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Theme : Sustainable Energy for All

Title : Sustainable Biofuel as a solution of world dependency on
fossil fuels
Fossil fuels, which are non-renewable resources, are getting scarce while energy
consumption tends to go higher every year. The use of fossil fuel as energy resource is
predicted to exhaust soon if the consumption like what we have done nowadays. Humans have
been mainly dependant on fossil fuel as the main source of energy for many aspects. In !"!,
the pro#ection of energy demand will reach three times bigger than in !$
%http&'''news-archives'(. )il is running out and in the short term it will
continue to go up in price and in the middle distant future it will be too expensive.
In addition, many researches show that the *uality of air seems extremely dangerous
because of the use of fossil fuels. The climate change is the serious problem which happen due
to the accumulation of +)

, the result of combustion of fossil fuels to the environment. It
seems that the problem of energy will be the main topic which has to be solved together.
Therefore, the needs of alternative energy resources are more important than ever. ,any
efforts have been done to decrease the dependence of using fossil fuel and replace them with
alternative energy. The government and scientists strive for finding out the way to expand
the various of alternative energy. The -overnment of Indonesia %-)I( has adopted a policy
to conserve its li*uid petroleum reserves and thereby prolong the availability of an
exportable surplus, and diversification of domestic energy consumption away from
petroleum products towards alternative fuels that are non-exportable %gas and coal( or non
tradeable %hydro, geo-thermal and biomass(.
. number of renewable energy sources have been recogni/ed and starting to be
developed in certain parts of the globe. . lot of them have been found to be even more
affordable, convenient, and efficient than fossil based energy resources namely wind
energy, solar power, hydro power, geothermal, biomass, etc. Indonesia, being one of
the world0s biggest energy producers, has also large new and renewable energy
potentials, such biofuels.
1iofuels are energy sources made from living things, or the waste that living things
produce. The use of biofuels could significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions2 while
burning the fuels produces carbon dioxide, growing the plants or biomass removes carbon
dioxide from the atmosphere. 1iofuels will help extend the life time of our oil supply, but
eventually we will need to replace oil 3 whatever that replacement is it needs to be
1iofuels can come from a wide variety of sources and can be roughly divided into four
categories or 4generations&4 First generation biofuels are made from sugars, starches, oil, and
animal fats that are converted into fuel using already-known processes or technologies.
These fuels include biodiesel, bioalcohols, ethanol, and biogasses, like methane captured
from landfill decomposition. 5econd generation biofuels are made from non-food crops or
agricultural waste, especially ligno-cellulosic biomass like switch-grass, willow, or wood
chips. Third generation biofuels are made from algae or other *uickly growing biomass
sources. Fourth generation biofuels are made from specially engineered plants or biomass
that may have higher energy yields or lower barriers to cellulosic breakdown or are able to
be grown on non-agricultural land or bodies of water.
1iofuels have so many advantages. 1iofuels are available in li*uid state. 1iofuels can
give a large contribution to reducing green house gases emissions. )n the face of it, +ars are
a ma#or source of atmospheric carbon dioxide, the main greenhouse gas that causes global
warming. 1ut since plants absorb carbon dioxide as they grow, crops grown for biofuels
should suck up about as much carbon dioxide as comes out of the tailpipes of cars that burn
these fuels. .nd unlike underground oil reserves, biofuels are a renewable resource since we
can always grow more crops to turn into fuel.
1iofuels markets provide ma#or business opportunities %biodiesel, bioethanol(. 1iofuels
can provide a key lever for rural develompent and enhanced agricultural production
methods. 1iofuels look like a great solution for world demand of energy.
)verall, biofuels have a large potential to substitute for petroleum fuels. Together with a
host of other strategies, including the development of far more efficient vehicles, they can
help the world achieve a more diversified and sustainable transportation system in the
decades ahead. However, this promise will only be achieved if policies are enacted that steer
biofuels in the right direction 3 policies that will need to be ad#usted and refined as the state
of knowledge advances and as the risks and also opportunities of biofuels development
become clearer.
Indonesia, and also the world need the sustainability energy for all. 6uring past decade,
we used sugar, starch, oilseed crops, waste cooking oil, mai/e %corn(, soya and sunflower as
feedstock for biodiesel production. 7owadays, we need the promising feedstock, the next
generation of biofuels feedstock which have high cellulose, organic material and can
harvested in a large amount.
The next generation is microalgae. 5mall amount which have large benefit. They have
high lipid content, ability to grow on non arable land and'or salt water, fast rate of growth,
and the fact that they do not compete with food crops. . number of studies have successfully
shown that biomass from microalgae can be converted into biofuel such biodiesel.
,icroalgae need a light source, carbon dioxide, water and inorganic salts to grow. The
temperature should be between $"
+ and 8!
+ for optimal growth.
The development of new cellulosic technologies, with responsible policies and
economic instruments to help ensure that microalgae biofuel commerciali/ation
is sustainable. 1iofuels have become more attractive recently because of its environmental
benefits and the fact that it is made from renewable resources.