Supreme Lord through the medium of *gni, and sacrifices not followed
by bountiful gifts are futile. Gerfection can be achie!ed only through
de!otion (to the Supreme Lord for de!otion is the basis of all success.
1&. #here is no austerity e$ual to a balanced mind, and there is no
happiness e$ual to contentment7 there is no disease li%e co!etousness,
and no !irtue li%e mercy.
1'. *nger is a personification of Iama (the demigod of death7 thirst is
li%e the hellish ri!er Vaitarani7 %nowledge is li%e a kamadhenu (the cow
of plenty7 and contentment is li%e >andana!ana (the garden of
1). 9oral excellence is an ornament for personal beauty7 righteous
conduct, for high birth7 success for learning7 and proper spending for
1+. Feauty is spoiled by an immoral nature7 noble birth by bad
conduct7 learning, without being perfected7 and wealth by not being
properly utilised.
1-. 0ater seeping into the earth is pure7 and a de!oted wife is pure7
the %ing who is the benefactor of his people is pure7 and pure is the
brahmana who is contented.
12. .iscontented brahmanas, contented %ings, shy prostitutes, and
immodest housewi!es are ruined.
13. ,f what a!ail is a high birth if a person is destitute of scholarship1
* man who is of low extraction is honoured e!en by the demigods if he
is learned.
"5. * learned man is honoured by the people. * learned man
commands respect e!erywhere for his learning. Indeed, learning is
honoured e!erywhere.
"1. #hose who are endowed with beauty and youth and who are born
of noble families are worthless if they ha!e no learning. #hey are Aust
li%e the kimshuka blossoms ( flowers of the palasa tree which, though
beautiful, ha!e no fragrance.
"". #he earth is encumbered with the weight of the flesh8eaters, wine8
bibblers, dolts (dull and stupid and bloc%heads, who are beasts in the
form of men.
"&. #here is no enemy li%e a yajna (sacrifice which consumes the
%ingdom when not attended by feeding on a large scale7 consumes the
priest when the chanting is not done properly7 and consumes the
yajaman (the responsible person when the gifts are not made.
Chapter Ten
1. ,ne destitute of wealth is not destitute, he is indeed rich (if he is
learned7 but the man de!oid of learning is destitute in e!ery way.
". 0e should carefully scrutinise that place upon which we step
(ha!ing it ascertained to be free from filth and li!ing creatures li%e
insects, etc.7 we should drin% water, which has been filtered (through
a clean cloth7 we should spea% only those words, which ha!e the
sanction of the satras7 and do that act which we ha!e carefully
&. He who desires sense gratification must gi!e up all thoughts of
ac$uiring %nowledge7 and he who see%s %nowledge must not hope for
sense gratification. How can he who see%s sense gratification ac$uire
%nowledge, and he who possesses %nowledge enAoy mundane sense
'. 0hat is it that escapes the obser!ation of poets1 0hat is that act
women are incapable of doing1 0hat will drun%en people not prate1
0hat will not a crow eat1
). <ate ma%es a beggar a %ing and a %ing a beggar. He ma%es a rich
man poor and a poor man rich
+. #he beggar is a miser6s enemy7 the wise counsellor is the fool6s
enemy7 her husband is an adulterous wife6s enemy7 and the moon is
the enemy of the thief.
-. #hose who are destitute of learning, penance, %nowledge, good
disposition, !irtue and bene!olence are brutes wandering the earth in
the form of men. #hey are burdensome to the earth.
2. #hose that are empty8minded cannot be benefited by instruction.
Famboo does not ac$uire the $uality of sandalwood by being
associated with the 9alaya 9ountain.
3. 0hat good can the scriptures do to a man who has no sense of his
own1 ,f what use is as mirror to a blind man1
15. >othing can reform a bad man, Aust as the posteriors cannot
become a superior part of the body though washed one hundred
11. Fy offending a %insman, life is lost7 by offending others, wealth is
lost7 by offending the %ing, e!erything is lost7 and by offending a
brahmana (Brahmin) one6s whole family is ruined.
1". It is better to li!e under a tree in a Aungle inhabited by tigers and
elephants, to maintain oneself in such a place with ripe fruits and
spring water, to lie down on grass and to wear the ragged bar%s of
trees than to li!e amongst one6s relations when reduced to po!erty.
1&. #he brahmana (Brahmin) is li%e a tree7 his prayers are the roots,
his chanting of the Vedas are the branches, and his religious acts are
the lea!es. Eonse$uently effort should be made to preser!e his roots
for if the roots are destroyed there can be no branches or lea!es.
1'. 9y mother is :amala de!i (La%shmi, my father is Lord Janardana
(Vishnu, my %insmen are the Vishnu8bhaktas (Vaisna!as and, my
homeland is all the three worlds.
1). (#hrough the night a great many %inds of birds perch on a tree
but in the morning they fly in all the ten directions. 0hy should we
lament for that1 (Similarly, we should not grie!e when we must
ine!itably part company from our dear ones
1+. He who possesses intelligence is strong7 how can the man that is
unintelligent be powerful1 #he elephant of the forest ha!ing lost his
senses by intoxication was tric%ed into a la%e by a small rabbit. (#his
!erse refers to a famous story from the niti-sastra called pancatantra
compiled by the pandit Vishnusharma ")55 years ago.
1-. 0hy should I be concerned for my maintenance while absorbed in
praising the glories of Lord Vishwambhara (Vishnu, the supporter of
all1 0ithout the grace of Lord Hari, how could mil% flow from a
mother6s breast for a child6s nourishment1 Depeatedly thin%ing only in
this way, , Lord of the Iadus, , husband of La%shmi, all my time is
spent in ser!ing Iour lotus feet.
1. Benerosity, pleasing address, courage and propriety of conduct are
not ac$uired, but are inbred $ualities.
". He who forsa%es his own community and Aoins another perishes as
the %ing who embraces an unrighteous path.
&. #he elephant has a huge body but is controlled by the ankusha
(goad4 yet, is the goad as large as the elephant1 * lighted candle
banishes dar%ness4 is the candle as !ast as the dar%ness. * mountain
is bro%en e!en by a thunderbolt4 is the thunderbolt therefore as big as
the mountain1 >o, he whose power pre!ails is really mighty7 what is
there in bul%1
). He who is engrossed in family life will ne!er ac$uire %nowledge7
there can be no mercy in the eater of flesh7 the greedy man will not be
truthful7 and purity will not be found in a woman or a hunter.
+. #he wic%ed man will not attain sanctity e!en if he is instructed in
different ways, and the Nim tree will not become sweet e!en if it is
sprin%led from the top to the roots with mil% and ghee.
-. 9ental dirt cannot be washed away e!en by one8hundred baths in
the sacred waters, Aust as a wine pot cannot be purified e!en by
e!aporating all the wine by fire.
2. It is not strange if a man re!iles a thing of which he has no
%nowledge, Aust as a wild hunter6s wife throws away the pearl that is
found in the head of an elephant, and pic%s up a gunj (a type of seed
which poor tribals wear as ornaments.
3. He who for one year eats his meals silently (inwardly meditating
upon the Lord6s prasadam7 attains to the hea!enly planets for a
thousand crore of years. ( >ote4 one crore e$uals ten million
15. #he student (brahmacari should completely renounce the
following eight things 88 his lust, anger, greed, desire for sweets, sense
of decorating the body, excessi!e curiosity, excessi!e sleep, and
excessi!e endea!our for bodily maintenance.
1". He alone is a true brahmana (dvija or /twice8born/ who is
satisfied with one meal a day, who has the six samskaras (or acts of
purification such as garbhadhana, etc. performed for him, and who
cohabits with his wife only once in a month on an auspicious day after
her menses.
1&. #he brahmana who is engrossed in worldly affairs, brings up cows
and is engaged in trade is really called a vaishya.
1'. #he brahmana who deals in lac8die, articles, oil, indigo, sil%en
cloth, honey, clarified butter, li$uor, and flesh is called a shudra.
1). #he brahmana who thwarts the doings of others, who is
hypocritical, selfish, and a deceitful hater, and while spea%ing mildly
cherishes cruelty in his heart, is called a cat.
1+. #he brahmana who destroys a pond, a well, a tan%, a garden and a
temple is called a mleccha.
1-. #he brahmana who steals the property of the .eities and the
spiritual preceptor, who cohabits with another6s wife, and who
maintains himself by eating anything and e!erything s called a
12. #he meritorious should gi!e away in charity all that they ha!e in
excess of their needs. Fy charity only :arna, Fali and :ing
Vi%ramaditya sur!i!e e!en today. Just see the plight of the honeybees
beating their legs in despair upon the earth. #hey are saying to
themsel!es, /*lasH 0e neither enAoyed our stored8up honey nor ga!e it
in charity, and now someone has ta%en it from us in an instant./
Chapter Twelve
1. He is a blessed grhasta (householder in whose house there is a
blissful atmosphere, whose sons are talented, whose wife spea%s
sweetly, whose wealth is enough to satisfy his desires, who finds
pleasure in the company of his wife, whose ser!ants are obedient, in
whose house hospitality is shown, the auspicious Supreme Lord is
worshiped daily, delicious food and drin% is parta%en, and who finds
Aoy in the company of de!otees.
". ,ne who de!otedly gi!es a little to a brahmana who is in distress is
recompensed abundantly. Hence, , Grince, what is gi!en to a good
brahmana is got bac% not in an e$ual $uantity, but in an infinitely
higher degree.
&. #hose men who are happy in this world, who are generous towards
their relati!es, %ind to strangers, indifferent to the wic%ed, lo!ing to
the good, shrewd in their dealings with the base, fran% with the
learned, courageous with enemies, humble with elders and stern with
the wife.
'. , Aac%al, lea!e aside the body of that man at once, whose hands
ha!e ne!er gi!en in charity, whose ears ha!e not heard the !oice of
learning, whose eyes ha!e not beheld a pure de!otee of the Lord,
whose feet ha!e ne!er tra!ersed to holy places, whose belly is filled
with things obtained by croo%ed practices, and whose head is held high
in !anity. .o not eat it, , Aac%al, otherwise you will become polluted.
). /Shame upon those who ha!e no de!otion to the lotus feet of Sri
:rsna, the son of mother Iasoda7 who ha!e no attachment for the
descriptions of the glories of Srimati Dadharani7 whose ears are not
eager to listen to the stories of the Lord6s lila./ Such is the exclamation
of the mrdanga sound of dhik-tam dhik-tam dhigatam at kirtana.
+. 0hat fault of spring that the bamboo shoot has no lea!es1 0hat
fault of the sun if the owl cannot see during the daytime1 Is it the fault
of the clouds if no raindrops fall into the mouth of the chatak bird1
0ho can erase what Lord Frahma has inscribed upon our foreheads at
the time of birth1
-. * wic%ed man may de!elop saintly $ualities in the company of a
de!otee, but a de!otee does not become impious in the company of a
wic%ed person. #he earth is scented by a flower that falls upon it, but
the flower does not contact the odour of the earth.
2. ,ne indeed becomes blessed by ha!ing darshan of a de!otee7 for
the de!otee has the ability to purify immediately, whereas the sacred
tirtha gi!es purity only after prolonged contact.
3. * stranger as%ed a brahmana, /#ell me, who is great in this city1/
#he brahmana replied, /#he cluster of palmyra trees is great./ #hen
the tra!eller as%ed, /0ho is the most charitable person1/ #he
brahmana answered, /#he washer man who ta%es the clothes in the
morning and gi!es them bac% in the e!ening is the most charitable./
He then as%ed, /0ho is the ablest man1/ #he brahmana answered,
/(!eryone is expert in robbing others of their wi!es and wealth./ #he
man then as%ed the brahmana, /How do you manage to li!e in such a
city1/ #he brahmana replied, /*s a worm sur!i!es while e!en in a filthy
place so do I sur!i!e hereH/
15. #he house in which the lotus feet of brahmanas are not washed, in
which Vedic mantras are not loudly recited, and in which the holy rites
of svaha (sacrificial offerings to the Supreme Lord and swadha
(offerings to the ancestors are not performed, is li%e a crematorium.
11. (It is said that a sadhu, when as%ed about his family, replied
thusly4 truth is my mother, and my father is spiritual %nowledge7
righteous conduct is my brother, and mercy is my friend, inner peace
is my wife, and forgi!eness is my son4 these six are my %insmen.
1". ,ur bodies are perishable, wealth is not at all permanent and
death is always nearby. #herefore we must immediately engage in acts
of merit.
1&. *rAuna says to :rsna. /Brahmanas find Aoy in going to feasts, cows
find Aoy in eating their tender grass, wi!es find Aoy in the company of
their husbands, and %now, , :rsna, that in the same way I reAoice in
1'. He who regards another6s wife as his mother, the wealth that does
not belong to him as a lump of mud, and the pleasure and pain of all
other li!ing beings as his own 88 truly sees things in the right
perspecti!e, and he is a true pandit.
1). , Dagha!a, the lo!e of !irtue, pleasing speech, and an ardent
desire for performing acts of charity, guileless dealings with friends,
humility in the guru6s presence, deep tran$uillity of mind, pure
conduct, discernment of !irtues, realised %nowledge of the sastras,
beauty of form and de!otion to Bod are all found in you./ (#he great
sage Vasistha 9uni, the spiritual preceptor of the dynasty of the sun,
said this to Lord Damachandra at the time of His proposed coronation
1+. :alpataru (the wish fulfilling tree is but wood7 the golden 9ount
9eru is motionless7 the wish8fulfilling gem chintamani is Aust a stone7
the sun is scorching7 the moon is prone to wane7 the boundless ocean
is saline7 the demigod of lust lost his body (due to Shi!a6s wrath7 Fali
9aharaAa, the son of .iti, was born into a clan of demons7 and
:amadhenu (the cow of hea!en is a mere beast. , Lord of the Daghu
dynastyH I cannot compare you to any one of these (ta%ing their merits
into account.
1-. Dealised learning (vidya is our friend while tra!elling, the wife is a
friend at home, medicine is the friend of a sic% man, and meritorious
deeds are the friends at death.
12. Eourtesy should be learned from princes, the art of con!ersation
from pandits, lying should be learned from gamblers and deceitful
ways should be learned from women.
13. #he unthin%ing spender, the homeless urchin, the $uarrel monger,
the man who neglects his wife and is heedless in his actions 88 all
these will soon come to ruination.
"5. #he wise man should not be anxious about his food7 he should be
anxious to be engaged only in dharma (:rsna consciousness. #he
food of each man is created for him at his birth.
"1. He who is not shy in the ac$uisition of wealth, grain and
%nowledge, and in ta%ing his meals, will be happy
"". *s centesimal droppings will fill a pot so also are %nowledge, !irtue
and wealth gradually obtained.
"&. #he man who remains a fool e!en in ad!anced age is really a fool,
Aust as the Indra8Varuna fruit does not become sweet no matter how
ripe it might become
1. * man may li!e but for a moment, but that moment should be
spent in doing auspicious deeds. It is useless li!ing e!en for a kalpa
(',&"5,555 K1555 years and bringing only distress upon the two
worlds (this world and the next.
". 0e should not fret for what is past, nor should we be anxious about
the future7 men of discernment deal only with the present moment.
&. It certainly is nature of the demigods, men of good character, and
parents to be easily pleased. >ear and distant relati!es are pleased
when they are hospitably recei!ed with bathing, food, and drin%7 and
pandits are pleased with an opportunity for gi!ing spiritual discourse.
' (!en as the unborn babe is in the womb of his mother, these fi!e are
fixed as his life destiny4 his life span, his acti!ities, his ac$uisition of
wealth and %nowledge, and his time of death.
). ,h, see what a wonder it isH #he doings of the great are strange4
they treat wealth as light as a straw, yet, when they obtain it, they
bend under its weight
+. He who is o!erly attached to his family members experiences fear
and sorrow, for the root of all grief is attachment. #hus one should
discard attachment to be happy.
-. He who is prepared for the future and he who deals cle!erly with
any situation that may arise are both happy7 but the fatalistic man
who wholly depends on luc% is ruined.
2. If the %ing is !irtuous, then the subAects are also !irtuous. If the
%ing is sinful, then the subAects also become sinful. If he is mediocre,
then the subAects are mediocre. #he subAects follow the example of the
%ing. In short, as is the %ing so are the subAects.
3. I consider him who does not act religiously as dead though li!ing,
but he who dies acting religiously un$uestionably li!es long though he
is dead.
15. He who has ac$uired neither !irtue, wealth, satisfaction of desires
nor sal!ation (dharma, artha, kama, moksa, li!es an utterly useless
