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Chapter 9 MOTIVATION AND

EMOTION

9.1
Motivation- Process by which activities are
started, directed and continued so needs and
wants could be met

Extrinsic Motivation – Leads to an
outcome separated from the person

Intrinsic Motivation – Action is
performed because the action is rewarding
or satisfying in some internal manners

INSTINCT APPROACHES (For ppl and
animals)
Instinct – Innate patterns of behavior
that exist in animals and ppl
Instinct Approach – assumes people
are governed by instincts similar to animals

DRIVE REDUCTION APPROACHES
Need – requirement that is essential
fro survival

Drive- the tension which arises when
theres a need, which motivates the organism
to fulfill the need

Drive Reduction Theory- Behavior
arises from physiological needs which cause
internal drives to push the organism to
satisfy the need and reduce tension and
arousal.

Primary Drives- Involve survival
needs
Acquired Drives- Learned through
experiences or conditioning.

Homeostasis - Tendency of the body
to maintain a constant state.

9.3
AROUSAL APPROACHES

Stimulus Motive -a motive that appears to be
unlearned but causes an increase in
stimulation, such as curiosity

Arousal Theory-a motive that appears to be
unlearned but causes an increase in
stimulation, such as curiosity

Yerkes Dosdon Law- law stating
performance is related to arousal; moderate
levels or arousal lead to better performance
than do levels of arousal that are too low or
too high. This effect varies with the
difficulty of the task: Easy tasks require a
high-moderate level whereas more difficult
tasks require a low-moderate level
Sensation Seeking - Someone who needs
more arousal than the average person

INCENTIVE APPROACHES

Incentive -things that attract or lure people
into action

Incentive Approaches - theories of
motivation in which behavior is explained as
a response to the external stimulus and its
rewarding properties

Expectancy Value Theories- incentive
theories that assume the actions of humans
cannot be predicted or fully understood
without understanding the beliefs, values,
and the importance that a person attaches to
those beliefs and values at any given
moment in time

9.4
HUMANISTIC APPROACHES

Maslows Heirarchy of Needs


Self Actualization -according to Maslow, the
point that is seldom reached at which people
have sufficiently satisfied the lower needs
and achieved their full human potential

Peak Experiences- according to Maslow,
times in a person's life during which self-
actualization is temporarily achieved

SDT- theory of human motivation in which
the social context of an action has an effort
on the type of motivation existing for the
action

9.5
Insulin- a hormone secreted by the pancreas
to control the levels of fats, proteins, and
carbohydrates in the body by reducing the
level of glucose in the bloodstream

Glucagon- hormones that are secreted by the
pancreas to control the levels of fats,
proteins, and carbohydrates in the body by
increasing the level of glucose in the
bloodstream

Weight Set point- the particular level of
weight the body tries to maintain

Basal Metabolic Rate- the rate at which the
body burns energy when the organism is
resting

9.6
Leptin- a hormone that, when released into
the bloodstream, signals the hypothalamus
that the body has had enough food and
reduces the appetite while increasing the
feeling of being full

9.7
Emotion- the "feeling" aspect of
consciousness, characterized by a certain
physical arousal, a certain behavior that
reveals the emotion to the outside world, and
an inner awareness of feelings

THREE ELEMENTS OF EMOTION
Physiology of Emotion- Created by the
sympathetic Nervous system

Behavior of Emotion: Emotional
Expressions
Display Rules- learned ways of
controlling displays of emotion in social
settings vary fro culture to culture.
ANGER
FEAR
DISGUST
HAPPINESS
SURPRISE
SADNESS

Subjective Experience:
Labeling Emotions- Interpreting the
subjective feeling by labeling it. “Kilig, etc.”

9.8
James- Lange Theory of Emotion - theory in
which a physiological reaction leads to the
labeling of an emotion “Im afraid because
im Shaking”

Cannon Bard Theory of Emotion- theory in
which the physiological reaction and the
emotion are assumed to occur at the same
time
“Im shaking and feeling afraid at the same
time”

9.9
Schacher-Singer and cognitive arousal
theory of emotion

Cognitive Arousal Theory- theory of
emotion in which both the physical arousal
and the labeling of that arousal based on
cues from the environment must occur
before the emotion is experienced “That dog
is dangerous, it makes me feel afraid” “may
creepy sa harap ko, dapat matakot ako”

Facial Feedback Hypothesis- Facial
expressions that lead to emotion

Lazarus and the Cognitive Meditational
Theory
Cognitive Meditational Theory-
theory of emotion in which a stimulus must
be interpreted (appraised) by a person in
order to result in a physical response and an
emotional reaction “May something diyan,
nakakatakot, tatakbo ako”

CHAPTER 12 SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY

12.1
Social Psychology- the scientific study of
how a person's thoughts, feelings and
behavior are influenced by the real,
imagined or implied presence of others

Social Influence-the process through which
the real or implied presence of others can
directly or indirectly influence the thoughts,
feelings, and behavior of an individual.

