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**Jean-François Hélard, Jean-Yves Baudais, Jacques Citerne
**

Institut National des Sciences Appliquées

LCST, 20, Avenue des Buttes de Coësmes, 35043 Rennes Cedex

email : jean-yves.baudais@insa-rennes.fr

Abstract : A novel detection technique for MC-CDMA systems based on the MMSE criterion

applied per user is presented. Simulation results in a Rayleigh fading channel show very good

performance, mainly for non full load systems.

Introduction : Since 1993, Multi-Carrier Code Division Multiple Access (MC-CDMA) has been

the subject of much research, and appears to be a very good candidate to support multimedia

services in mobile radio communications [1]. The MC-CDMA transmitter spreads in the frequency

domain the original data stream over different subcarriers using a given spreading code. For a

synchronous system as the downlink mobile radio communication channel, the application of

orthogonal codes such as Walsh-Hadamard codes guarantees the absence of Multiple Access

Interference (MAI) in a Gaussian channel. However, through a frequency selective fading channel,

all the subcarriers have different amplitude levels and different phase shifts, which results in a loss

of the orthogonality among users and then generates MAI. So, after direct FFT and frequency

deinterleaving, the received sequence must be "equalized" by using one tap adaptive equalizer per

subcarrier to make up for the phase and amplitude distortions caused by the mobile radio channel.

To combat the MAI, various basic detection techniques such as Maximum Ratio Combining

(MRC), Equal Gain Combining (EGC), Orthogonal Restoring Combining (ORC) or Minimum

Mean Square Error (MMSE) may be used. This last technique, based on the MMSE criterion

applied independently on each subcarrier [2] achieves better performance. This letter describes a

novel detection technique based on the MMSE criterion applied per user which provides

performance improvements, mainly for non full load systems.

System description : The block diagram of the considered MC-CDMA transmitter and receiver

n

is depicted in Fig. 1. Each data symbol x j assigned to user j, j = 1,...,Nu and transmitted during the

symbol interval n is multiplied with its user specific Walsh-Hadamard spreading code

Cj = [cj1,cj2,...,cjLc]T of length LC, where [.]T denotes matrix transposition. LC corresponds to the

bandwidth expansion factor and is equal to the maximum number of simultaneous active users. The

jth column vector of the LC x LC matrix C corresponds to the spreading code Cj of the user j. The

th

vector of the data symbols transmitted during the n OFDM symbol by all the users can be written

Xn = [xn1,xn2,...,xnj,...,xnLc]T, with xnj = 0 when user j is inactive.

Since we consider the synchronous downlink of an MC-CDMA system, the different data

modulated spreading codes of the Nu users can be added before Serial-to-Parallel (S/P) conversion.

Furthermore, the Nu user signals are supposed to be transmitted with the same power. The number

Np of subcarriers which are 4PSK modulated is chosen equal to the spreading code length LC. For

this study, frequency non-selective Rayleigh fading per subcarrier and time invariance during one

OFDM symbol are assumed. Besides, the absence of Intersymbol Interference and Intercarrier

Interference is guaranteed by the use of a guard interval longer than the delay spread of the impulse

response of the channel. Under theses assumptions and considering a frequency interleaving, the

complex channel fading coefficients are independent for each subcarrier and can be estimated for

i k

the subcarrier k by hk = ρk e θ . The signal received after the inverse OFDM operation (serial to

parallel conversion and direct FFT) and deinterleaving, can be expressed as :