life, li%e the /nipples/ hanging from the nec% of a goat.
11. #he hearts of base men burn before the fire of other6s fame, and
they slander them being themsel!es unable to rise to such a high
1". (xcessi!e attachment to sense pleasures leads to bondage, and
detachment from sense pleasures leads to liberation7 therefore it is the
mind alone that is responsible for bondage or liberation
1&. He who sheds bodily identification by means of %nowledge of the
indwelling Supreme Self (aramatma, will always be absorbed in
meditati!e trance (samadhi where!er his mind leads him.
1'. 0ho realises all the happiness he desires1 (!erything is in the
hands of Bod. #herefore one should learn contentment.
1). *s a calf follows its mother among a thousand cows, so the (good
or bad deeds of a man follow him.
1+. He whose actions are disorganised has no happiness either in the
midst of men or in a Aungle 88 in the midst of men his heart burns by
social contacts, and his helplessness burns him in the forest.
1-. *s the man who digs obtains underground water by use of a
sho!el, so the student attains the %nowledge possessed by his
preceptor through his ser!ice
12. 9en reap the fruits of their deeds, and intellects bear the mar% of
deeds performed in pre!ious li!es7 e!en so the wise act after due
13. (!en the man who has taught the spiritual significance of Aust one
letter ought to be worshiped. He who does not gi!e re!erence to such
a guru is born as a dog a hundred times, and at last ta%es birth as a
chandala (dog8eater.
"5. *t the end of the yuga, 9ount 9eru may be sha%en7 at the end of
the kalpa, the waters of the se!en oceans may be disturbed7 but a
sadhu will ne!er swer!e from the spiritual path.
"1. #here are three gems upon this earth7 food, water, and pleasing
words 88 fools (mudhas consider pieces of roc%s as gems.
1. Go!erty, disease, sorrow, imprisonment and other e!ils are the fruits
borne by the tree of one6s own sins.
". 0ealth, a friend, a wife, and a %ingdom may be regained7 but this
body when lost may ne!er be ac$uired again.
&. #he enemy can be o!ercome by the union of large numbers, Aust as
grass through its collecti!eness wards off erosion caused by hea!y
'. ,il on water, a secret communicated to a base man, a gift gi!en to a
worthy recei!er, and scriptural instruction gi!en to an intelligent man
spread out by !irtue of their nature.
). If men should always retain the state of mind they experience when
hearing religious instruction, when present at a crematorium ground,
and when in sic%ness 88 then who could not attain liberation.
+. If a man should feel before, as he feels after, repentance 88 then
who would not attain perfection1
-. 0e should not feel pride in our charity, austerity, !alour, scriptural
%nowledge, modesty and morality for the world is full of the rarest
2. He who li!es in our mind is near though he may actually be far
away7 but he who is not in our heart is far though he may really be
3. 0e should always spea% what would please the man of whom we
expect a fa!our, li%e the hunter who sings sweetly when he desires to
shoot a deer.
15. It is ruinous to be familiar with the %ing, fire, the religious
preceptor, and a woman. #o be altogether indifferent to them is to be
depri!ed of the opportunity to benefit oursel!es, hence our association
with them must be from a safe distance.
11. 0e should always deal cautiously with fire, water, women, foolish
people, serpents, and members of a royal family7 for they may, when
the occasion presents itself, at once bring about our death.
1". He should be considered to be li!ing who is !irtuous and pious, but
the life of a man who is destitute of religion and !irtues is !oid of any
1&. If you wish to gain control of the world by the performance of a
single deed, then %eep the following fifteen, which are prone to wander
here and there, from getting the upper hand of you4 the fi!e sense
obAects (obAects of sight, sound, smell, taste, and touch7 the fi!e
sense organs (ears, eyes, nose, tongue and s%in and organs of
acti!ity (hands, legs, mouth, genitals and anus.
1'. He is a pandit (man of %nowledge who spea%s what is suitable to
the occasion, who renders lo!ing ser!ice according to his ability, and
who %nows the limits of his anger.
1) ,ne single obAect (a woman appears in three different ways4 to
the man who practices austerity it appears as a corpse, to the sensual
it appears as a woman, and to the dogs as a lump of flesh.
1+. * wise man should not di!ulge the formula of a medicine which he
has well prepared7 an act of charity which he has performed7 domestic
conflicts7 pri!ate affairs with his wife7 poorly prepared food he may
ha!e been offered7 or slang he may ha!e heard.
1-. #he cuc%oos remain silent for a long time (for se!eral seasons
until they are able to sing sweetly (in the Spring so as to gi!e Aoy to
12. 0e should secure and %eep the following4 the blessings of
meritorious deeds, wealth, grain, the words of the spiritual master, and
rare medicines. ,therwise life becomes impossible.
13. (schew wic%ed company and associate with saintly persons.
*c$uire !irtue day and night, and always meditate on that which is
eternal forgetting that which is temporary.
1. <or one whose heart melts with compassion for all creatures7 what
is the necessity of %nowledge, liberation, matted hair on the head, and
smearing the body with ashes1
". #here is no treasure on earth the gift of which will cancel the debt a
disciple owes his guru !or ha!ing taught him e!en a single letter (that
leads to :rsna consciousness.
&. #here are two ways to get rid of thorns and wic%ed persons7 using
footwear in the first place and in the second shaming them so that
they cannot raise their faces again thus %eeping them at a distance.
'. He who wears unclean garments, has dirty teeth, is a glutton,
spea%s un%indly and sleeps after sunrise 88 although he may be the
greatest personality 88 will lose the fa!our of La%shmi.
). He who loses his money is forsa%en by his friends, his wife, his
ser!ants and his relations7 yet when he regains his riches those who
ha!e forsa%en him come bac% to him. Hence wealth is certainly the
best of relations.
+. Sinfully ac$uired wealth may remain for ten years7 in the ele!enth
year it disappears with e!en the original stoc%.
-. * bad action committed by a great man is not censured (as there is
none that can reproach him, and a good action performed by a low8
class man comes to be condemned (because none respects him. Just
see4 the drin%ing of nectar is excellent, but it became the cause of
Dahu6s demise7 and the drin%ing of poison is harmful, but when Lord
Shi!a (who is exalted dran% it, it became an ornament to his nec%
2. * true meal is that which consists of the remnants left after a
brahmana's meal. Lo!e, which is shown to others, is true lo!e, not that
which is cherished for one6s own self. #o abstain from sin is true
wisdom. #hat is an act of charity, which is performed without
3. <or want of discernment the most precious Aewels lie in the dust at
the feet of men while bits of glass are worn on their heads. Fut we
should not imagine that the gems ha!e sun% in !alue, and the bits of
glass ha!e risen in importance. 0hen a person of critical Audgement
shall appear, each will be gi!en its right position.
15. "astric (scriptural) %nowledge is unlimited, and the arts to be
learned are many7 the time we ha!e is short, and our opportunities to
learn are beset with obstacles. #herefore select for learning that which
is most important, Aust as the swan drin%s only the mil% in water.
11. He is a chandala who eats his dinner without entertaining the
stranger who has come to his house $uite accidentally, ha!ing
tra!elled from a long distance and is wearied.
1". ,ne may %now the four Vedas and the #harma-sastras, yet if he
has no realisation of his own spiritual self, he can be said to be li%e the
ladle (spoon which stirs all %inds of foods but %nows not the taste of
1&. #hose blessed souls are certainly ele!ated who, while crossing the
ocean of life, ta%e shelter of a genuine brahmana, who is li%ened unto
a boat. #hey are unli%e passengers aboard an ordinary ship that runs
the ris% of sin%ing.
1'. #he moon, who is the abode of nectar and the presiding deity of all
medicines, although immortal li%e amrta and resplendent in form,
loses the brilliance of his rays when he repairs to the abode of the sun
(day time. #herefore, will not an ordinary man be made to feel
inferior by going to li!e at the house of another1
1). #his humble bee, which always resides among the soft petals of
the lotus and drin%s abundantly its sweet nectar, is now feasting on
the flower of the ordinary kutaja. Feing in a strange country where the
lotuses do not exist, he is considering the pollen of the kutaja to be
1+. (Lord Visnu as%ed His spouse La%shmi why She did not care to li!e
in the house of a brahmana$She replied4/ , Lord a rishi named
*gastya dran% up 9y father (the ocean in anger7 Frighu 9uni %ic%ed
Iou7 brahmanas pride themsel!es on their learning ha!ing sought the
fa!our of 9y competitor Saras!ati7 and lastly they pluc% each day the
lotus which is 9y abode, and therewith worship Lord Shi!a. #herefore,
, Lord, I fear to dwell with a brahmana%$
1-. #here are many ways of binding by which one can be dominated
and controlled in this world, but the bond of affection is the strongest.
<or example, ta%e the case of the humble bee, which, although expert
at piercing hardened wood, becomes caught in the embrace of its
belo!ed flowers (as the petals close at dus%.
12. *lthough sandalwood is cut, it does not forsa%e its natural $uality
of fragrance7 so also the elephant does not gi!e up sporti!eness
though he should grow old. #he sugarcane does not cease to be sweet
though s$ueeCed in a mill7 so the man of noble extraction does not
lose his lofty $ualities, no matter how pinched he is by po!erty.
". #he heart of a woman is not united7 it is di!ided. 0hile she is
tal%ing with one man, she loo%s lustfully at another and thin%s fondly
of a third in her heart.
&. #he fool (mudha who fancies that a charming young lady lo!es
him, becomes her sla!e and he dances li%e a shakuntal bird tied to a
'. 0ho is there who, ha!ing become rich, has not become proud1
0hat licentious man has put an end to his calamities1 0hat man in
this world has not been o!ercome by a woman1 0ho is always lo!ed
by the %ing1 0ho is there who has not been o!ercome by the ra!ages
of time1 0hat beggar has attained glory1 0ho has become happy by
contracting the !ices of the wic%ed1
+. * man attains greatness by his merits, not simply by occupying an
exalted seat. Ean we call a crow an eagle (garuda simply because he
sits on the top of a tall building.
2. #he man who is praised by others as great is regarded as worthy
though he may be really !oid of all merit. Fut the man who sings his
own praises lowers himself in the estimation of others though he
should be Indra (the possessor of all excellences.
3. If good $ualities should characterise a man of discrimination, the
brilliance of his $ualities will be recognised Aust as a gem, which is
essentially bright, really shines when fixed in an ornament of gold.
15. (!en one who by his $ualities appears to be all %nowing suffers
without patronage7 the gem, though precious, re$uires a gold setting.
11. I do not deser!e that wealth which is to be attained by enduring
much suffering, or by transgressing the rules of !irtue, or by flattering
an enemy.
1&. #hose who were not satiated with the enAoyment of wealth, food
and women ha!e all passed away7 there are others now passing away
who ha!e li%ewise remained unsatiated7 and in the future still others
will pass away feeling themsel!es unsatiated.
1'. *ll charities and sacrifices (performed for fruiti!e gain bring only
temporary results, but gifts made to deser!ing persons and protection
offered to all creatures shall ne!er perish
1). * blade of grass is light, cotton is lighter, and the beggar is
infinitely lighter still. 0hy then does not the wind carry him away1
Fecause it fears that he may as% alms of him.
1+. It is better to die than to preser!e this life by incurring disgrace.
#he loss of life causes but a moment6s grief, but disgrace brings grief
e!ery day of one6s life.
1-. *ll the creatures are pleased by lo!ing words7 and therefore we
should address words that are pleasing to all, for there is no lac% of
sweet words.
12. #here are two nectarine fruits hanging from the tree of this world4
one is the hearing of sweet words (such as :rsna8katha and the other,
the society of saintly men.
13. #he good habits of charity, learning and austerity practised during
many past li!es continue to be culti!ated in this birth by !irtue of the
lin% (yoga of this present life to the pre!ious ones.
"5. ,ne whose %nowledge is confined to boo%s and whose wealth is in
the possession of others, can use neither his %nowledge nor wealth
when the need for them arises.
1. #he scholar who has ac$uired %nowledge by studying innumerable
boo%s without the blessings of a bonafide spiritual master does not
shine in an assembly of truly learned men Aust as an illegitimate child
is not honoured in society.
". 0e should repay the fa!ours of others by acts of %indness7 so also
should we return e!il for e!il in which there is no sin, for it is
necessary to pay a wic%ed man in his own coin.
&. #hat thing which is distant, that thing which appears impossible,
and that which is far beyond our reach, can be easily attained through
tapasya (religious austerity, for nothing can surpass austerity.
'. 0hat !ice could be worse than co!etousness1 0hat is more sinful
than slander1 <or one who is truthful, what need is there for austerity1
<or one who has a clean heart, what is the need for pilgrimage1 If one
has a good disposition, what other !irtue is needed1 If a man has
fame, what is the !alue of other ornamentation1 0hat need is there
for wealth for the man of practical %nowledge1 *nd if a man is
dishonoured, what could there be worse than death1
). #hough the sea, which is the reser!oir of all Aewels, is the father of
the conch shell, and the Boddess of fortune La%shmi is conch6s sister,
still the conch must go from door to door for alms (in the hands of a
beggar. It is true, therefore, that one gains nothing without ha!ing
gi!en in the past.
+. 0hen a man has no strength left in him he becomes a sadhu, one
without wealth acts li%e a brahmacari, a sic% man beha!es li%e a
de!otee of the Lord, and when a woman grows old she becomes
de!oted to her husband.
2. #here is poison in the fang of the serpent, in the mouth of the fly
and in the sting of a scorpion7 but the wic%ed man is saturated with it.
3. #he woman who fasts and obser!es religious !ows without the
permission of her husband shortens his life, and goes to hell.
15. * woman does not become holy by offering charity, by obser!ing
hundreds of fasts, or by sipping sacred water, as by sipping the water
used to wash her husbands feet.
1". #he hand is not so well adorned by ornaments as by charitable
offerings7 one does not become clean by smearing sandalwood paste
upon the body as by ta%ing a bath7 one does not become so much
satisfied by dinner as by ha!ing respect shown to him7 and sal!ation is
not attained by self8adornment as by culti!ation of spiritual
1'. #he eating of tundi fruit depri!es a man of his sense, while the
vacha root administered re!i!es his reasoning immediately. * woman
at once robs a man of his !igour while mil% at once restores it.
1). He who nurtures bene!olence for all creatures within his heart
o!ercomes all difficulties and will be the recipient of all types of riches
at e!ery step.
1+. 0hat is there to be enAoyed in the world of Lord Indra for one
whose wife is lo!ing and !irtuous, who possesses wealth, who has a
well8beha!ed son endowed with good $ualities, and who has
grandchildren born of his children1
1-. 9en ha!e eating, sleeping, fearing and mating in common with the
lower animals. #hat in which men excel the beasts is discretionary
%nowledge7 hence, indiscreet men who are without %nowledge should
be regarded as beasts.
12. If the bees that see% the li$uid ooCing from the head of a lust8
intoxicated elephant are dri!en away by the flapping of his ears, then
the elephant has lost only the ornament of his head. #he bees are
$uite happy in the lotus filled la%e.
13. * %ing, a prostitute, Lord IamaraAa, fire, a thief, a young boy, and
a beggar cannot understand the suffering of others. #he eighth of this
category is the tax collector.
"5. , lady, why are you gaCing downward1 Has something of yours
fallen on the ground1 (She replies , fool, can you not understand the
pearl of my youth has slipped away1
"1. , ketki flowerH Serpents li!e in your midst, you bear no edible
fruits, your lea!es are co!ered with thorns, you are croo%ed in growth,
you thri!e in mud, and you are not easily accessible. Still for your
exceptional fragrance you are as dear as %insmen to others. Hence, a
single excellence o!ercomes a multitude of blemishes.