Conformity- changing one's own behavior
to match that of other people
Groupthink- kind of thinking that occurs
when people place more importance on
maintaining group cohesiveness than on
assessing the facts of the problem with
which the group is concerned.

12.2
Compliance- changing one's behavior as a
result of other people directing or asking
for the change
Consumer Psychology- branch of
psychology that studies the habits of
people in the marketplace
Foot-in-the-door Technique- asking for
a small commitment and after gaining
compliance, asking for a bigger
commitment
Door-in-the-Face Technique- asking
for a large commitment and being
refused, and then asking for a smaller
commitment
Norm of Reciprocity- assumption
that if someone does something for a
person, that person should do something
for the other in return
Lowball Technique- getting a
commitment from a person and then
raising the cost of that commitment
That’s not all technique- a sales technique in
which the persuader makes an offer and then
adds something extra to make the offer look
better before the target person can make a
decision

12.3
Obedience- changing one's behavior at the
command of an authority figure
Group Behavior

Group Polarization- the tendency for
members involved in a group discussion
to take somewhat more extreme positions
and suggest riskier actions when
compared to individuals who have not
participated in a group discussion.
Social Facilitation- the tendency for the
presence of other people to have a
positive impact on the performance of an
easy task
Social Impairment- the tendency for the
presence of other people to have a
negative impact on the performance of a
difficult task.
Social Loafing- the tendency for people to
put less effort into a simple task when
working with others on that task

12.4
Attitude- a tendency to respond positively
or negatively toward a certain person,
object, idea, or situation

ABC’s of Attitude
Affective- Feeling
Behavior- Action
Cognitive- Thoughts
Attitude Formation
Direct Contact- kumain ako ng
ampalaya, ayoko siya, kaya ayoko na ng
gulay ever.
Direct Instruction- Based on sa
sabisabi, sabi ni mommy bawal to edi di ko
gagawin to.
Interaction with Others- Peer
Pressure
Vicarious Conditioning- Based don
observation of people towards something,
kunwari nakuryente si person somewhere
nakita mo, so di ka na pupunta dun para di
ka makuryente.
Attitude Change
Persuasion- the process by which
one person tries to change the belief
opinion, position, or course of action of
another person through argument,
pleading, or explanation.
Source- Communicator, the
message delivery person.
Message- Actual message
should be clear and organized.
Target Audience-
Characteristics of the people who are
targeted to be persuaded.

Elaboration Likelihood Model-
model of persuasion stating that people
will either elaborate on the persuasive
message or fail to elaborate on it, and that
the future actions of those who do
elaborate are more predictable than those
who do not.
Central Route Processing- type of
information processing that involves
attending to the content of the message
itself.

Peripheral- Route Processing- type
of information processing that involves
attending to factors not involved in the
message, the length of the message, and
other non content factors

12.5
Cognitive Dissonance- sense of
discomfort or distress that occurs when a
person's behavior does not correspond to
that person's attitudes.

12.6
Impression Formation- the forming of the
first knowledge that a person has concerning
another person

Social Cognition- the mental processes
that people use to make sense of the social
world around them.

Social Categorization- the assignment of a
person one has just met to a category
based on characteristics the new person
has in common with other people with
whom one has had experience in the past.

Stereotype- a set of characteristics that
people believe is shared by all members
of a particular social category
Implicit Personality Theory - sets of
assumptions about how different types of
people, personality traits, and actions are
related to each other.

12.7
Attribution- the process of explaining
one's own behavior and the behavior of
others
Attribution Theory- the theory of how
people make attributions

Situational Cause- cause of behavior
attributed to external factors, such as
delays, the action of others, or some other
aspect of the situation

Dispositional Cause- cause of behavior
attributed because of prejudice toward the
social group to which they belong

Fundamental Attribution Error- the
tendency to overestimate the influence of
internal factors in determining behavior
while underestimating situational factors

12.8 Social Interaction
Prejudice- negative attitude held by a
person about the members of a particular
social group

Discrimination- treating people
differently because of prejudice toward
the social group to which they belong

TYPES OF PREJUDICE AND
DISCRIMINATION
In Groups- social groups with
whom a person identifies; "us
Out Groups- social groups with
whom a person does not identify; "them"
Realistic Conflict Theory- theory
stating that prejudice and discrimination
will be increased between groups that are
in conflict over a limited resource.