-1-

….X T }. Equal Gain Combining (EGC).Np.RT }= H * .N*T} = σN2. R = C Tj .N *T } ) −1 (7) The subcarrier noises have the same variance and are independent.C T .R R.. The equalization coefficients based on this MMSE criterion applied independently per carrier are equal to : hk* gk = hk 2 1 + γc = hk 2 hk* L 1 + c . hNp} describes the complex channel frequency T response and N = [n1. However.xj is the cross-correlation vector between the desired symbol xj and the received signal vector R.H + E { N * .x j }= H * .X*T} = Es.N T } = E { R* ..N (2) The NpxNp matrix G represents the complex equalization coefficients obtained from the channel estimation which can be based on known transmitted pilot symbols inserted between the data carriers. Thus.R = G.. the optimal weighting vector can be written: W jT = E { x j ..X *T }.C. The estimated symbol of the jth user can be written: xˆ j = W jT . R (4) According to the Wiener filtering. Those terms are equal to : R.x j } (6) Then. It results from this that the complexity of the equalizer is low. the matrix G is diagonal : the received sequence is then equalized by using a bank of Np adaptive one tap equalizers. Basic detection techniques : After equalization the received signal can be written : Y= [y1.yNp]T = G. k = 1..Γ R .E { X * .C T H * .C .. the equalization coefficient matrix is : -2- ..r2... Orthogonality Restoring Combining (ORC)…Among all those well-known single-user detection techniques.x j = E {R* .X *T }..1R ..nNp] is the vector containing the AWGN terms with nk representing the 2 2 noise term at the subcarrier k with variance given by σN = E{|nk| }. this MMSE equalization per carrier method is not optimal.X + N (1) where the Np x Np diagonal matrix H = diag{h1.R = [r1. G . since it does not take into account the despreading process and thus does not minimize the mean square error at the input of the threshold detector T..C.. Since the user signals have the same power (E{xj2} = Es) and are independant.)* denotes complex conjugation. x j (5) where ΓR.I where I is the identity matrix..R is the autocorrelation matrix of the received vector R and ΓR.y2..n2. where A = {aij} is a diagonal matrix with the term ajj = 1 if the user j is active and ajj = 0 if the user j is inactive. Let WjT= [wj0.H.H * + E { N.wj1.. the optimal weighting vector is equal to: W j = Γ R−.rNp]T = H... E{N. MMSE equalization per user : The aim of the proposed method is to minimize the mean square error between the transmitted symbol xj and the estimated one xˆ j .E {X * . Various basic detection techniques can be implemented : Maximum ratio combining (MRC). γX is the signal to noise ratio of the received data symbol x and (.C.wjNp] be the optimal weighting vector. Nu γ X (3) where γC is the subcarrier signal to noise ratio. For all these basic detection techniques.E { X. MMSE (Minimum Mean Square Error) equalization offers the best results.C T .. we can write E{X.X + G..( H.A. It minimizes the mean square value of the error εk between the signal sk transmitted on subcarrier k and the assigned output yk of the equalizer.. Then.C.

Hara. taking into account the number Nu of active users versus the necessary Eb/N0 to achieve a BER = 10-3. A performance comparison of two stage parallel interference cancellation systems with the two MMSE techniques versus the number of active users (with Eb/N0 = 8 dB) is presented in Fig. The loss due to the guard interval. References : [1] S.A.A. November 1995.2 G = H . this novel approach based on the MMSE criterion applied per user and no more per carrier offers very good results in the case of non full load systems with linear detection but also with multi-user PIC detection schemes. Prasad.C T . In any case. pp 126-133. Kaiser. the synchronisation and the channel estimation is not taken into account. Multi-user Detection (MD) techniques such as Interference Cancellation can be implemented. pp 215-220. [2] S. EGC and MRC perform poorly. while for non full load systems the MMSE per user criterion achieves a gain of more than 2 dB with Nu = 32 or 16. Simulation results : In Fig. "Analytical performance evaluation of OFDM-CDMA mobile radio systems". The performance of the MMSE per carrier system with the equalization coefficients optimised independently on each subcarrier according to the expression (3) is compared to the performance of the MMSE per user system with the equalization coefficient matrix G equal to the expression (8). the base station can supply Nu = 21 users with PIC-MMSE per carrier and up to Nu = 31 users with PIC-MMSE per user detection. For example. December 1997. Proceedings First European Personal and Mobile Communications Conference (EPMCC'95). IEEE Communications Magazine. the performance of various detection systems with Lc = Np = 64 is presented. Conclusions : Taking advantage of the despreading process. In any case. Parallel Interference Cancellation (PIC) detectors estimate the interference due to the simultaneous other users in order to remove this multiple user interference component from the received signal. With the aim of improving the performance of the receiver still further. Bologna. Italy.CT is equal to the identity matrix and the equalization coefficients matrix G is a diagonal matrix with the kth subcarrier equalization coefficient equal to the former expression (3). Interference Cancellation can be carried out iteratively in multiple detection stages.I Es −1 * (8) In the full load case (Nu = Lc) and only in that case.H * + N . the performance of the two MMSE approaches are the same. with Eb/N0=8 dB and for a BER=10-3. 2. For full load systems (Nu = 64). R. 3 with Lc = Np = 64. the quantity C. -3- . "Overview of multicarrier CDMA". the new MMSE per user detection scheme outperforms the MMSE per carrier system. H. A full load system is obtained for Nu = Lc = Np = 64.C.

E-03 MMSE per carrier MMSE per user PIC-MMSE per carrier PIC-MMSE per user 1.E-04 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 number of active users Fig. Np = Lc = 64 1. Np = Lc = 64 -4- .E-01 Eb/No = 8 dB BER 1. 1 MC-CDMA transmitter and receiver 80 BER = 10 Nu 60 -3 MMSE per user MMSE per carrier EGC MRC 40 20 0 6 8 10 12 14 16 Eb/No (dB) Fig. 3.Nu ∑xC i i =1 i≠ j transmitter i s1 S / P xj Cj OFDM Mod (IFFT) s Np T channel CHANNEL r1 y1 P / S xˆ j Equalizer G y Np Cj rNp OFDM Demod (FFT) receiver Fig. 2 Maximum number Nu of active users versus Eb/N0 for a BER = 10-3 .E-02 1. MMSE detection performance versus the number Nu of active users for Eb/N0 = 8dB .

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