Awesome Quotes
Man's main task in life is to give birth to himself, to become what he potentially
- Erich Fromm
"It is better to deserve honors and not have them than to have them and not to
deserve them."
- Mark wain

"Never apologise for showing feelings. when you do so, you
apologise for the truth." - Benjamin Disraeli.
"They say that time changes things, but you actually have
to change them yourself." - ndy !arhol.

There are high spots in all of our lives and most of them
have come about through encouragement from someone else. "
don#t care how great, how famous or successful a man or
woman may be, each hungers for applause. - $eorge %atthew

" reali&ed early on that success was tied to not giving up.
%ost people in this business gave up and went on to other
"f you simply didn#t give up, you would outlast the people
who came in on the bus with you. - 'arrison (ord

'ave The )ourage To *ive.nyone can D"+.

Don#t give up whatever you#re trying to do - especially if
you#re convinced that you#re botching it up.
$iving up reinforces a sense of incompetence, going on
gives you a commitment to success. - $eorge !einberg

Never tell your problems to anyone...-./ don#t care and the
other 0./ are glad you have them.
-*ou 'olt&

Never e1plain yourself. 2our friends dont need it and your
enemies wont believe it.
-Belgicia 'owell

""t is the mar3 of an educated mind to be able to entertain
a thought without accepting it."
- ristotle
"Ne1t in importance to freedom and justice is popular
education, without which neither freedom nor justice can be
permanently maintained."
- 4ames . $arfield

"Destiny is simply the strength of your desires.
"f you cry at a trouble, it grows double.
"f you laugh at a trouble, it disappears li3e a bubble"
"!e must not, in trying to thin3 about how we can ma3e a
big difference, ignore the small daily differences we can
ma3e which, over time, add up to big differences that we
often cannot foresee."
- %arian !right +delman
"!e are rich only through what we give, and poor only
through what we refuse."
- nne-5ophie 5wetchine

""t is better to wear out than to rust out."
- Bishop 6ichard )umberland
Motivational Quotes
"Walking is man's best medicine."
- Hippocrates
"What you will do matters. All you need is to do it."
- Judy Grahn
"Everyone thinks of changing the world, but no one thinks of changing
- Leo Tolstoy
"Ability will never catch up with the demand for it."
- Malcolm Forbes
"Those who think they have not time for bodily exercise will sooner or later have
to fnd time for illness."
- Edward Stanley
"When love and skill work together, expect a masterpiece."
- John Ruskin

"Time is the most valuable thing a man can spend."
- Theophrastus
"Living in the moment brings you a sense of reverence for all of life's
- Oprah Winfrey

"Man's main task in life is to give birth to himself, to become what he
potentially is."
- Erich Fromm
"It is better to deserve honors and not have them than to have them and not
to deserve them."
- Mark Twain

"Never apologise for showing feelings. when you do so, you apologise for
the truth." - Benjamin Disraeli.
"They say that time changes things, but you actually have to change them
yourself." - Andy Warhol.

There are high spots in all of our lives and most of them have come about
through encouragement from someone else. I don't care how great, how
famous or successful a man or woman may be, each hungers for applause.
- George Matthew Adams

I realized early on that success was tied to not giving up. Most people in
this business gave up and went on to other things.
If you simply didn't give up, you would outlast the people who came in on
the bus with you. - Harrison Ford

Have The Courage To Live.Anyone can DIE.

Don't give up whatever you're trying to do - especially if you're convinced
that you're botching it up.
Giving up reinforces a sense of incompetence; going on gives you a
commitment to success. - George Weinberg
Love will make you smile
Love will make you smile & Love will make you cry
We all search Love & when we don't receive Love. We hate Life..
Love is to give & not expect anything in Return
If you do not receive it from the person you Love
don't worry; ecause you will receive it !ne "ay . . . .
$eep your words positive%
&ecause your words &ecome your actions.
$eep your actions positive%
&ecause your actions &ecome your ha&its.
$eep your ha&its positive%
&ecause your ha&its &ecome your lifestyle.
$eep your lifestyle positive%
&ecause your lifestyle &ecomes your destiny
Chaknaya quotes from his book Chanakyaniti
Chanakya is considered the greatest political mind of all times (Year of
Birth:350 BC Year of Death:275 BC)
ere are some of his !"otes translated from his #ook Chanakyaniti$
%"ote &: ' man is great #y deeds$ not #y #irth(
%"ote 2: ' person sho"ld not #e too honest( )"st as straight trees are
chopped*do+n first$ honest people are taken ad,antage of first(
%"ote 3: -n a state +here the r"ler li,es like a common man$ the citi.ens
li,e like kings do( 'nd in the state +here the r"ler li,es like a king$ the
citi.ens li,e like #eggars do(
%"ote /: )ealo"sy is another name for fail"re(
%"ote 5: 0he +orld1s #iggest po+er is the yo"th and #ea"ty of a +oman(
%"ote 2: 0here is some self*interest #ehind e,ery friendship( 0here is no
friendship +itho"t self*interests( 0his is a #itter tr"th(
%"ote 7: 3nce yo" start +orking on something$ don1t #e afraid of fail"re
and don1t a#andon it(
%"ote 4: 5eople +ho +ork sincerely are the happiest(
%"ote 6: Books are as "sef"l to a st"pid person as a mirror is "sef"l to a
#lind person(
%"ote &0: 7d"cation is the #est friend( 'n ed"cated person is respected
e,ery+here( 7d"cation #eats the #ea"ty and the yo"th(
%"ote &&: Before yo" start some +ork$ al+ays ask yo"rself three !"estions
8 9hy am - doing it: 9hat the res"lts might #e: 'nd 9ill -#e s"ccessf"l:
%"ote &2: 3nly +hen yo" think deeply and find satisfactory ans+ers to the
!"estions$ go ahead(
%"ote &3: 'n egoist can #e +on o,er #y #eing respected$ a cra.y person
can #e +on o,er #y allo+ing him to #eha,e in an insane manner and a +ise
person can #e +on o,er #y tr"th(
%"ote &/: 's centesimal (h"ndred) droppings +ill fill a pot so also are
kno+ledge$ ,irt"e and +ealth grad"ally o#tained(
%"ote &5: ' rich man has many friends(
%"ote &2: ' +oman is fo"r times as shy$ si; times as #ra,e and eight times
as l"sty as a man(
%"ote &7: 0he fo"r greatest enemies of a man are 8 the father +ho has
takena loan$ the characterless mother$ the #ea"tif"l #"t promisc"o"s +ife
and the st"pid child(
%"ote &4: 0he fragrance of flo+ers spreads only in the direction of the
+ind( B"t the goodness of a person spreads in all directions(
%"ote &6: 7,en if a snake is not poisono"s$ it sho"ld pretend to #e
%"ote 20: <od is not present in idols( Yo"r feelings are yo"r god( 0he so"l
is yo"r temple(
%"ote 2&: e +ho #efriends a man +hose cond"ct is ,icio"s$ +hose ,ision
is imp"re$ and +ho is notorio"sly crooked$ is rapidly r"ined(
%"ote 22: -f yo" get to learn something e,en from the +orst of creat"res$
don1t hesitate
%"ote 23: 's soon as the fear approaches near$ attack and destroy it(
%"ote 2/: ',oid him +ho talks s+eetly #efore yo" #"t tries to r"in yo"
#ehindyo"r #ack$ for he is like a pitcher of poison +ith milk on top(
10 Principles of life

Stop and ask yourself today, "How do I really feel about myself?"
Before you answer read these ten principles.
Better yet, keep them before you daily.

(1 !e"er think or speak ne#ati"ely about yourself$ that puts you in
disa#reement with %od.

(& 'editate on your %od(#i"en stren#ths and learn to encoura#e
yourself, for much of the time nobody else will.

() *on+t compare yourself to anybody else. ,ou+re uni-ue, one of a
kind, an ori#inal. So don+t settle for bein# a copy.

