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"Knight, Death and Devil.

" Engraving by Albrecht Durer,
Nuremberg, 1513.
Devils, Demons, and Witchcraf
L\VLÎ=bL!PܯÍo. Í|L
Copyright ' 1971 by Dover Publications, Inc.
All rights reserved.
Bibliographical Note
Devils, Demons and Witchclcft: 244 Illstlctions for Artists is a
new work, first published by Dover Publications, Inc., in 1971.
The first three printings appeared under the title Devils, Demons,
Dealh and Damnalion.
Pi{oril cA rchiv
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Libralyof Congress Catalog Card Number: 72-137002
Manufactured in the United States by Courier Corporation
Table of Contents
Title Page
Copyright Page
Devils and Demons
Casus Luciferi
Faust and Mephistopheles
Hell and Damnation
The Apocalyptic Horsemen
Witches and Warlocks
Ars Moriendi
Danse Macabre
Memento Mori
Resurrection and Reckoning
Religio-Political Devilry
1. Mar, the AngeJ of Death. After a miniature in an Anglo-Saxon
manuscript, tenth century.
2. The Ev Spirit fgured as a black bird whispering into the ear
of a magician. Frm a French manuscript Horus Deliciamm,
eleventh centur.
3. The Tempter in the fm of a winged selpent whispering into
the ear of St. Martin. After a Saxon manuscript Legend of St.
Martin, eleventh centur.
4. Demonic grotesque initial 1 A a French calligraphic
manlscIpt, twelfth centur
5. Demonic grotesque initial 1 A a French calligraphic
manuscript, the Rouleau mortuaire de Saint Vital, twelfth centl1Y.
6. The Evil Spirit swallowed by the Dragon of Hell. Afer a
miniature in an English manuscript, twelfth centry.
7. jesls Christ breaking down the gates of Purgator. After a
miniatlre in a French manuscript, thirteenth centUY.
8. Possessed woman, praying, is rdeemed from the Demons of
the Seven Deadly Sins. After a miniatr in an English
manuscript Bible, thirteenth century.
9. Demons drowning a monk in the Tiber. After a miniatlre in an
Italian manlscIipt "Moral Bible, " thirteenth centwy.
lO. Condemned souls of sinner are carIed by Demons to their
place of punishment. After a miniatre in a Milanese manuscIpt,
fourteenth centUlY.
Throughout history, artists have grappled with the problem of
depicting clearly and forcefully the principles of evil and
suffering in human existence. Religion, folk beliefs and
individual imagination, independently or in fertile combinations,
have provided powerful visual realizations of these themes.
11. English alewives carried by Demons to Ile1 in punishment
for selling had ale. Aer a carved tablet on a miserere seat at
Ludlow Church, England, fourteenth centUY.
Collected in this volume are a wealth of symbols and scenes
portraying the appearance, history and activities of the Devil, the
embodiment of temptation and vice in the Christian world; his
host of demon helpers; the human witches who have placed
themselves in his service; the awesome phenomenon of death
(according to the Bible, a punishment for yielding to the Devil's
blandishments); the tortures of Hell and the terrors of the Last
Centuries of artistic endeavor, particularly in graphics, are
represented here. Alongside the ingenious concepts of many
little-known and anonymous creators, figure works by Durer,
Holbein, Rembrandt, Cranach, Baldung Grien and other titans.
The conduding chapter, "Religio-Political Devilry," shows
how inventively artists at diferent times in the past have used
some of these motifs for their own contemporary purposes of
protest or publicity. It is hoped that the scores of bold images in
this volume, over and above the esthetic delight they afford, will
offer many new suggestions for further work.
E. L.

12. Angel and Dev v for the soul of a dying man. After a
miniature in an English manuscript, fourteenth centUY.
Devils and Demons
Meet the Devil. Nowadays he usually appears as a suave, sly man
with telltale horns, hooves and tail; but in the past his bestial
nature was emphasized and he cropped up in a wide variety of
animal and mixed forms-usually loathly, since (in most artistic
conceptions) he had sacrificed his angelic beauty when he
disobeyed and rebelled against God. (As shown in some
illustrations in this chapter, animal forms for supernatural beings
and demons were common in ancient Egyptian and
Mesopotamian art.)