12.9
Social Cognitive Theory- referring to the
use of cognitive processes in relation to
understanding the social world.

Social Identity Theory- theory in which
the formation of a person's identity within
a particular social group is explained by
social categorization, social identity, and
social comparison.
Social Identity- the part of the
self-concept including one's view of self
as a member of a particular social
comparison
Social Comparison- the comparison
of oneself to others in ways that raise one's
self-esteem.
Stereotype Vulnerability- the effect that
people's awareness of the stereotypes
associated with their social group has on
their behavior.
Self- fulfilling Prophecy- the
tendency of one's expectations to affect
one's behavior in such a way as to make
the expectation more likely to be occur.
Overcoming Prejudice
Equal Status Contact- contact
between groups in which the groups have
equal status, with neither group having
power over the other

Jigsaw Classroom- education
technique in which each individual is
given only part of the information needed
to solve a problem, causing the separate
individuals to be forced to work together
to find the solution

12.10 LIKING AND LOVING


Interpersonal Attraction - liking or having
the desire for a relationship with another
person
Rules of attraction
Physical Attractiveness- Kasi gwaps
or maganda siya
Proximity- physical or
geographical nearness, lagging
magkasama
Similarity- maraming pagkakapareho
Reciprocity of Liking- the
tendency of people to like other people
who like them in return
3 Components of Love
Intimacy- Closeness sa isat isa
Passion- MOMOL
Commitment- Yung kayo na talaga
wala nang iba
The Love Triangles
Romantic Love- type of love
consisting of intimacy and passion
Companionate Love- type of love
consisting of intimacy and commitment

12.11
Aggression- behavior intended to hurt or
destroy another person.

Social Roles- the pattern of behavior that
is expected of a person who is in a
particular social position

12.12
Prosocial Behavior- socially desirable
behavior that benefits others
Altruism- prosocial behavior that is done
with no expectation of reward and may
involve the risk of harm to oneself.

Bystander Effect- referring to the effect
that the presence of the people has on the
decision to help or not help, with help
becoming less likely as the number of
bystanders increases

Diffusion of Responsibility- occurring
when a person fails to take responsibility
for actions or for inaction because of the
presence of the people who are seen to
share the responsibility

5 Decision Points

CHAPTER 13 PERSONALITY
13.1
Personality- the unique way in which each
individual thinks, acts, and feels
throughout life. Two components of
personality are character and
temperament.

Character- refers to value judgement
made about a person's morals or ethical
behavior.

Temperament- the enduring
characteristics with which each person is
born

Traditional Perspectives of Personality
Theory
Psychodynamic Perspective- role of
the unconscious
Behaviorist Perspective- Effect of
the environment
Humanistic Perspective- role of the
conscious’ life experiences and and choices
in personality development.
Trait Perspective- the characteristic
itself

13.2
Preconscious
Conscious
Unconscious Mind- level of the mind in
which thoughts, feelings, memories, and
other information are kept that are not easily
or voluntarily brought into consciousness

DIVISIONS OF PERSONALITY



Id- part of the personality present
at birth and completely
unconscious (want)
Pleasure Principle-
principle by which the id functions; the
immediate satisfaction of needs without
regard for the consequences
Ego- part of the personality that
develops out of a need to deal with
reality, mostly conscious, rational and
logical
Reality Principle- principle
by which the ego functions; the
satisfaction of the demands of the id only
when negative consequences will not
result
Superego- part of the personality
that acts as a moral center, Preach
Conscience- part of the
superego that produces guilt, depending
on how acceptable behavior is. the moral
standard used to control the "id"

Psychological Defense Mechanism-
unconscious distortions of a person's
perception of reality that reduce stress and
anxiety
Denial- person refuses to
acknowledge or recognize a threatening
situation
Repression- Pushing, threatening or
conflicting events in the conscious memory
Rationalization- making up
acceptable excuses for unacceptable
behavior
Projection- projecting one's own
unacceptable thoughts onto others, as if
the thoughts actually belonged to those
others and not to oneself.
Reaction Formation- forms an
opposite emotional or behavioral reaction
to the way he or she really feels to keep
those true feelings hidden from self and
others