(. /ocus on your potential, not your limitations. 0emember, %od
li"es in you1

(2 /ind what you like to do, do well, and stri"e to do it with

(4 Ha"e the coura#e to be different. Be a %od pleaser, not a people
(5 6earn to handle criticism. 6et it de"elop you instead of
discoura#e you.
(7 *etermine your own worth instead of lettin# others do it for you.
8hey+ll short(chan#e you1

(9 :eep your shortcomin#s in perspecti"e ( you+re still a work in
(1; /ocus daily on your #reatest source of confidence ( the %od <ho
li"es in you1
Seva / Service
• If you are not having good experiences in meditation, then do more seva
you will gain merit and your meditation will be deeper. When you bring
some relief or freedom to someone through seva, good vibrations and
blessings come to you.
Seva brings merit; merit allows you to go deep in meditation; meditation
brings back your smile.
• When you make service the sole purpose in life, it eliminates fear, focuses
your mind, and gives you meaning
• Be grateful for any opportunity to do seva.
• Love is not an emotion, it is your very existence.
• Here are the signs of love. When you love someone, you see nothing
wrong with them.
• When you love someone, you want to see them always happy and you
want them to have the best.
• Love is the highest strength, yet it makes you absolutely weak
• Love cannot tolerate distance, and hatred cannot tolerate nearness.
• You can experience love, but you cannot describe it or express it totally.
• Love is beyond sight, touch, smell, taste, and sound.
• When there is Love, there is no ego; ego dissolves like the dew drops with
the sun.
• In the company of one who is living Love, you also cant but spring into that
• Love is that phenomenon of dissolving, disappearing, merging, becoming
one with.
• Love is that phenomenon of total letting go.
• The seers, the seen, and the process of seeing all merge. The knowledge,
the knower, and the known, they all merge, become one & that is Divine
• In ignorance anger is cheap and a smile is costly
• Make your smile cheaper and you anger expensive.
• The anger of the enlightened is a blessing
• Silence is the goal of all answers. If an answer does not silence the mind,
it is no answer
• Only Silence is complete
• Smiling with all the existence is Silence
• Purpose of words is to create silence.
• When you know you own God you will not be in a hurry to get something
out of God.
• When you have infnite patience, you will realize God belongs to you.
• God does not test you because he knows you completely - your past,
present and future
• God is calling you every moment.
• God is the Seer himself. Who sees---that is God
• God is love. Being in love is sharing that love.
• This entire universe is made up of God. There is nothing outside God.
• God is responsibility, total responsibility.
• Be a Gopal. Be a friend in knowledge
• Be a friend in knowledge. Uplift each other in knowledge
• Knowledge is a burden if it does not set you free.
• Knowledge keeps everything fresh.
• In science you have knowledge frst, and then faith follows. In spirituality,
faith comes frst, and then Knowledge follows.
• When you follow fun, misery follows you. When you follow Knowledge, fun
follows you.
• Illusion is error of perception and knowing illusion as illusion is Knowledge.
• Sufering is a product of limited knowledge.
• For one who has awakened in knowledge, there is no more sufering.
The Spiritual Master / Guru
• The master is a doorway
• The master is presence. The world is relativity and relativity has
limitations. Presence is unlimited.
• If you are not feeling close to the master, it is because of you, because of
your mind, because of your ego concepts.
• A master is like an ocean. Ocean is there, readily available. It does not
reject anybody.
• If a Master is not hollow and empty, he is no Master at all.
• Do not say that you want to surrender. Just know that you already are
• A person who cannot surrender cannot be self reliant
• When you are shaken, remember the foundation of responsibility is
• The greatest power is in surrender, surrender to the Divine.
• Root out boredom through deep and continued meditation
• If you are unable to meditate because your mind is chattering too much,
just feel that you are a little stupid, and then you will be able to sink deep
into meditation
• Meditation erases the impressions and improves the expression
• Anytime you are confused, your mind is in confict, do asanas, sit in asana.
You will see, right away clarity comes.
• Efect of asana is clearing out of all conficts, duality.
• The seed of negativity and the tendency for confict in you can only be
annihilated by Sadhana.
• Give quality time to the divine, it will be rewarded. Give satsang and
meditation your highest priority
• One who does not do satsang is like a wild animal. Satsang alone makes
you civilized.
• Satsang is the shelter from changing time and its harsh infuence on life.
• Break through the barrier of the rational mind and fnd freedom for yourself
• Freedom is your very nature. Only with freedom do joy, generosity and
other human values blossom
• Just an intention to be free makes you immediately free.
• Discipline protects freedom. You can choose to focus either on freedom or
discipline, and this makes you happy or unhappy.
• Freedom without discipline is like a country without a defense.
• When you praise someone, you take on their good karma. When you
blame someone, you take on their bad karma
• Performing actions cannot eliminate karma. Only through grace can the
bondage of karma be burnt.
• Prarabdha karma cannot be changed. Sanchita karma can be changed by
spiritual practices.
• Respect for the Self is faith and faith is being open
• Have respect for the Self and no one can take your self respect
• Someone does not need to be great in order to be respected. Respecting
life makes you great.
• The "I" or ego in you is a tiny atom
• Ego is separateness, non-belongingness
• The head level is safe for the ego. The heart level breaks the ego. The
solve level dissolves the ego
• The inability to communicate occurs because of ego
• Someone experiences bliss, and that bliss, itself, becomes a trip for the
ego. So the ego, in turn, destroys the infnity, the joy, the bliss.
• Divinity dwells in the void as well as in celebration.
• Death brings you in touch with the reality of life.
• Wake up an see your life is too short. The realization that life is short will
bring dynamism to your life.
• Breath is the link between your body and your spirit and your mind
 Drop all the divisions (of the mind), altogether. This is what is holding you
back from enlightenment. This is what is holding you back from your very nature.
Drop those right now.
 Your own judgement brings the barrier, separates you, makes you behave so
funny. When you are judging, you are judging your own self, but you are super-
imposing it on this, or this, or this, or this, or this.
 The entire universe is just an expression, projection, of the Being, of the Self.
Within this small body, you are able to experience the infnite space.
 Though enlightenment is one in the world, there are many diferent favors.
 A poor man celebrates the new year once a year. A rich man celebrates each
day. But the richest man celebrates every moment.
 Abiding in the self you become the valentine for the whole world. Spirit is the
valentine of matter and matter is the valentine of the spirit.
 Enlightenment is beyond seasons like the evergreen coconut tree.
 The world appears imperfect on the surface but underneath, all is perfect.
Perfection hides; imperfection shows of.
 Sincerity is being in touch with your Depth.
 A big Mind that is God. And your mind is part of that big Mind.
 You are total. You are full. You have all that you need. Do not underestimate
 A devotee will never fall. He cannot fall. There is no chance for it.
 Abundance is a state of mind within you. If you just look at "lack," the lack
increases in life.
 The best "puja," the best form of worship, is to be happy, to be grateful.
 Over-indulgence in anything reduces the beauty.
 Behind every activity, pleasant, unpleasant, chaotic, harmonious, is one
 Basing your life on words is very superfcial.
 Whatever you want for others will happen to you.
 See a mistake as a mistake, not as "my" or "his" mistake. "My" means guilt;
"his" means anger.
 "Want" is always hanging on to the "I." When the "I" itself is dissolving, "want"
also dissolves, disappears.
 See, ninety percent of this body is only space, and space, and space. And
what is in this space? That is mind; that is consciousness; that is intelligence.
 Without being critical, the intellect cannot progress. But that criticism should
not come from the heart; it can come from the throat.
 If any has to be given, this is the blessing that has to be given: "Be devoid of
 The Self is the center of the whole creation.
 If you are passionate, be passionate for the highest, the most wonderful, the
most beautiful. Be passionate for this entire creation-everything is so beautiful
 Truth cannot be understood through proof. Anything that can be proven can
be disproven also. Truth is beyond proof or disproof.
 Take a while and just relax. Repose in the depth of your being.
 Forgetfulness is one of the greatest blessings.
 Events cannot stick on to you. You are like the pure crystal. Niranjanah---
untouched, unstained by anything.
 Beauty has three levels: indication, expression, and exposure. Spirituality
indicates, art expresses, and science exposes.
 You are Divine. You are part of me. I am part of you.
 Life is a package of surprise gifts for you.
 When heart speaks and heart listens, harmony is produced. It is always so.
When head talks and head listens, argument is produced.
Sin and Spirit - The six distortiong of love
Sin and Spirit – The six distortions of love
A talk by Sri Sri Ravishankar – April 28, 1995, Florida
The whole world is made up of love and everyone is made up of love. You have
heard this – all is God all is love – but then what is the purpose? Where is life
heading to? Life is heading towards perfection. Why? Is it not already perfect?
Love has six types of distortions. What are these? Anger, lust, greed, arrogance,
guilt and delusion/attachment. So six distortions are present. In animals also
these six are present, but they have no way to come out of this as nature rules
them. Spirit is pure love, matter is distortion. But human beings are endowed with
discrimination, so that one moves from distortion to perfect love or back to the
Three kinds of perfection are there- in action, in speech and in feelings. It is rare
to fnd all perfection in one place. Some may be very good in actions, but they
feel grumpy and angry inside. Some may lie, but their actions are perfect and
they feel good inside. If someone tells a lie with intention, then their speech and
action are also imperfect. If someone does a mistake and you feel angry, then
you are in the same boat, because your feeling becomes imperfect. If someone
does a mistake and you feel angry, then you are in the same boat, because your
feeling becomes imperfect and it stays for a long period and innermost peace is
lost. Atleast protect your innermost perfection and perfection in speech, then you
can deal with the imperfection outside. First most priority is inner perfection.
Usually what we do is we go from one imperfection to another imperfection.
Someone is greedy and you are angry. Here you are just changing the favour of
the distortion and this is what we normally do.
Lust turns into anger, anger into jealousy,then greed and arrogance. We are
roaming from from one imperfection to another. At all cost save the mind. For this
see that every action is happening as per some law. Don't let these imperfections
enter into your heart, into your being.
Anger is no better than lust. Jealousy is no better than anger and sadhana is to
maintain that and not to be shaken by one small little incident here and there.
Don't see intentions behind other people's mistakes. If you do so then the mind is
again in impurity and it makes things worse.
Vikaara is distortions.Prakruti and vikruti – anger,jealousy etc. we call this
distortion of nature. Why do we call this impure? They are all there in the nature
isn't it? Lust is there in the nature. Everything comes out of lust. Then why do we
call it impure? B'coz they do not allow the self to shine forth. Sin is that which
does not bring the being to shine forth fully. Sin is not your nature, your not born
out of sin. It is just a wrinkle on the cloth. It needs ironing.
Why is lust a sin? Lust is considered a sin b'coz in lust you do not consider the
other person as life. You make them an object. You use them as an object of
enjoyment. You don't see the self in the other person. Love is the reverse of it.
Love is surrender. You see the other person as divine. You elevate matter into the
level of spirit. You worship a stone idol. You have given life to it. You elevate to
the level of God/ love moving towards perfection. Anger is again a sin b'coz you
have lost the centeredness. Your focus is not on the divine, infnite self. You are
again back to the object.
In guilt you are not recognizing the self as the world. You are limiting yourself. Be
thankful if you are bestowed with the qualities you have because it is not your
own making. In the same way it depends on the role you're being given to play. A
villain always knows that it's a role that he is playing. First worship the bad
person, because he is falling and is giving you a lesson of what not to do. He has
been given that role. He is just performing that role. When you understand this
basic truth, then nothing can change your inner perfection.
Perfection of speech – U have to look at the feelings beyond the speech. If you
can understand the intention behind the imperfection in speech, then your inner
perfection is safe guarded.
Psychiatrists have the greatest faw. They say that deep inside you there is fear,
anger. They know nothing. Deep inside you there is a fountain of joy, of bliss. Dig
deeper enough. All these guilt, fear are distortion of prakriti. Jesus got angry
twice. Krishna once broke his own promise.
Every emotion, every feeling, sensation leads you to the inner most perfection. In
action don't see about perfection. Every action has a faw.
So perfection in feelings is possible, perfection in speech is possible and
perfection in action is possible to a great extent. Even if Vikaras come don't give
them too much credential because wherever ur attention goes that thing in you
grows more. If you give too much credential to someone's anger or lust it was
there in them at some point of time and it takes a permanent room in ur mind all
the time and stays for a long time.
See this is the diference. Animals have sex and fnish it. It doesn't think about it
the whole year till the season comes. But a man keeps this on and on in his
mind. This is what Krishna says in the Gita. What has happened to ur mind
Arjuna.If u nourish these vikaaras they keep changing from one vikara to another
and keeps multiplying inside you. Relax! Know that I am the only doer and things
are happening. In the world.See this whole thing as a drama. This is the only way
u can remain in the world.
Humility is the perfection of the soul. Anger,rage is the distortion of the being and
that is why it's a sin and they are superfcial. They are not even skin deep. That's
why it is said that when u take a dip in the Ganga its washed away. Sin is so
superfcial. One sincere prayer and the past is relieved of you. Your knowledge of
the mistake dawns on you when you are out of the mistake. However the past
has been, whatever mistake has happened, in the present don't consider yourself
to be the maker of the mistake b'coz in the present moment you are again new