13. The lion-headed, eagle-footed AssyIan-Babylonian demon of
disease and evi holding the mace of wounding and the dagger of
killing. After a wall carving at Nineveh.
The Devil's main objective is to tempt man and lead him away
from God. Two of the most famous temptations are illustrated in
this chapter: the temptation of Jesus in the desert of Palestine and
that of St. Anthony in the desert of Egypt. But every human being
must be assailed, and the Devil needs many demon helpers, such
as Belial and Beelzebub, who go about the world spreading
disease and madness (by "possessing" their victims) and
instigating all sorts of vice. The vice-rdden may not even be
aware that they are playing into the Devil's hands: witness the
vain woman who looks into her mirror expecting to see her face
and sees-something else.
14. Amam (the devourer), demon orthe nether world. Af an
ancient Egptian papyras illustration.
15. A Cynocephalus baboon as demon of the nether world. A
an illustration in an ancient Egptian papyms.
16. The fght of the City of Satan (Babylon) against the Cit of
God (Syon). Frm Aarelias Aagastinas' De Trinitate. De Civitate
Dei, printed by Johann Amerbach, Basle, 1489.
17. The demon Belial appearing with his entoarage of foar lesser
demons before King Solomon.
18. The demon Belial prsenting his credentials to Solomon.
From Jacobus de Teramo's Das Buch Belial, printed at
AugsbUlg, 1473.
19. The demon Belial dancing before King Solomon.
20. The demon Belial retlring to the gates of Hell From
Jacobus de Teramo's Das Buch Belial, printed at Augsburg,
21. Demon causing women to gossip during Mass.
22. Demons keeping score on the babblng of women daring
Mass. From Geoff roy de Latoar LandlY's Ritter vom Tar,
pInted by Michael Fartel� Basle, 1493.
23. Demon canying of a child prmised to the Dev
24. The Demon of Vanity and the coquette.
From Geofry de Latour Landry's Ritter vom Tur, printed by
Michael Furter, Basle, 1493.
25. The Demon of Creed and the treaslrehlnting fool
26. The Demon of Pride and the conceited woman.
From Sebastian Brant's Navis Swltifera (Ship of Fools), printed
by Bergman de Dlpe, Basle, 1494; attributed to Albrecht DOrer.
27. The author tempted by the Devl, from Johannes
Lichtenberger's Prognosticatio, printed by Bartholomaeus
Kistler, Stlc'ssbwg, 1500.
28. The LOd and Satan vying for the soul of man, who is
navigating the ocean of vices and sin. From Le grant kalendrier
et compost des Bergiers, printed by Nicolas Le Rouge, Troyes,
29. The demons of Antichrist, from La vi e de 1 'Antechrist,
showing the seducing of men bybribe and the destruction of
sacred images. Printed at Lyons, late ffeenth century.
30. The Temptation of St. Anthony. After a design by Lucas
Cranach the Elder, 1506.
31. Angels defending the Citadel of Heaven against the hordes of
the Devi Frm Celifodina's Scripwrae Thesaars, printed by B.
M. Lantzberg, Leipzig, 1510.
32. Grotesque representation of the demons of the Seven Deadly
Sins. Designed by Hans Baldung Gden, from the Buch
Granatapfel, 1511.
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33. The Dev tempting St. Patrick. Frm Le purgatoir Sainet
PatIee, Paris, 1530.
34. Lucifer with a tIple face devoUling Judas and two other
suff erer. Frm Opere del poeta Danthe, pInted by Berardino
Stagnino, Venice, 1512.
ÜJ Demons, designed by Hans Holbein the Younger, from
Histor iarum Veteris Testament" ieones, printed bylahan and
Franciseus Frelilon, Lyons, 1543.
36. Allegoric representation of the Demon of the Plague. From 1
voin Gieirsdod's Feldtbuich deir Wundairney, printed by
Johann Schott, Strassbwg, 1540.
37. Lower demons canying out minor chors for their human
38. Minor devils, demons, satyrs and hobgoblins. From Glaus
Magnus' Historia de gentibus septentrionalibus, Rome, 1555.
39. Demon leaving the body of a possessed woman.
40. The DeviJ tempting St. jerme.
41. Witch and waIlock attending on Satan.
From Pierr Boaistuau' s Histoirs prodigieuses, PaIis, 1597.