Displacement- redirecting feelings from
one threatening target to a less threatening
one
Regression- a person falls back on
childlike patterns of responding in
reaction to stressful situations
Identification- a person tries to
become like someone else to deal with
anxiety
Compensation- making up for areas
lacking by being superior in some other
area.
Sublimation- channeling socially
unacceptable impulses and urges into
socially acceptable behavior

STAGES OF PERSONALITY
DEVELOPMENT
Fixation- the person does not fully resolve
the conflict in a particular psychosexual
stage, resulting in personality traits and
behavior associated with that earlier stage

Psychosexual Stages- five stages of
personality development proposed by
Freud and tied to the sexual development
of the child
Oral- the mouth is the erogenous
zone and weaning is the primary conflict
Anal- the anus is the erogenous
zone and toilet training is the source of
conflict.
Phallic- the child discovers sexual
feelings (Castration Anxiety and penis
Envy)
Oedipus Complex/ Electra
Complex- situation occurring in the
phallic stage in which a child develops a
sexual attraction to the opposite sex
parent and jealousy of the same sex-
parent. Males develop an Oedipus
complex and females develop an Electra
complex
Latency- occurring during the
school years, in which the sexual feelings
of the child are repressed while the child
develops in other ways
Genital- sexual behavior
13.3
Neo-Freudians- followers of Freud who
developed their own, competing
psychodynamic theories
Carl Jung
Personal Unconscious- the
unconscious mind as described by Freud.
Collective Unconscious-
memories shared by all members of the
human species
Archetypes
Alfred Adler
Compensation- defense
mechanism in which a person makes up
for inferiorities in one are by becoming
superior in another area
Karen Horney
Basic Anxiety
Neurotic Personality- personalities
typified by maladaptive ways of dealing
with relationships in Horney's theory
Womb envy

13.5
Social Cognitive view of Personality- the
unique and relatively stable ways in
which people think feel and behave
Habits- in behaviorism, sets of well
learned responses that have become
automatic

Social Cognitive Learning theorists-
theorists who emphasize the importance
of both the influences of other people's
behavior and of a person's own
expectancies of learning

Social Cognitive View- learning
theory that includes cognitive processes
such as anticipating, judging, memory,
and imitation of models.

Reciprocal Determinism- Bandura's
explanation of how the factors of
environment, personal characteristics, and
behavior can interact to determine future
behavior.
Self- Efficacy- individual's perception of
how effective his or her efforts to
accomplish a goal will be in any
particular circumstance
Locus of Control - the tendency for
people to assume that they either have
control or do not have control over events
and consequences in their lives

Expectancy- a person's subjective feeling
that a particular behavior will lead to a
reinforcing consequence
Humanistic Perspective

13.6
Humanistic Perspective

Humanistic theories of personality-
Third force in psych that focuses on those
aspects of personality that make people
uniquely human, such as subjective feelings
and freedom of choice
-Developed as a reaction against the
negativity of psychoanalysis and the
deterministic behaviour

Carl Rogers self Concept
Self Actualizing Tendency- the
striving to fulfill one's innate capacities
and capabilities
Self Concept- the image of oneself
that develops from interactions with
important, significant people in one's life
Self- an individual's awareness of
his or her own personal characteristics
and level of functioning
Real Self- one's perception of
actual characteristics, traits, and abilities
Ideal Self- one's perception
of who one should be or would like to be
Positive regard- warmth, affection,
love and respect that come form
significant others in one's life
Unconditional Positive Regard-
positive regard that is given without
conditions or strings attached
Conditional Positive Regard-
positive regard that is given only when
the person is doing what the providers of
positive regard wish
Fully Functioning Person- a
person who is in tough with and trusting
of the deepest, innermost urges and
feelings

TRAIT THEORIES OF PESONALITY
- theories that endeavor to describe the
characteristics that make up human
personality in an effort to predict future
behavior.
Trait- a consistent, enduring
way of thinking feeling or behaving
The big 5 theory (the ocean five)- model
of personality traits that describes five
basic trait dimensions
Openness- one of the five factors,
willingness to try new things and be open
to new experiences
Conscientiousness- the care a
person gives to organization and
thoughtfulness of others, dependability
Extraversion- dimension of
personality referring to one's need to be
with other people
Agreeableness- the emotional
style of a person which may range from
easy-going, friendly, and likable to
grumpy, crabby, and unpleasant.
Neuroticism- degree of emotional
instability or stability