and pure. The mistakes of the past is past, but when the knowledge has come,
that moment you are again perfect and pure. Do u get this idea?
These are all part of life. Lack of awareness was there. It happened, fnished…
Now,now,now…do u see that?
That's what Krishna tells Arjuna – U think ur not going to do what ur supposed to
do. I tell u u will do it. Even if u don't want to, u will do it. Drop everything and
surrender to me and do as what I say. Then he says I have told u everything, do
whatever u want to do. Then he says –remember u will do only what I want u to
do.These r so contradictory.
We were talking about sattva, rajas and tamas. Once inertia is removed u r
elevated and u know that things are happening. When u have accomplished
something u feel u did something but as time goes by u realize it happened. U r
not the doer.
I tell u the same is true for criminals too. They say it just happened. They r
beautiful people and are amazed by what they did. They don't believe what they
did. This knowledge is the only thing that can take u from imperfection to
perfection and removes all the creases.
Question : How do I get rid of habits faster?
Ans : When ur pained by the habit so deeply, don't justify your habit, we usually
justify our habits. Without justifying if u really feel the pinch of the habit and ur fed
up – at that moment habit drops, it becomes a prayer. If u go to that extent of
intensity of feeling the pain, habit drops away or more meditation, satsang,
sadhana can change those habits. Proper company, restrictions in ur attitude or
way towards life or keeping urself busy in some action changes these. Really feel
the pinch of it, then the surrender, prayer wells up and it changes ur chemistry.
Tripple Filter : Socrates
Tripple Filter:Socrates
In ancient Greece, Socrates was reputed to hold knowledge in high esteem. One
day an acquaintance met the great philosopher and said, "Do you know what I
just heard about your friend?" "Hold on a minute," Socrates replied. "Before
telling me anything I'd like you to pass a little test. It's called the Triple Filter Test."
"Triple flter?"
"That's right," Socrates continued. "Before you talk to me about my friend, it might
be a good idea to take a moment and flter what you're going to say. That's why I
call it the triple flter test.
The frst flter is Truth. Have you made absolutely sure that what you are about to
tell me is true?"
"No," the man said, "actually I just heard about it and..."
"All right," said Socrates. "So you don't really know if it's true or not. Now let's try
the second flter.
The second flter is goodness. Is what you are about to tell me about my friend
something good?"
"No, on the contrary..."
"So," Socrates continued, "you want to tell me something bad about him, but
you're not certain it's true. You may still pass the test though, because there's one
flter left.
The last one is flter of usefulness. Is what you want to tell me about my friend
going to be useful to me?"
"No, not really."
"Well," concluded Socrates, "if what you want to tell me is neither true nor good
nor even useful, why tell it to me at all?"
'anagement (undamentals in $autilya)s *rthashastra + ,
-*s printed in .apovan /rasad section of 0alue ased 'anagement *pril 12 issue3
4 Radhakrishnan /illai
-.his is the first of a series of articles on 'anagement principles as seen in $autilya)s
Arthashastra. .he author% #ri Radhakrishnan /illai% has done the 5Interdisciplinary
#anskrit and Indology 6ourse) on Arthashastra in the 6hinmaya International
(oundation% with "r. 7angadharan 8air% "ean of #hree #hankaracharya #amskrit
9niversity% as his study guide. Radhakrishnan is also the founder4director of *tma
"arshan% which has won even international honours in the field of spiritual tourism
within a short span of three4and4a4half years. :is experience in the field of marketing and
logistics in the last thirteen years gives an interesting practical edge to the articles3
'anagement is a su&;ect that evolved as a science starting mid <1th century. /eter
"rucker is crowned with the title of 5(ather of 'anagement) and also called a
'anagement /hilosopher. .oday we find that 'angers including 5management .rainees)
are in high demand in the corporate world and it is the highest paid profession across the
glo&e. We can see the large num&er of students who are racing to do '* courses from
&est possi&le institutes due to this demand.
* company or a corporation today% is much more than a &usiness machine. .hey are
=mployment generators% wealth creators and socially responsi&le entities. 8o dou&t most
of the (ortune 211 companies are 5#emi47overnments) &y themselves. .hey have a large
say in decision making and policy formation at &oth national and international levels.
.herefore 'anagement and 'angers have direct and indirect impact on our daily lives.
.he >uality of 'anagers &eing produced at 'anagement institutes and the out put of
'anagers in various organisations is a very essential area that we need to monitor on a
regular &asis. 6ountries are getting compressed and the world is &ecoming a 7lo&al
village. !nly if our generation can generate 0alue ased and /rincipal centered leaders%
can we look forward to a peaceful% co4operative and productive world which is the dream
of great visionaries.
7ood and effective 'anagers are re?uired in every field and not ;ust in &usiness
enterprises. .he areas of politics% science% law% health% defence and even spiritual
organi@ations are looking forward to good managers and to opinions and suggestions of
'anagement thinkers.
Indians are taking top positions in some of the &est companies across the glo&e.
.hey are in high demand to run companies productively and efficiently. 'any of them
have also started companies which show tremendous growth rates year after year.
India has always &een a country of 5.hinkers). harat means a country that revels in
5$nowledge). We have contri&uted some of the greatest theories and concepts in all fields
which had helped in the development of :uman 6ivili@ation.
.oday most of the companies are run% &ased on concepts that evolved from the West%
mostly *merica% and Aapan. =very country has its own uni?ue culture so its 'anagement
style also has to &e uni?ue to &e fit into its own culture. *mericans developed their own
'anagement system% so did the Aapanese. #o what is Indian 'anagement #ystem and
how can it &e different from other systems and theories B
"o we have anything 5uni?ue) to contri&ute to the evolving thought of 'anagement
research and study B .his is an area of discussion in most of the 'anagement forums%
seminars and conferences.
When such ?uestions criss4cross our minds% we need to ask ourselves a fundamental
?uestion + Is 'anagement ;ust a 21 year old science B What are the 'anagement
principles due to which India was such a prosperous 8ation for over 2%111 years of
.o understand this we need to look &ack into our ancient #criptures. While digging the
treasures of knowledge our Rishis left for us% we come across a uni?ue &ook called
5Kautilya’s Arthashastra)
ackground of Arthashastra
$autilya)s Arthashastra is the oldest &ook on 'anagement availa&le to the world. It was
written &y $autilya -also known as 6hanakya and 0ishnugupta3 around C21 6. When
literally translated it means 5#cripture of Wealth). .he main focus of the &ook is on
6reation and 'anagement of wealth.
:owever% the &ook is a masterpiece which covers a wide range of topics like #tatecraft%
politics% military warfare% Law% accounting systems% taxation% fiscal policies% civil rules%
internal and foreign trade etc. It also covers various technical su&;ects including
'edicine% gemology% metallurgy% measures of length% ta&les of weights% divisions of time%
among many others.
8o wonder scholars down the centuries have time and again descri&ed $autilya as a rare
mastermind who could &e an expert in so many varied and speciali@ed fields.
$autilya% was responsi&le to &ring down the 8anda dynasty and esta&lish his a&le student
6handragupta 'aurya on the throne as the emperor. :ence he is called a 5$ing 'aker).
:e is also credited to have masterminded the defeat of *lexander in India when the latter
was on his march to con?uer the world.
*s a political thinker% he was the first to visuali@e the concept of a 58*.I!8) for the first
time in :uman :istory. "uring his time India was split into various kingdoms. :e
&rought all of them together under one central governance% thus creating a 8ation called
5*ryavartha)% which later &ecame India.
:e documented his life long work in his &ook 5$autilya's *rthashastra). (or ages rulers
across the world have referred to the Arthashastra for &uilding a nation on #ound
=conomics% &ased on spiritual values. =mperor *shoka is supposed to have &uilt and
expanded his kingdom on the principles descri&ed in this &ook. #hiva;i% the ruler of
'aharashtra is said to have studied this &ook in order to plan and defeat the 'ughals.
.he (orts that he &uilt and the 8avy he created till today stands as an example for all of
us to &e proud of.
=ven though India and Indians never forgot the 5Arthashastra)% the study and practical
application of the &ook lost its importance for ?uite some centuries.
:owever% apart from &eing seen as a scholarly work% this &ook today needs to &e once
again presented to all% for practical application in today)s world. .he &ook has many
principles and techni?ues% which once applied% can cause a tremendous improvement
even in our day4to4day management of things and situations.
$autilya)s Arthashastra
We find the roots of Arthashastra in the Rig Veda. .he Arthashastra deals primarily with
=conomics% /olitics or #tatecraft and /unishments% therefore it is also called as
Dandaniti. .he Arthashastra is a &ook &ased on pure logic% Anveshiki. 'ost of our
ancient Indian &ooks starts with the invocation of a deity &efore the writing of a &ook 4 in
most cases% 7anesha% the Lord who removes o&stacles% and Saraswati% the 7odess of
$nowledge. :owever in Arthashastra we find that Kautilya% &egins &y invoking
Sukracharya and Brihaspati.
D!m 8amah #ukra&rihaspati&hyamE
!m. #alutations to #ukra and rihaspati
.here is an important insight we can get from this. Kautilya invokes the two great
Acharyas -Gurus3 of the Asuras and the Devatas. We find in the Puranas that the Asuras
and the Devatas were enemies hence with two different view points. .his means that%
$autilya has considered &oth the different view points of the extremes &efore reaching
any decision. =dward de4ono the world renowned thinker of 5Lateral .hinking) fame
said% D.he most intelligent man is the one who can look at two different contradictory
view points at the same time and arrive at his own decisionE. .his is the ?uality that a
leader has to develop when there are people coming to him with contradictory view
points. .he &ook is completely &ased on logical discussions taking into consideration all
kinds of ideas of various *charyas.
.he Arthashastra contains nearly F111 sutras divided into ,2 &ooks% ,21 chapters% and
,G1 #ections. .he ,2 ooks contained in the *rthashastra can &e classified in the
following mannerH ook ,% as a &ook on 5(undamentals of 'anagement)% ook < dealing
with 5=conomics)% ooks C% I and 2 on 5Law)% ooks F% J and G descri&es (oreign
/olicies% ooks K to ,I dealing with 5war). ook ,2 deals with the 'ethodology and
devices used in writing the Arthashastra.
*nother interesting and note4worthy fact is that $autilya)s Arthashastra is not the first
Arthashastra. (rom a num&er of ?uotations and references in later works% we know that
there were at least four distinct schools and thirteen individual teachers of Arthashastra
&efore $autilya. .hroughout the &ook he gives references of these various *charyas who
include% haradva;a% 0isalaksa% /arasara% 'anu% /isuna and $aunapadanta among others.
.he greatness of $autilya was that he made the principles contained in his Arthashastra
so applica&le that pro&a&ly the previous Arthashastras got lost with passage of time. .he
very reason that this &ook has come down to our generation after over <<11 years shows
us that he had really fine4 tuned each concepts in such a detailed manner that it survived
the test of time. .his shows the farsightedness of $autilya. :e has worked on the
psychology of the human mind that never changes with time.
'anagement aspects
.hough the &ook covers various topics% in the following series of articles% we will &e
limiting ourselves to the 'anagement areas in the *rthashsatra. ook ,% ie 56oncerning
the .opic of .raining)% is taken up% as many aspects of the (undamentals and (oundations
of the 'anagement are contained in it. It has 211 sutras% divided into <, chapters and ,G
sections. We will &e also taking a few references from the other ooks of Arthashastra
where topics of 'anagement has &een dealt with.
*reas covered under 'anagement include 4 .raining% 'anagement =ducation%
Leadership skills% #election of =mployees% 6onsultation% 6risis 'anagement% Risk
'anagement% #trategic 'anagement% 6orporate 7overnance% Information systems%
Intelligence network% 6ompetition% 'ergers and ac?uisitions etc among many others.
We will &e taking an over all view of all these topics in the following articles.
#ome may ask% 5Is this &ook written over <<11 years ago still applica&le in today)s
'anagement worldB) .o this% great thinkers have responded% 5.he *rthashastra is a &ook
a&out the management of the 5human mind)% which has remained ?uite the same since
Who can &enefit from the 'anagement insights from *rthashsatra B .hey could &e
usiness leaders% 'anagers% /oliticians% 6hartered *ccountants% :uman resource
personals% 'anagement .rainers% 'anagement 6onsultants% Intelligence *gencies% /u&lic
L 6ivil servants% 7overnment officials% 'ilitary personnel% students of various fields etc.
In fact $autilya)s *rthashastra is a must for every intelligent person irrespective of which
profession he &elongs to.
Management Fundamentals in Kautilya’s Arthashastra – 2
(As printed in Tapovan Prasad setion o! "alue #ased
Management May $% issue&
- &adhakrishnan illai
T'E T(P)C (F T*A)+)+,
0hen we study the li!es of great businessmen and some of the most
producti!e 9anagers, we note that !ery few of them ha!e had a formal
education in 9anagement. Foth Fill Bates, the richest man in the
world and 0arren Fuffett, the second richest man in the world both
ha!e had no formal 9anagement education. 9any others li%e 0alt
.isney or *%io 9orita, the creator of Sony too ne!er went to Fusiness
Schools. How is it they could manage such huge business empires1
0hen and how did they achie!e these great 9anagerial s%ills1
(!en though formal education is !ery important, it is not e!erything in
9anagement. #he L%nac%M of effecti!e management that consists of
$uic% decisions, strategic mo!ements, a $uic% insight into the crux of
any problem is not Aust ac$uired by a formal 9anagement training.
Management is a -Mind .et’
*s we study the li!es of these great leaders of society, we obser!e that
they ha!e de!eloped an Lintuiti!eM insight into situations that demands
their attention. #oday our generation has started considering
9anagement as a subAect that we learn in !arious colleges and
institutions. Howe!er, 9anagement is not Aust a subAect but a L9ind
SetM. #his mind set can be de!eloped by anyone with basic education
and a long period of trial and error methods, continuous learning and
years of experience.
#he good news is that these great leaders can transfer their
managerial s%ills and years of experience to the next generation
through a process of systematic #raining.
#raining deals with selecting the right candidates, mentorship,
management of the senses and continuous learning. 9ost importantly,
it re$uires a lot of patience. #raining is not a $uic% fix solution. It is a