42. Satan tempting jesl1s (lke, 4:5-7). After an engraving by
johann Sad1el� PaIs, 1582.
43. The Mercurial demon of the alchemic philosopher. From
Giovanni Battista Nazari's Della transrutatione metallca,
Brescia, 1589.
44. The Demon of Counterfeit. From a German handbill against
the Kipperer und Wipperer (coiners and distributor of inferior
coins), Munich, 1620.
45. Asmodeus, the Biblical demon of anger and lust (Tobit, 3:8).
46. Belphegor, the Biblical demon of ev worshipped by the
Moabites (Numbers 25:3). By L. Breton, in Collin de Plancy's
Dictionnaire inferal, PaIs, 1863.
47. Beelzebub, the Biblcal demon prince, Lord of the Flies
(atthew 12:24).
48. Behemoth, the Biblcal demon of animal strength (ob 40: 15-
24). By L. Breton, in Collin de Plancy's Dictionnaire inferal,
Paris, 1863.
49. BOlc de la goetie Basphomet, the goat incaration of the
Devi. After Eliphas Levi, frm a pen drawing in a French occult
manlscIpt La Magie Noir (lack Magic), nineteenth centlY.
Casus Luciferi
This is the Fall of Lucifer (the Lightbringer), chief of the
rebellious angels. The battle in Heaven, with St. Michael leading
the loyal forces against the future Devil (Satan) and demons, is
alluded to in the Revelation of St. John the Divine, and has
captured the imagination of many creative men. In literature its
fullest elaboration is found in Milton's Paradise Lost. In art it has
inspired innumerable works, including Durer's Apocalypse
50. Casus Luciferi (the fall of Lucifer). Frm Biblia Pauperum
(the poor man's Bible), a block-book printed at Bamberg, 1470.
51. St. Michael evicting Lucifer and the fallen angels from
Heaven. From Albrcht Durer's Apocalypse, Nurmberg, J4Vo.
52. Title page frm Thomas Heywood's The Hierarchie of the
blessed Angells, engraved by 1 Cecill, pIinted by Adam Islip,
London, 1635.
53. Lucfer beginning to reign over the souls of sinners.
Illustration by John Baptst Medina [or John Milton's Paradise
Lost, London, J boo.
Faust and Mephistopheles
In some versions of medieval demon lore, Mephistopheles was
second only to Lucifer among the fallen archangels. In the Faust
story. a German Renaissance folk legend which gained literary
prominence with Marlowe and Goethe, Mephistopheles is the
devil who is summoned by the aged scholar-magician Faust and
heaps all pleasures on him in return for his soul.
It was Goethe's Faust especially which inspired an incredible
number of literary. theatrical and musical adaptations, as well as a
host of illustrations, including those by Delacroix shown in this
chapter. It was the figure of Faust as a scholar thirsting for
knowledge which inspired the unforgettable etching by
54. Mephistopheles, the popular sophisticated devl. From a pen
drawing in a Frnch occult manuscript, La Magie Noire, Paris,
nineteenth cent.
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55. Title page from the oldest extant book about Dr. Johannes
Faust, HistOlY of Dr. Johannes Faust, the Notorious Sorcerer and
Master of Black Magic, printed by Johann Spies, Frcmk1 1587.
Docor Faufus.
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56. Tite page from the oldest extant English chapbook edition of
Christopher MaIowe' s The Tcall Historie of the Life and
Death of Doctor Faustus, published by John Wright, London,
57. Dr. Johann Faust watching a magic disc in his study.
Engraving by Rembrandt Hannensz van Rijn, 1652.
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58. Playbill for the oldest German Faust comedy, The Life and
Death of the Great Ach-Sorcerr Dr. Johannes Faustlls, Bremen,
JV. Dungeon scene with Mephistopheles, Faust and Margart.
Lithograph by Eugene Delacroix for Johann Wolfgang von
Goethe's Faust, printed by Goyer òHermet, Paris, 1828.
bu. Garden scene with Mephistopheles, Faust, and Margaret.
Lithograph by Eugene Delacroix for Johann Wolfgang von
Goethe's Faust, printed by Goyer òHeret, Paris, 1828.
bJ Prototpe of the nineteenth-century romantic devil. From The
Devil Walk by Thomas Landseer, London, JoJJ.
