capacitor

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capacitor

© All Rights Reserved

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Charhing process of capacitor requires expanditure of energy because while charging

a capacitor charge is transferred from plate at lower potential to plate at higher

potential.

Now if we start charging capacitor by transporting a charge dQ from negative plate ti

the positive plate then work is done against the potential difference across the plate.

If q is the amount of charge on the capacitor at any stage of charging process and

is the potential difference across the plates of capacitor then magnitude of potential

difference is !q"C.

Now work d# required to transfer dq is

d#!dq!qdq"C

$o charge the capacitor starting from the uncharged state to some final charge Q

work required is

Integrating from % to Q

#!&'"C()qdq

!&Q

*

("*C &'+a(

!&C,

*

("*

!Q,"*

#hich is the energy stored in the capacitor and can also be written as

-!&C,

*

("* ...&'/(

0rom equation '+c,we see that the total work done is equal to the average potential

,"* during the charging process ,multiplied by the total charge transferred

If C is measured in 0arads ,Q in coulumbs and , in volts the energy stored would in

1oules

2 parallel plate capacitor of area 2 and seperation d has capacitance

C!3%2"d

electric field in the space between the plates is

4!,"d or ,!4d

5utting above values of , and C in equation '+b we find

#!-!&'"*(&3%2"d(&4d(

*

!&'"*(3%4

*

&2d(

!&'"*(3%4

*

., ...&'6(

If u denotes the energy per unit volume or energy density then

u!&'"*(3%4

*

x volume

$he result for above equation is generally valid even for electrostatic field that is not

constant in space.

. Effect of Dielectric

#hat happened when space between the two plates of the capacitor is filled by a

dielectric was first discovered by faraday.

0araday discovered that if the space between conductors of the capacitor is occupied

by the dielectric,the capacitance of capacitor is increased.

If the dielectric completely fills the space between the conductors of the capacitor

,the capacitance is increased by an factor 9 which is characterstics of the dielectric

and $his factor is known as the dielectric constan.

a battery.

If Q% is the amount of charged on the capacitor at the end of the charging and ,% is

potental diffrence across the plates of the capacitor then

C%!Q% ",% ....&':(

$hus charge being placed on the capacitor is

Q%!C%,%

If the battery is diconnected and space between the capacitor is filled by a dielectric

the 5.7 decrease to a new value

,!,%"9.

;ince the original charge is still on the capacitor,the new capacitance will be

C!Q%",!9Q%",%!9C%....&'<(

then battery would have to supply some amount of charge to maintain the 5.7

between the plates and then total charge on the plates would be Q!9Q%.

0or a parallel plate capacitor with dielectric of dielectric constant 9 between its plates

its capacitance becomes

C!32"7 ....&*%(

where 3!93%

becomes a conductor and this phenomenon is known as dielectric breakdown.

$he maximun electric field a material can withstand without the occurence of

breakdown is called dielectric strength of that material.

$hus field across the capacitor should never exceed breakdown limits in order to

store charge on capacitor without leaking.

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