Long term gain. It is loo%ing at the larger picture in spite of short term
loss or failure. #oday many companies are focusing on this #raining
aspect in a big manner. Large groups li%e #atas, Infosys, 0ipro,
9ahindra and 9ahindra etc ha!e their own full time training centers.
*ll great leaders of history ha!e emerged from a long process of
training. 9ahatma Bandhi too% "1 years in South *frica before he
returned to India to fight for our freedom. Shi!aAi was trained right
from his childhood before he formed his own army to defeat the
9ughals. Burude! himself spent ten long years with Swami #apo!an
9aharaA before he came down to the plains to build the worldwide
Ehinmaya 9ission. (!en in the case of :autilya, who wrote the
Arthashastra, it too% him years to train Ehandragupta 9aurya to
con$uer the cruel >anda :ing.
Just li%e the LLaw of the <armM in training too, we ha!e to go through
the whole natural process. Selecting the right seed, sowing it, watering
it, waiting for it to sprout, pro!iding the right amount of sunlight,
letting it grow in the right en!ironment N none of these stages can be
a!oided. ,nly in the right season and right time do we enAoy the
#raining deals with imparting an understanding of some of the deeper
secrets of the human mind. 9ost mportantly, training is a matter of
disciplining the mind. 0e will examine a few !erses that deal with the
#opic of training, in the :autilyaMs Arthashastra.
.eletion o! Trainees
In one of his lectures to 9F* students, Sri DaAesh :amath, the .eputy
Beneral 9anger (H.D .epartment of 9ahindra and 9ahindra Broup,
said, OIf I ha!e to fire someone for non performance, it is due to my
mista%e not his. I ha!e to be careful during the selection processP.
Selection of trainees is the %ey to any effecti!e training programme.
,therwise we end up frustrated with huge loss of time, energy and
:autilya, in his Arthashastra deals with the aspect of training in a
detailed manner. #he first boo% of *rthashastra itself is titled,
Vinayadhikarikam meaning OEoncerning the #opic of #rainingP
:atuilya says that selection of the right candidate to be trained is !ery
important. .uring those days in third century F.E., when the caste
system was !ery pre!alent, :autilya selected Ehandragupta 9aurya
who was not a Kshatriya, to become the next emperor and to ta%e
o!er >anda. #his shows that the choice of a right candidate for
9anagement or leadership training should not be limited to birth,
caste, color, creed, religion or country.
In the following !erse, he defines the $ualities that we need to loo% for
in a person, before ta%ing him as a trainee. #his !erse is !ery
important for the H.D departments who ha!e to continuously %eep
recruiting 9anagement trainees.
“The training disciple is the one whose intellect has the
qualities of desire to learn, listening, retention, thorough
understanding, reflection, rejection of false views and
intentness of truth and not on any other person” !"#"#$%
#hus a L#rainableM person is the one who has the following $ualities4
1. .esire to learn
". (ffecti!e listening ability
&. *bility to reflect (thin% from all angles
'. *bility to reAect false !iews
). <ocus on truth, not on any person
/0 1esire to 2earn N #he trainee should be %een in ac$uiring more
%nowledge. His focus should not be immediate monetory or material
gains. He should %eep himself surrounded by and learn from
experienced people under whom he can learn more.
20 E!!etive listening a3ility N Listening is Lhearing plus thin%ingM. *t
a higher stage of listening the mind itself calms down. ItMs a total
recepti!e state. #he trainee should focus on listening more and try to
get a deeper insight into the words of his teacher. He should not get
into arguments trying to pro!e his point.
40 A3ility to re!let (thin5 !rom all angles& N *fter listening to !iew
points of !arious people, he should be able to sit bac% and reflect on
his own. He should consider all angles before ma%ing a conclusion.
Foth Logical thin%ing and Ereati!e thin%ing are $ualities of the mind
that are re$uired.
60 A3ility to re7et !alse views N DeAecting false !iew does not mean
being rigid. He should come to his own conclusion, after correct
thin%ing and analysis. He should be able to reach his own decisions
with intellectual con!iction.
%0 Fous on truth not on any person N * trainee should not Aust get
carried away by !iew points of different people. He should be able to
arri!e at the truth after careful analysis. He should loo% at the
situation more obAecti!ely. He should be able to see the problem as
separate from the person.
#he selection of the right trainee is the first step. #his is li%e chec%ing
the $uality of the seed before we sow it.
,nce the right trainee is selected, he has to be nurtured with the help
of a senior person who is experienced in that particular s%ill. #his
system of 9entorship has ta%en strong roots in todayMs corporate
training structure. (!en experienced people ha!e now started calling
them sel!es as 9entors more than leaders. >arayan 9urthy is now
officially designated the Ehief 9entor of the Infosys Broup. * mentor is
more li%e a catalyst who guides the process without ta%ing part in the
“Training and discipline are acquired &y accepting the
authoritativeness of the teachers in the respective fields”
0e need to ha!e an attitude of surrender to our mentor, our Buru. #his
will lead to discipline. 0e should be able to accept that our mentor
understands the subAect better than we do. (!en though at certain
times we find it difficult to accept certain decisions of his, we still need
to follow his orders. #he full picture will become clearer to us in due
course of time.
Swami #eAomayanandAi once said, O*t times I used to wonder why
SwamiAi (Burude! Swami Ehinmayananda used to ta%e certain tough
decisions. Howe!er, inspite of not totally agreeing to him, I ne!er lost
faith in him. #oday when I am in his position (leading the worldwide
Ehinmaya 9ission, I understand why he did so.P
Management o! the senses
0ithout managing the senses, no leader can progress. *s you %eep
going up the ladder of success, temptations %eep coming your way.
,ften, the downfall of great leaders happens when their senses ta%e
o!er. Sex scandals, shattering decisions ta%en in a fit of anger, o!er
indulgence in power etc. is due to handing o!er the reins to the
“(ontrol over the senses, which is motivated &y training,
should &e secured &y giving up lust, anger, greed, pride,
arrogance and over e)citement” !"'"!$
Eontrol o!er the senses is initially moti!ated externally by proper
training. It is a process of disciplining of the mind. Howe!er, no
external pressure can help one maintain this discipline fore!er. Initially
it may be out of fear imposed by seniors, but slowly it has to become a
Self discipline. #he mind has to be trained through regular practice.
,ne should be able to handle lust, anger, greed, arrogance of
%nowledge and power, should not get o!er excited due to sudden gain
or deAected due to unforeseen loss.
“A king, &ehaving in a manner contrary to that and having no
control over his senses, quickly perishes, though he &e the
ruler right up to the four ends of the earth” !"'"*$
Lac% of sense8control will surely ruin a leader in the long run. Breed
for power and position comes out of lac% of sense control. 0e ha!e
seen so many children from wealthy homes and big business empires
ruining the hard8earned wealth of their forefathers, due to lac% of
sense8control. #hough one may possess great wealth and power, it will
all be slowly lost if one does not handle the senses well.
Continuous 2earning
Learning is a continuous process. Iou ha!e to %eep yourself updated
with the latest happenings around. #he most important part of
continuous learning is to associate yourself with persons who are more
experienced and %nowledgeable than you.
“+e should have constant association with elders in learning,
for the sake of improving his training, since training has a root
in that” !"#"!!$
#he root of training lies in associating yourself with seniors. It is by
being around with them that we come to %now the way our senior loo%
at certain situations with a deeper insights than we can obtain on the
surface. ,nce, a person who climbing the corporate ladder fast was
as%ed, OHow do you %eep getting promotions so fast1P OI %eep
obser!ing what my boss does and learn to ac$uire his s%ills,P came the
“,rom continuous study ensures a trained intellect, from
intellect comes practical application, and from practical
application results self-possession” !"#"!'$
:autilya, in this !erse, gi!es us the three steps of ac$uiring an
expertise in any field.
1. Eontinuous Study
". Gractical *pplication
&. Self possession
/0 Continuous .tudy N Study is not Aust gathering more and more
information. *s Swami Vi!e%ananda said, OIf %nowledge was a!ailable
in boo%s, all the libraries in the world would ha!e been sagesHP
Information collection is Aust the first step. >owadays information is
readily a!ailable through internet, tele!ision and !arious other sources,
than%s to the technological re!olution. Howe!er, information gathered
has to be con!erted into %nowledge by a process of thin%ing, analyCing
and reflection.
(!en %nowledge is not the final step. :nowledge has to e!ol!e into
0isdom. * wise man is greater than a %nowledgeable man. He can
loo% into the crux of any problem within a split second.
20 Pratial Appliation N ,ur %nowledge has to ha!e some
usefulness. Hence, :autilya says its practical application is !ery
necessary. ,therwise it Aust remains mere theory, with no usefulness
either to the person or to the society around. #his application has to be
for the good of others. It has to be useful to ta%e the society to a
producti!e state and to a higher le!el of consciousness.
40 .el! Possession 8 Fy applying in the practical world the concepts a
person has de!eloped by thin%ing, he comes to ha!e a higher le!el of
confidence in himself. #he success of his theory in the practical world
also crowns him with many other worldly benefits li%e appreciation,
money, honour, etc. He thus becomes an expert in the !ery area or
field he has been wor%ing for so long.
Self possession is a LState of FeingM. He has become one with his
subAect. He has perfected the art. <rom this point onwards his wor% is
Aust a sport for him. He de!elops an intuiti!e wisdom.
Pass it on to others
9anagement training is a continuous process. ,ne learns and teaches.
,ne does not ha!e to wait to become an expert to teach others. #here
are seniors who %now more than you7 at the same time there are
Auniors who %now less than you. :eep learning from the seniors, and
with your own experience, %eep teaching the Auniors. #hus the circle of
life will get completed. 9any people wait for a golden moment to start
training their Auniors. #hat Bolden moment ne!er comes. Iou ha!e to
start it here and now.
0hen I was in EI< (Ehinmaya International <oundation, studying the
*rthashastra, I as%ed Swami *d!ayanandAi, the *charya in charge of
EI<, OSwamiAi, in our Ehinmaya 9ission the !arious *charyas get
transferred e!ery now and then. 0hen do you decide when to start
training the others to ta%e o!er, while you may ha!e to go to some
other centre1P
SwamiAiMs reply ga!e the gist of training in the most beautiful manner N
O#raining your Auniors starts the moment you Aoin. It is being ready to
lea!e the position at any gi!en point of time. #he system has to run by
#raining is wor%ing in a detached manner. ItMs an understanding that
no one is indispensable. Iou realise that you are not the owner but
Aust a part of the whole. Li%e the Buru8Shishya Garamapara, the
wisdom has to flow from one generation to the other.
K(1.).) 8 It means Foo% 1, Ehapter ), Verse ). #his same method is
followed throughout gi!ing the reference to all !erses in the :autilyaMs
'anagement (undamentals in $autilya)s *rthashastra + C
-*s printed in .apovan /rasad section of 0alue ased 'anagement Aune 12 issue3
4 Radhakrishnan /illai
L=*"=R#:I/ >9*LI.I=#
.hroughout the Arthashastra, references have &een made to more than a hundred
?ualities of leadership% along with the methods of how to develop them. .he main focus
of the Arthashastra is on creating an ideal society% which can &e done only through
inspired leaders. :ence% we can say that Arthashastra is a &ook on 56reation of leaders).
#hri L.8.Rangara;an% a /olitical =conomist% in his translation of $autilya)s Arthashastra%
says% is a &asic difference &etween the Dharmashastras and the Arthashastra. !ur
Dharmashastras address themselves to individuals% teaching them their Dharma% while
Arthashastra are addressed to rulersE
:ence we find that Dharmashatras like Mahabharata, amayana etc are more popular%
as they are written for the masses% to teach Dharma to every individual% while the
Arthashastra is limited in appeal% as they are written specifically keeping leaders in mind.
In every society% the leaders are few and followers numerous. .herefore% many thinkers
have also said that% Arthashastra is addressed to a particular section of the society%
especially the intellectually oriented people who can guide the society towards material
welfare and prosperity.
In this month)s article we will &e looking at some key ?ualities that a leader should have.
Leadership ?ualities are not the monopoly of any individual% race% country or generation.
Leadership is an art that can &e developed &y any individual from any &ackground. .he
only way to develop it is to have a higher goal or ideal in front of us. .he goal itself will
inspire us and through us% the others around us. 7reat leaders are &orn when they
sacrifice their individual pursuit for happiness% for the sake of the happiness of others.
(rom an average lawyer% a 5'ahatma) 7andhi was &orn. (rom a 8arendra% the great
#wami 0ivekananda was &orn.
In the Arthashastra% 6hapter ,K of ook ,% titled DRules of a $ingE descri&es the various
?ualities of a leader. * complete detailed study of this section can prove very fruitful to
various students and teachers% who want to develop Leadership >ualities. It gives
exhaustive% step &y step guidelines a&out the kind of life a leader should lead% right from
his daily time ta&le% to his method of conducting himself with different types of people.
e =ver *ctive
!"# the kin$ is ener$etic, his sub%ects will be e&ually ener$etic' "# he is slack (and la)y in
per#*rmin$ his duties+ the sub%ects will als* be la)y, thereby, eat int* his wealth' Besides,
a la)y kin$ will easily #all int* the hands *# the enemies' ,ence the kin$ sh*uld himsel#
always be ener$etic- (.'./'.01+
.he first and the foremost ?uality of a leader is to &e active. 8o other ?uality can replace
this. .he enthusiasm of the leader is itself an inspiration to others. *s the famous saying
goes% D/eople learn more &y watching actions than listening to sermonsE. Leaders are the
ones who have a positive energy field around them. !nly if heLshe is energetic and active%
will the su&ordinates display energetic enthusiasm. .he &est example is our 7urudev%
#wami 6hinmayananda himself. *t the age of J2% he had the enthusiasm of a <2 year old%
which was infectious and difficult to resist. What attracted most people to him was this
energy level% which is still felt in a vi&rant way throughout the 6hinmaya 'ission. =ven
after a decade% since he left his mortal coil% he continues to inspire those% who have not
even seen him. #uch is the magnetic power of a truly enthusiastic leader. It is very
!ne cannot afford to &e la@y in front of one)s ;uniors. If the &oss comes late to office and
is found sleeping there% what can one expect from the su&ordinatesB .he hagavad 7eeta
6hC% <,3 says that people generally follow whatever the leader does. * good leader
should &e a&le to take ?uick and effective decisions. If he keeps postponing important