Hell and Damnation
In Christian belief. Hell is the place where sinners are punished
after death. Dante's Infero contains the most vivid descrptions
of the sufferngs inficted on the damned by the demons of Hell.
Similar places of punishment in the afterlife form part of other
religious beliefs, especially popular Buddhism in the Far East.
Two illustrations in this chapter show a scene of judging of souls
in ancient Egyptian religion and a modern depiction of the
punishments in Hades of three arch-sinners of ancient Greek
mythology: Tantalus was never allowed to taste of the fruit and
water that were so near to him; Sisyphus had constantly to roll a
huge rock to the top of a hill, from which it would just as
constantly roll back; Ixion was fastened to a perpetually turning
b¿.Judgment of souls before the nether-world court of Osiris.
After an ancient Egptian papyms illustration.
63. The punishment of Tantalus, Sisyphus and Ixion in Tartams,
the hell of ancient Greek mhology. After an English engraving.
64. The demonic hordes of HeJ catching the souls of sinners.
Attributed to Albrecht Durer. Frm Waring vor der falschen Iieb
dieser werlt. printed by Peter Wagner, Nuremberg, 1495.
65. Infero, from Dante Alighieri 's La Divina Commedia, printed
byBoninus de Bonini, Brescia, J4o¯
bb. PUgatOY, frm Dante Aieri's La Divina Commedia,
pInted by Boninus de Bonini, Brescia, 1487.
67. Inferal punishment for the Seven Deadly Sins: the prideful
are broken on the wheel. Frm Le grant kalendrier et compost
des Bergier, printed by Nicolas Le Rouge, Troyes, 1496.
68. Inferal punishment for the Seven Deadly Sins: the envious
are immersed in freezing water. From Le grant kalendrier et
compost des Bergier, printed by Nicolas Le Rouge, Troyes,
69. Inferal punishment for the Seven Deadly Sins: the angry are
dismembered alive. From Le grant kalendrier et compost des
Bergiers, printed by Nicolas Le Rouge, Troyes, 1496.
70. Inferal punishment for the Seven Deadly Sins: the slothful
are thrwn into snake-pits. From Le grant kalendIier et compost
des Bergier, pIinted by Nicolas Le Rouge, TIvyes, 1496.
71. Inferal punishment for the Seven Deadly Sins: the greedy are
put into cauldrons of boiling oil. From Le gnt kalendrier et
compost des Bergiers, printed by Nicolas Le Rouge, Troyes,
72. Inferal panishment for the Seven Deadly Sins: the gluttonous
are forcefed on toads, rats and snakes. From Le grant kalendIier
et compost des Bergiers, pIinted by Nicolas Le Rouge, Troyes,
73. Inferal punishment for the Seven Deadly Sins: the lustful are
smothered in fre and brimstone. From Le grant kalendrier et
compost des Bergier, printed by Nicolas Le Rouge, Troyes,
74. Dives in Hell and Lazarus in Heaven. From Jacob Sprenger
and 1 Institor's Malleus Malefcarum (he Hammer of Witches),
printed by Jean Patit, Paris, 1510.
75. The souls of sinners delivered into the mouth of Hell From a
xlographic blockbook, Opera, engraved and printed by Giovanni
Andrea Vavassore, Venice, 1510.
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76. infernal demons. From The pariyament of deuylles, printed by
Richard Faques, London, J 521.
77. Title page showing the jaws of Hell with Lucifer and Satan.
Frm the Livre de la Deablerie
printed by Michel Le Nair
The Apocalyptic Horsemen
Among the visions granted to C!. John on Patmas, as recorded in
Revelations (or the Apocalypse), was that of four maleficent
horsemen, the last of whom is there identified as Death (chapter
6, verses 1-8). The others have been identified as Plague, Famine
and War, let loose against mankind. The most famous of the
many illustrations of the Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse is the
one by DOrer.
78. The Four Apocalyptic Horsemen. From the Cologne Bible,
printed by Bartholomaus von Uncle, 1479.
79. AllegOlic representation of the Four Horsemen of the
Apocalypse: War, Hunger, Plague and Death. From Albrecht
Diirer's Apocalypse, Nurembelg, 1498.
80. The Apocalyptic Horsemen. Woodcut by Hans Burgkmair,
from Das Neue Testament, printed by Silvan Othmal� Augsburg,
81. The Four Horsemen. Frm Apoca1ypsis OJoannis, printed by
Hmann Giilferichen, Frcmk1, 1553.