matters% his su&ordinates too will do the same. #uch a leader will soon lose control over
the su&ordinates. Without any control% the su&ordinates will start spending excess money
of the organisation in unnecessary areas. #ince the leader is not vigilant and alert% the
enemies and competitors will easily overtake him. #o% in order to inspire others% to
maintain and expand the wealth of the organisation% and also to &e in touch with the latest
developments around% the leader should &e ever active and energetic.
Love for his team 'em&ers
* leader can create a team% &ut there can &e no team without a leader. :e is the nucleus
around which everything takes place. *t many points% he takes tough decisions that may
seem harsh to a few people. :owever% he has to take into consideration the over all
&enefit of the team not ;ust his individual &enefit.
:owever% great the vision of the leader may &e% he cannot keep others truly inspired% if
his heart is not full of love.
!"n the happiness *# the sub%ects lies the bene#it *# the kin$ and in what is bene#icial t*
the sub%ects is his *wn bene#it- (.'./'23+
Leaders of most societies first look at their individual happiness and attainment of selfish
goals as the primary criterion% while taking key decisions. .hey think that &y this
particular method% they will &e a&le to keep themselves happy forever. ut the fact is
?uite different. :appiness is interdependent; if others are happy% it is conducive to one)s
own happiness. If a person ;ust tries to keep yourself happy% neglecting the happiness of
other people around him% it will hit him &ack very hard over a period of time.
* leader understands this point very clearly 4 in the happiness of his su&;ects lies his own
&enefit. In fact% this should &e the prime o&;ective of the leaders. * king does not have
any individual desire left. .he only desire left is the welfare of others.
When the su&;ects are &enefited% the king will naturally &e happy. .here are many leaders
in the political as well as the corporate circles% who do not want to educate their ;uniors
out of the fear that if they get educated or empowered% they would overtake the leader
himself. y doing this% one is ;ust suppressing the hidden potential of a person. !n the
contrary% if one offers appropriate training to the su&ordinates% after identifying the core
uni?ue areas% not only will they &ecome fully productive% they will also &e thankful to the
leader for giving them timely help and support that was needed and repay him ten4fold. *
selfless man gets more than what he re?uires. .his is a natural law which a leader has to
understand and follow in order to &e successful.
.here are various areas that the leader has to look into. It may not &e feasi&le for him to
take care of all these areas himself. :ence he should take help and guidance% consulting
experts in various fields. .oday we find that even the /resident or /rime 'inister of a
country has specialists like the principal scientific advisor% chief security advisor etc%
whom he consults &efore taking any decision with matters regarding that particular area.
.his consultation should &e in a spirit of humility% with a desire to learn and understand
!All undertakin$s sh*uld be preceded by c*nsultati*n' ,*ldin$ a c*nsultati*n with *nly
*ne, he may n*t be able t* reach a decisi*n in di##icult matters' 4ith m*re c*uncil*rs it is
di##icult t* reach decisi*ns and maintain secrecy- (.'.1'5,21,36+
!7here#*re sit and c*unsel with th*se wh* are matured in intellect- ( .'.1'5605.+
*ny important undertaking should &e preceded &y due consultation with experts in that
field. .here should &e ore than one consultant% &ecause a single individual may have a
narrow or &iased vision. .herefore it is important to have view points of at least two to
three people. *fter examining these view points% he can come to his own decision.
(urther% care has to &e taken that he should not go on consulting more and more people%
leading to confusion and indecision; there is also the fear that these important matters will
lose their secrecy. .herefore% it is advised that one should only consult few% and only
those who are mature in their intellect% meaning an experienced and sharp person.
We find the same advice &eing given &y Lord Rama to his &rother harata in amayana%
telling him how to run the kingdom effectively% while asking him to go &ack to *yodhaya
with the Padukas.
Respect to #piritual people
.his is a uni?ue ?uality found in the Indian 'anagement system that cannot &e found
anywhere else in the world. India% right from its very &irth% has &een a spiritual country. It
has taken spirituality as its 8ational ideal. 6enturies have passed% yet we never gave up
our search for .ruth. !ur Gurus and #piritual 'asters have &een our role models and also
our &enchmark for excellence. We have gone &ack to them again and again to check if we
have missed the right track somewhere.
In ancient India% :ermits% ascetics and #piritual masters were respected and revered. .hey
were invited to the courts to take important decisions. In various religious &ooks and
stories% we find mention of a special seat for the Acharya% a religious teacher% who used to
&e consulted &efore taking any key decision in the society. .he leader himself
understands that he is not the ultimate. .herefore% he looks for the guidance of the
Acharya. .he Acharya% in turn% understands that he too% as a person is not the ultimate.
:is validity comes from his deep understanding of Dharma. :e gives suggestions or
decisions &ased on "harma. .hus the whole society runs on the &asis of Dharma.
.oday% our /arliamentary system of governance adopted from the West% has no place for
any #piritual 'asters. =very&ody takes decisions &ased on his own individual ;udgments%
without consulting anyone superior to him in moral standards. It is the state of the lind
leading the lind. !nly if our law makers can understand that there has to &e a seat for a
#piritual guide in our system of governance% can we go &ack to the glorious days of India.
.hroughout the Arthashastra% we find that Archaryas were given a patient hearing on
various matters and also invited to court sessions% were they had the highest and the most
important seat offered. .he king could start the session only after offering salutations to
these great 'asters.
/u;ya 7urudev #wami 6hinmayananda said% D* leader is one who creates more leadersE.
.his is what 7urudev himself did. * leader does not stick to power% position or authority.
:e trains potential people in the knowledge and the skills that he has ac?uired in his years
of experience. *s he trains his ;uniors% he naturally takes up higher responsi&ilities and
moves up the ladder. * true leader understands the golden principle that% 5the &est way to
keep rising higher and higher is to give more responsi&ilities to the persons &elow youE.
'anagement (undamentals in $autilya)s *rthashastra + I
-*s printed in .apovan /rasad section of 0alue ased 'anagement Auly 12 issue3
4 Radhakrishnan /illai
6R=*.I!8 !( W=*L.:
Artha is an all em&racing word with a variety of meanings. In the Arthashastra% itself in
various places% the meaning of this word changes. It is used to mean material well4&eing%
livelihood% economically productive activity etc. :owever the most commonly
understood meaning of Artha is wealth% or (ulfillment of desire through wealth.
'ost of us get confused &etween the two words% wealth and money. !ur generation
understands that wealth creation means money collection. :owever this is not really true.
'oney is ;ust a tool as a means of exchange. Wealth is something that you own after a lot
of hard work and self effort. #ome people are lucky to get inherited wealth. In olden days
cows were considered to &e wealth. .he more the num&er of cows you owned% the more
wealthy you were. .his is also seen in Kath*panishad% where 8achiketa)s father donated
cows to display his wealth.
*dam #mith% who wrote the legendry &ook% DWealth of 8ationsE in the year ,JJF% is
considered the father of modern economics. !ther great =conomists like *lferd 'arshall
-,GK13 and Aohn $eynes -,KCF3 also contri&uted in a ma;or way to the though
development in economics. "uring this period very few Indians have come up with a
revolutionary thinking in economics. :owever% India was an economically prosperous
country for so many centuries and these modern theories offer very few insights to
explain this fact.
$autilya)s Arthashastra% is a well recorded part of Indian history that gives us a glimpse
of India)s rich economic heritage. $autilya gives us tips &oth at the Individual as well as
the state level to understand the principles of creation of wealth. * study of his economic
principles will &e very useful to the individual common man as well as senior policy
makers in the government. It is very inspiring to find that the $autilya covers the
principles of wealth creation &oth at 'icro and 'acro levels in a single &ook.
/u;ya 7urudev #wami 6hinmayananda once said% D#pirituality and 'aterialism are the
two wings of the same &ird. Mou re?uire &oth for a smooth flightE. We have a
misunderstanding that India was only interested in spirituality and totally neglected
economic development and material prosperity. #ri L.8. Rangara;an says in his
commentary% D$autilya)s Arthashastra removes the myth that :indus were not% and are
not interested in material well &eingE.
Wealth 6reation at Individual Level
'any people have the desire to donate and do charita&le social work% though they are not
a&le to provide for their own families. What is the use of such no&le desires if one cannot
sustain oneself and one)s familyB
(irst and foremost one has to learn to create wealth. If one does not have wealth% what
can one distri&uteB What can a &eggar giveB Let us look at how an individual can create
wealth for himself.
$autilya says% in his 6hanakya 8iti -another work &y him3H
!4ealth is n*t *nly what is with y*u, but what is "8 y*u-
.his is the very foundation of wealth creation. We consider a person wealthy% when we
see the material possessions around him. We may own huge empires% &ut that is ;ust
external wealth; the real wealth is what is inside us. !ur character% our vision% our ideals%
our knowledge% our talents 4 these are our real wealth. If we truly develop them% external
wealth will follow naturally. When a person focuses only on the external material
prosperity% without developing hisLher inner wealth% there is no guarantee that the external
wealth will last long.
.he first step is to identify our inner strengths and what we are naturally good at. #ri
$rishna% in the Bha$avat Geeta calls this as% 5Swadharama). =ach of us is &orn with
certain special in&orn talents. 7od has given each of us some uni?ue ?uality. !ne of the
purposes of life is to find out this uni?ue gift that each one of us has. *t times we take
years to identify it. ut once discovered% our life itself can take a drastically new
.he next step is to develop it. .his can &e done &y undergoing training provided &y
experts in that field. "eveloping your talent is a sadhana &y itself. We need work on it to
refine it to a state of perfection. .his re?uires a lot of hard work and total commitment.
We should not &e misguided &y the world% which will always push us down saying% D.his
will not work out% try something elseE
'any people do start working on their talents% &ut get struck and de;ected when they do
not se immediate results. When there are no visi&le signs of success in spite of regular
and consistent efforts% their mind starts playing tricks. .his is a very sensitive ;unction in
our lives. .he weak mind will look for explanations and external support. .his is when
we start consulting astrologers% palm readers% future predictors% forecasting stars etc.
$autilya warns us not to get trapped in this mental confusion.
!4ealth will slip away #r*m the #**lish pers*n, wh* c*ntinu*usly c*nsults the stars9 #*r
wealth is the star *# wealth9 what will the stars d*: ;apable men will certainly secure
wealth at least a#ter a hundred trials- ( /'3'5<+
We should consider putting sustained efforts% even if we are failing a hundred times. If
our vision is correct and intentions no&le% even if the path is not clear% there is no dou&t
that we will reach our destination sooner or later.
It is the 5Law of the seed) that not all seeds will fructify. .ake a look at an apple tree.
.here might &e five hundred apples on the tree% each with ten seeds. .hat's a lot of seeds.
We might ask% NWhy would you need so many seeds to grow ;ust a few more treesBN
8ature has something to teach us here. It's telling usH N'ost seeds never growE. #o if you
really want to make something happen% you had &etter try more than once. #uccessful
people fail more often. .hey simply plant more seeds.
Wealth creation at #tate and 8ational Level
.he Arthashastra% is one of the world)s oldest treatises on the economic administration of
the state. We will now see $autilya)s advice to the political leaders and economists of any
!7he c*untryside is the s*urce *# all undertakin$s, #r*m them c*mes p*wer- (='.3'./+
.he real wealth of any nation is in its rural areas. In a country like India% over J1 O of the
population still lives in villages. It is not the population alone that matters. Rural people
are close to nature and nature actually gives us wealth. 'ines% forest produce% agriculture
all these are natural resources. 'an will always &e dependent on nature for his survival.
.he closer we are to natural resources% the more powerful we &ecome. 7reat talents lie
hidden in the millions of our country men living in villages. It)s our duty to give
opportunities to these people. We also need to spend a lot of time and energy doing
research on the potential natural resources that can create new streams of employment for
our country. * &otanist once remarked% DWhat is a weedB * plant whose usefulness has
not yet &een discoveredE. India% as a country% has ama@ing hidden potentials in the
countryside. Let us explore them without affecting the natural ecological &alance% for the
&enefit of one and all.
!Be ever active in the mana$ement *# the ec*n*my because the r**t *# wealth is
ec*n*mic activity9 inactivity brin$s material distress' 4ith*ut an active p*licy, b*th
current pr*sperity and #uture $ains are destr*yed- (.'./'21,2<+
:ere the 'anagers are adviced to &e alert and vigilant in economic activity. $eeping a
continuous track of finances is very important. /rofessionals in the field of finance like
accountants understand this golden rule + DIf you keep a track or your account statements
on a daily &asis% you will not get into a mess while compiling the monthly or yearly
reportsE. =conomic activity is the root of wealth creation. .he more active a person is%
more he can tap new opportunities that come to him. In case he is not active% it will &ring
him mental distress. * la@y man cannot &ring material or economic prosperity.
=ven the economic policy has to &e active and vi&rant; otherwise the created wealth and
the gains expected in the future will get lost. India% &eing on a developing track% we can
see a lot of activity happening here. .his activity is the primary reason for more and more
wealth flowing into our country. In addition% the government)s open door policy of
glo&ali@ation has helped &usinessmen to &ecome aware of customer)s needs% and to move
out of their earlier attitude of complacency.
!>ust as elephants are needed t* catch elephants, s* d*es *ne need wealth t* capture
m*re wealth- (/'3'5=+
!nce wealth is created% it needs to &e re invested in the right areas. 8ature has a ?uality
of continuous change. .he season changes% rivers keep flowing% our heart &eats% and
&lood flows through our arteries and veins + all this happens continuously% without &reak.
.his is the law of nature 4 to keep moving. #imilar is the case with wealth. Wealth needs
to flow to new areas so that more wealth is created. We need to invest our wealth into
different fields. If we want to earn more wealth% we need to let go our accumulated
wealth. $autilya% in the a&ove verse% gives us an example of an elephant. .he elephant is
an animal that lives and moves in groups. .he elephant hunter knows this well; hence% in
order to attract a wild elephant% he makes use of another elephant. #o% if you want to earn
more wealth% put your current wealth assets to good use.
!Abundance *# state activities, cherishin$ *# cust*ms, suppressi*n *# thieves, c*ntr*l
*ver empl*yees, lu?uriance *# cr*ps, abundance *# c*mm*dities, deliverance #r*m
tr*uble, reducti*n *# e?empti*ns (and+ presents in cash, 0 these are the means *# increase
*# treasury- (5'@'2+
.he following are the means of increasing the wealth of the stateH
,. =nsuring the prosperity of #tate *ctivities -and enterprises3 + *n active state is a
prosperous state. #mall% medium and large scale industries have to &e promoted.
<. 6ontinuing well tried and successful policies 4 We need to work on trail and error &asis
in various areas% &efore we strike the gold mine. ut once we have identified areas which
are productive% we should continue investing in the same.
C. =liminating theft 4 .his can &e done in two ways + firstly% &y providing the &asic
necessaries to one and all% along with employment% and secondly% &y having a strong
security and intelligence system.
I. $eeping strict control over government employees 4 #ince money and power comes to
government employees without much difficulty% it is necessary to keep a check on their
actions% so that they do not misuse them.
2. Increasing agricultural production 4 .his not only ensures a large part of employment
&ut also provides food% the &asic need of any living &eing.
F. /romoting trade 4 .rade is the channel for wealth to flow from one nation to other. .he
more productive a state is% the more wealthy it &ecomes.
J. *voiding trou&les and calamities 4 Wars% diseases% &alance in economy% all have to &e
kept in check. We should &e prepared for unforeseen natural calamities. .his re?uires
investment of our efforts in research activities as well as the areas of crisis 'anagement.
G. Reducing -tax3 exemptions and remissions 4 7iving too much tax exemptions will
empty the state treasury. /eople should not take it for granted that the state will provide
for everything% while they take it easy.
K. Increasing cash income 4 6ontinuous increase of cash flow is the heart of any
organi@ation. *n increasing income ensures continuous prosperity.
!4ith n* distracti*n, the pe*ple will be #ully inv*lved in the w*rk and there will be an
increase in supply *# lab*ur, m*ney, c*mm*dities, $rain and li&uids t* the
.oo much &ureaucratic involvement frustrates many inspired people. !nce the &asic work
is done% the government should allow people to &e hassle4free. .hen it is more likely that
they will work with no distraction in their minds. 8aturally% they will &e more mentally
availa&le for doing productive work. *s a &y product there will &e increase in la&our%
money% commodities etc into the state treasury.
#piritual $nowledge 4 India)s 8ational Wealth
What is India)s true wealthB Where does our true 56ore 6ompetency) lieB What is that%
which% once we explore% we can &ecome the richest nation in the world once again in very
short timeB :ave we ever thought of itB
We think that our national wealth is in the &anks and other financial institutions. ut the
real wealth is much deeper than what we can physically see. It is the spiritual and cultural
knowledge that our ishis and our forefathers left for us centuries ago. .he time% effort
and energy they spent in creating our great Indian culture is our true wealth. :ave we
ever understood the greatness of our own cultureB
In the year ,K12% "r #hama #hastry rediscovered the $autilya)s Arthashastra for our
generation from the 'ysore 7overnment !riental Li&rary. Later% "r. R./. $angle% in the
year ,KF1% translated the complete Arthashastra of a&out F111 verses into =nglish to &e
read% studied and researched &y students like me. It took them a lifetime to do this
voluminous work. :ad it not &een for these two great men I would not have written this
article% nor would you &e reading in now. .he effort put in &y such great men in keeping
alive the search of knowledge is the real wealth of our nation. .his is our true intellectual
We are neither aware of% nor value fully the wealth that our forefathers have left for us in
form of knowledge% availa&le today in the millions of manuscripts present in the
thousands of li&raries across India. .hey are ;ust lying idle on the shelves and considered
merely a &otheration to maintain. We are not making any effort to utili@e the treasure
house of knowledge we have inherited.
6hinmaya International (oundation -6I(3 was the vision of /u;ya 7urudev #wami
6hinmayananda% not only to store% &ut also to conduct research and explore the wealth of
knowledge &e?ueathed to us &y our ancient Rishis. .oday at 6I(% there are over ,2%111
rare &ooks on Indology. Indological studies are known &y various names like study of
5*ncient Indian culture)% 5*ncient Indian :istory)% 5:eritage =ducation)% 5#anskrit as a
Language) etc. :ow may of our 6hinmaya mission mem&ers are utili@ing the opportunity
availa&le to do research work at 6I(B 'ost people% especially youngsters% may ask% D:ow
can a research and study of Indology &e &eneficial to me as a careerB :ow much
remuneration will such a study fetch meBE
In fact% one will &e surprised to know that the monetory &enefits of a career &ased on
study in Indology is e?uivalent to any other professional field. It is an employment
provider for the future. (ields of .ourism% *rcheology% :eritage 'anagement% 'edia and
'ass 6ommunication are open to them. 0arious multinational companies% ready to invest
in India% are looking out for students from the field of Indological studies. Indology as a
research su&;ect is more popular in countries like 7ermany% 9# and 9$ whereas in India
it does not attract enough interest. In an article in the .imes of India% pu&lished in *pril
<112% "r Radha $umar% /rofessor of Indology in the 9niversity of ristol% 9$ ?uotes% DI
don)t know why Indians are so sceptical a&out studying their own culture% while the rest
of the world is so interested in Indian :eritage. #ome of the &est experts on Indian
:eritage and languages are foreignersPE
When will our generation wake up to our own national wealth% which our great spiritual
masters left for usB *s our /resident *./.A. *&dul $alam ?uotes in his &ook% "$nited
Minds% should &e a focused approach to intellectual property rights and related issues.
!ur ancient knowledge and culture too are part of our resource &ase and needs to &e
#wami 0ivekananda% /u;ya 7urudev #wami 6hinmayananda and others not only
recreated our national wealth of knowledge for us% &ut also gave it &ack to the society in
an enriched form.
In our next issue we will see the importance of giving &ack to the society the wealth that
we create.
M!9 8==" =L=/:*8.# .! 6*.6: =L=/:*8.#
- Name of paper: '9'*I 'IRR!R
Date: ,Gth Auly 12 -page <<3
Title Column: .he Wealth #cript
Autor: Radhakrishnan /illai 3
-.his weekly column will explore the relevance and application of /rinciples and
#trategies discussed in the Crd 6entury 6 treatise% Kautilya’s Arthashastra% in .oday)s
6orporate World3
!7he *b%ective *# any kin$ (leader+ *r state (*r$ani)ati*n+ is t* create, e?pand, pr*tect
and en%*y wealth-
.he reason for a 6=! to &e in the chair is very clearly defined &y $autilya in the very
&eginning itself. It is to create wealth for all its stakeholders% his employees and for
himself to en;oy.
:e should not &e satisfied with what he has got. :e should keep thinking continuously
how to expand his territories and reach new markets.
!>ust as elephants are needed t* catch elephants, s* d*es *ne need wealth t* capture
m*re wealth- (/'3'5=+
.his is an old &ut very important aspect of wealth creation. D/aisa lagaye &ina /aisa
nahin aataE. .here is no &usiness that can create wealth without investment. $autilya here
gives the example of a hunter who catches elephants.
=lephants always move around in groups. .o catch an elephant a hunter needs to use
another elephant. !nly then the one which is targeted gets attracted.
:aving produced wealth the king should know how to protect it. .ake the example of a
vessel with a hole at the &ottom. We may keep pouring more and more water into it.
:owever nothing will stay unless it is protected from unknown leaks.
:ow does he do thatB
!,e (leader+ sh*uld c*nstantly h*ld an inspecti*n *# their w*rks, men bein$ inc*nstant
in their minds- (5'/'502+
.he employees are primarily concerned with salaries. *n attitude of complacency can
crop up if a regular and vigilant check is not kept on them. .he reason is ?uite o&vious.
.he human mind is very unpredicta&le. 8o organi@ation can reach its goal without a
continuous push and pull system.
!All state activities depend #irst *n the 7reasury' 7here#*re, a kin$ (leader+ shall dev*te
the best attenti*n t* it- (5'@'.05+
In &ook one of the *rthashastra titled 5.he topic of training); the teacher proposes a daily
time ta&le for the king. :e says that during the first part of the day% he should check the
accounts of income and expenditure of the sate. It is only after doing this% he is adviced to
look into the affairs of the citi@ens.
"o not get carried away &y the regular pro&lems faced &y your su&ordinates once you
enter your office. RelaxP Aust take control over the financial status &y monitoring the
financial reports first
R!*" .! W=*L.: 7!=# M .:= 6!9.RM#I"=
- Name of paper: '9'*I 'IRR!R
Date: <2th Auly 12 -page <<3
Title Column: .he Wealth #cript
Autor: Radhakrishnan /illai 3
-.his weekly column will explore the relevance and application of /rinciples and
#trategies discussed in the Crd 6entury 6 treatise% Kautilya’s Arthashastra% in .oday)s
6orporate World3
7o rural% is the theme of every &ig corporation today. While ('67 companies eagerly
wait the post4monsoon rural demand to &oost their sales% &ank% which now sell myriad
financial products% are gradually reali@ing the potential of rural areas. #everal
corporations are re4orienting their growth strategies + I.6)s e4choupal and :industan
Lever)s /ro;ect #hakti for example + to &ring villages to the centre of their planning.
$autilya operated from this principle to manage his treasury.
!4ealth and p*wer c*mes #r*m the c*untryside, which is the s*urce *# all activities-
7oing rural has two &enefits. (irst% country side is the place where raw material is
availa&le in plenty. 'inerals% food crops% la&our all find their sources in the countryside.
#econd% it is also a ready market for volume &usiness. India even today lives in 0illages.
e it the soft drinks% the mo&ile phones or the insurance industry all have already made
their way to penetrate deeply into the rural sector.
In the second &ook of *rthashastra% chapter G% verse C% $autilya points out various
elements which contri&ute to the increase in the treasury%
,. Increase in commerce and trade
6ommercial activities recycle the wealth of a nation. It helps the wealth to flow from one
sector to the other% from one geographical area to another. .rading helps in wealth &eing
circulated from one nation to another. =xports and Imports are the life line of any
economically developing nation.
<. *rresting crime such as theft and ro&&ery
'onitoring and controlling theft is essential. * system of checks and counter checks are
necessary to protect the loss in treasury. .heft can happen internally in an organi@ation or
due to external elements.
C. Reduction in esta&lishment
6ontrolling expenses can &e done &y reducing the si@e of an organi@ation. .his is done &y
keeping the minimum re?uired employees as well as lia&ilities. !utsourcing is one of the
&est concepts in controlling overheads of a company.
I. /lenty of crops
India even today is an agricultural &ased economy. * lot depends on the monsoon rains.
Investment in Research and "evelopment in this sector to increase crop yields% &etter
warehousing of agricultural produce% and food processing could add significantly to the
growth of the economy.
2. /lenty of marketa&le goods
#ales and 'arketing should &e supplied with enough products. *vaila&ility of stocks at
the right time% sales order processing% logistics and distri&ution have to in place to ensure
the achievement of any #ales target.
F. (reedom from calamities
* lot of unseen and unknown factors affect the economy of a nation% organi@ation and
also individuals. .he &oard of directors should consider all these aspects% under the 5Risk
'anagement /lan) of an organi@ation. Insurance% savings% right investment plans are
steps to ensure freedom from 6alamities
7 Pillars of a Business
/rom Radhakrishnan Pillai
's told #y Chanakya in the 'rthashastra
= stron# foundation is the key to any successful business. ,our "ision, your commitment, your purpose ( all
form the basis for an or#anisation. 8hey are the all(important pillars, the most essential part of any buildin#.
In his #roundbreakin# 'rthashastra, >hanakya a.k.a. :autilya (c. )2; ( &7) B>? lists se"en pillars for an
"8he kin#, the minister, the country, the fortified city, the treasury, the army and the ally are the constituent
elements of the state" (4.1.1
6et us now take a closer look at each of them@
1. THE KING (The leader)
=ll #reat or#anisations ha"e #reat leaders. 8he leader is the "isionary, the captain, the man who #uides the
or#anisation. In today+s corporate world we call him the *irector, >?A, etc. <ithout him we will loose
2. THE MINITER (The !ana"er)
8he mana#er is the person who runs the show ( the second(in(command of an or#anisation. He is also the
person whom you can depend upon in the absence of the leader. He is the man who is always in action. =n
e3tra ordinary leader and an efficient mana#er to#ether brin# into e3istence a remarkable or#anisation.
#. THE $%&NTR' ('our !arke()
!o business can e3ist without its market capitalisation. It is the area of your operation. 8he place from where
you #et your re"enue and cash flow. ,ou basically dominate this territory and would like to keep your
monopoly in this se#ment.
). THE *%RTI*I+ $IT' (Head offi,e)
,ou need a control tower ( a place from where all plannin# and strate#ies are made. It+s from here that your
central administrati"e work is done. It+s the nucleus and the center of any or#anisation.
-. THE TRE.&R'
/inance is an e3tremely important resource. It is the backbone of any business. = stron# and well(mana#ed
treasury is the heart of any or#anisation. ,our treasury is also your financial hub.
/. THE .RM' ('our (ea!)
<hen we #o to war, we need a well(e-uipped and trained army. 8he army consists of your team members.
8hose who are ready to fi#ht for the or#anisation. 8he salesmen, the accountant, the dri"er, the peon ( all of
them add to your team.
7. THE .00' (friend 1 ,onsul(an()
In life you should ha"e a friend who is Bust like you. Bein#, in the same boat, he can identify with you and
stay close. He is the one whom you can depend upon when problems arise. =fter all, a friend in need is a
friend in deed.
6ook at these se"en pillars. Anly when these are built into firm and stron# sections can the or#anisation
shoulder any responsibility and face all challen#es.
=nd while buildin# them, do not for#et to imbibe that "ital in#redient called "alues, speakin# about which, in
his book +Build to last+, Cim >ollins has said, "Dalues are the roots from where an or#anisation continuously
#ets its supply as well as #roundin# ( build on them1"
he a!thor is a management cons!ltant and trainer, and the director of "M" #"$%&"', a company that
provides services, incl!ding spirit!al to!rs.