Witches and Warlocks
The true practicing witches of the late Middle Ages, Renaissance
and later periods (as distinguished from mentally ill or asocial
people accused of witchcraft) were most likely stubbor
adherents of pre-Christian pagan religious beliefs in which the
deity or deities (for Christians, the Devil and his demons) partook
of animal forms. (The Celtic enchanter Merlin is included in this
chapter as an example of a pre-Christian figure who remained
alive in Christian memories.)
Witches and warlocks (a special term for male witches) were
supposed to be able to prophesy, cast spells, raise storms, change
shape. and much more. They were aided by certain animal
�familiars," often cats and toads. They assembled periodically at
sabbaths, where they worshipped Satan. As shown in some of the
sixteenth-century German illustrations in this chapter, female
witches were not always thought of as withered crones.
82. The Devi making Jove to a witc.
83. Demons riding to the Sabbat. From UiIich Molitor's Von
den Unholden und Hexen. Constance. J 489.
lJc lanile ct pbitonicit JlU'�
84. Witches brewing up a hailstorm. From the title page of UiIich
Molitor's De lanijs et phitonicis mulieribus, pInted by Corelius
de ZieIikzee, Cologne, 1489.
85. WaIlock riding to the Witches' Sabbath. From Ulrich
Molitor's De laniis et phitonicis mulieribus, prnted by Corelius
de Zierikzee, Cologne, 1489.
86. Witch "inoculating" a man by shooting a twig through his
foot. From Ulrich Moltor's De lanijs et phitonicis muleribus,
Cologne, 1489.
87. The enchanter Merlin, magician of King Arthur's Round
Table, meeting te fairy Viviane in the Forest of Broceliande.
Afer an enameled book covel� Limoges, earl fifeenth century.
88. The four witches. Engraving by Albrecht Diirel� J 497.
89. Witches concocting an ointment to be used for fying to the
Sabbath. By Hans BaJdung Grien, Strassburg, 1514.
90. Witches celebrating. Woodcut by Hans Weidiz.
91. Witch tamed werewolf attacking travelers. Woodcut by Hans
Weiditz. From Dr. Johann Geiler von Kaysersbelg's Die Emeis
(he Ants), printed by Johann Griiningel� Strassburg, 1517.
92. Witch riding on the Dev's he-goat to the Walpurgisnacht,
goaded on by p amoretti. By Albrecht Diirer.
93, 94. Witch and wizard riding to the Sabbath. From UlIich
Molitor's Hexen Meysterey, 1545.
95. Witches' brew. From Abraham SaU's Ein Kurtze Treue
Waring (A Short, Tme Warin¿, printed at Frankfurt, 1582.
96. Satan (lato) holding coal1 for newly anointed witches. From
Gerard d'Eaphrates' Livre de J 'histoire ò ancienne croniqae,
printed by E. Groalleaa, Paris, 1549.
97. The Devil calTying a witch of to Hell.
98. The sorcerer Gilbert shackled by the warlock Catillum on the
isle of WeteIacas. Frm Glaus Magnus' Historia de gentibus
septentrionalibus, Rome, 1555.
99. Sorcerer sellng a bag of wind (tied up in three knots of a
100. Sorcerer riding the waves on a piece of /ots,m. Frm Glaus
Magnus' Historia de gentibus septentrionalibus, Rome, 1555.
101. Witch conjUing up demons.
102. Witch brewing up a storm. From Glaus Magnus' Historia de
gentibus septentrionalibus, Rome, 1555.
103. Satan rbaptizing young sorcerers.
104. Sorcerer exchanging the Gospels for a book of black magic.
From R. P. Guaccius' Compendium Maleficarum, Milan, 1626.
105. Satan applying his claw malk to an apprentice sorcerer.
106. Witch giving the ritual 15to Satan. From R P. Guaccius'
Compendium Malefcarum, Milan, 1626.
107. Macbeth and the thre witches (Act IV Scene i). Frm 1
Rowe's frst illstrted edition of Wilam Shakespeare's WOkes,
printed by Tonson, London, 1709.
Witchcraft was combated fiercely by both Catholics and
Protestants, with civil authorities lending a firm hand to the
Church. The many executions of Protestants and Jews by the
Catholic Inquisition is shown in several illustrations here as an
analogous phenomenon. The most famous witch hunt in America
(literally speaking) took place in Salem, Massachusetts, in 1692
and had Cotton Mather as its theorist.
108. Tort of Jews acclsed by the Inquisition as hertics and
pelpetrators of black magic. From a woodcut, 1475.
109. Another scene of tortlring of Jews. Woodcut, 1475.
110. Prtestants and Jews accused by the Inquisition of heresy
and witchcraft. From a contempOry woodcut, Nuremberg,
111. Hanging of a fann woman declared by the Inquisition to be
possessed by demons. From Rappresentatione della Passione,
Florence, 1520.
112. Two Dominican monks bured at the stake by order of the
inquisition for allegedly signing pacts w/ the Devil. From the
Histoire veritable de quatre lacopins, Geneva, 1549.
113. Bradside newsletter about the public burning of three
witches at Dereburg (arz}, October 1555.
114. Mass execution of citizens of HaaIlem as disciples of the
Devi under Fernando Alvarez de Toledo, Duke of Alba, after the
conquest of HaaIlem in 1573.
115. Tol1ure of the inhabitants of Antwelp by Spanish troops
under Ferando Alvarez de Toledo, Duke of Alba, after the
conquest of the city in 1576. Frm Michael Aitsinger's De leone
�ct:£·�|tri|·r-��·c!lll� 1669. tt1"13. �Utl'lIl /N�llnrarn Xo¢e·Çt+u��ir«:¡�;·
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116. Newsletter about the inferal deeds and the execution of the
witch Anna EbeIlehIn, printed by Elias Wellhofe, "Brief maier "
at Augsbwg, 1669.
117. The public buring of Father Urbain Grandier for signing a
pact with the Devil Frm a contemporalY drawing, Loudun,
118. The pact with the inferal powers allegedly signed by Father
Urbain Grcmdier and countersigned by Lucifer, Beelebub, Satan,
Elimi, Leviathan, Asterth and BaalbaIth. Loudun, 1634.
119. Public hanging of witches. From Sir George Mackenzie's
Law and Customs of Scotland in Matters Criminal, Edinburgh,
120. The publc hanging of the three Chelmsford witches Joan
Prentice, Joan Cony and Joan Upney. Frm an English pamphlet,
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121. Tile page [rom one o[Cotton Mather's witch-hunt
pamphlets, printed by Benjamin Harris [or Samuel Phillips,
BostOI, 1693.

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122. T page from another edition of Cotton Mather's witch­
hant pamphlet, rprinted from the Boston edition for John
Danton, London, 1693.
Ars Moriendi
In medieval belief, demons lay in wait at the bedside of the dying
in hopes of snatching away their souls. The book A Moriendi
(The Art of Dying, which appeared in many block-hook editions
(both words and pictures cut on the same wood block) in the late
fifteenth century. depicted the struggle between vices (and
religious doubts) and virtues (religious certainty) in the mind of
the dying man and the fight between externalized good and evil
forces over his soul.
123. Death chamber. From an Italian Arte del Bene Mor ire,
Florence, about 1495.
124. Temptation thrugh A vaIce. From a xlographic French
block-book edition of A moriendi, 1465.
125. Temptation thrugh Impatience. From a Dutch block-book
edition of A Moriendi, 1465.
126. Triumph over temptation. Frm a xographic German
block -book ediion of Ars Moriendi, Augsburg, 1471.
127. Confession in church as a preparation for easy dying From
Dominicus Capranica 's De Arte bene moriendi, printed by
Johann Clein and Piero Himel, Venice, 1490.
Pta mottnbi I�
Y�rt;o|t.irc|¡r�of0llfCIJOÍD]í(ttrio3Ü ¡t|||!cttcü

128. Dying man surrounded by his attendants. Attributed to
Albrecht Durer,' frm the t ile page of a Gelman edition of Ars
Moriendi, printed byJohann Weyssenbergel� Nurembelg, 1509.
Danse Macabre
A favorite medieval theme, connected with the view of the world
as mere vanity. was the leveling of all social classes and ranks in
death-with Death aptly personified as the bare, unidentifiable.
universal skeleton. At first in church frescoes and then in dozens
of books, the theme of Death seizing all men from emperors to
peasants became popular throughout Europe. The woodcut
illustrations of the Dance of Death by Hans Holbein the Younger
(eight of which are reproduced in this chapter) are the most
famous of alL
129 Death and the young man. From a Danse Macabre
engraving by the Master of the Housebook, Germany, 1490.
130. Death and the hunting party, an allegoric representation of
the might of Death. Engraving by Master 1 W (olf Hammer),
Austria, 1482.
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131. Page from La dance Macabre des Femmes, printed by Guyot
Marchant, Paris, 1486.
132. Pope and Emperor. Frm La dance Macabre des Hommes,
pdnted by Antoine Verard, Pads, 1486.
133. Doctor and lover. Frm La dance Macabre des Hommes,
printed by Guyot Marchant, Paris, 1486.
134. Pope and Emperor.
135. Astrologer and bourgeois. From La dance Macabr des
Hommes, printed by Guyot Marchant, Paris, 1486.
136. Chambermaid and matron.
137. Blde and prostitute. From La dance Macabre des Femmes,
plnted by Antoine Verard, Pals, 1486.
138,139. The townsman and Death.
140,141. The countryman and Death. From the Dance of Death
by the Master of the Lubeck Bible, Lubeck, 1489.
142. Death and the gentleman. From Der Doten Dantz (ance of
the Dead), printed by Heinrich Knoblochzel� Heidelberg, 1490.
143. Death and the notables. Frm Der Doten Dantz, pInted by
Jacob Meydenbach, Mainz, 1492.
J 44. The orchestra of Death. From Der Doten Dantz, printed by
Heinrich Koblochzer, Heidelberg, /490.
� ,'rt

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r nuYtz bott

yµ·tr�t otu
MIM ¡vnYu1
¢rm |¡fto � QStll :� mr�II1
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145. Death and the landowner. Frm Der Doten Dantz, pInted
by Heimich Knoblochzel� Heidelberg, 1490.
�m:PÑWm .RVW�ø
Qpu M o»x�D¡f.DIOH qu:p
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146. Orchestra orthe dead. Woodclt by Michael Wolgemut, frm
Hartmann Schedel's Liber Chronicamm, printed by Anton
Koberger, Nuremberg, 1493.
147. Death and the miserly fool
148. Death and the poor fool.
From Sebastian Brandt's Navis Stultifera (Ship of Fools);
attributed to Albrecht Durer; prnted by Bergman de Dlpe. Basle.
149. The physician's discussion with Death. Frm Strub's
Orationes Dual, Vienna, 1511.
150. Three revelers meet three cOlpses who war them to repent.
From Horae, pInted by Wynkyn de Worde, Westminstel� 1494.
grantlanCe ntaÍab�et
� btGftntntt.
:lle � augmtntttbr
151. Dance orchestlc of Death. From La grant danse macabre
des hommes et des femmes, printed by Nicolas Le Rouge, Tryes,
1.""" f'f�,_r�_�tnl  .
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152. Typesetter, printer and bookseler. Frm La Grant Dance
Macabre, printed by Matthias Huss, Lyons, 1499.
153. Death hunting the hunters. From Geiler von Kaiserspelg' s
Sermones, De arboH� humana, printed by Johann Gnlningel�
Strassburg, 1514.

154. Pope and Cardinal. After a Dance of Death by Nikolaus
Manuel, Bere, 1515.
155. Monk and 1O. After a Dance of Death by Nikolaus Manuel,
Bere, 1515.
J 56. Death and the lansquenets. Wodcut by L1Graf J 524.
157. First half of Dance of Death Alphabet. Designed by Hans
Holbein the Younger and engraved on wood by Hans
Liitzelburger, Basle, 1526.
158. Second half of Dance of Death Alphabet. Designed by Hans
Holbein the Younger and engraved on wood by Hans
Liitzelburger, Basle, 1526.
159-162. EmperO� abbot, duchess and nun. From Imagines
Mortis, designed by Hans Holbein the Younger and printed by J.
Frellon, Lyons, 1547.
163-166. RILh man, old man, merchant and farmer. Frm
Imagines ¹OI1IS, designed by Hans Holbein the Younger and
pr inted by (FreJon
Lyons. JJ4¯
t¢ft nanuet of itae�ab�tt .
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167. "The dalnce of Machabree, " from John Lydgate's The Fall
of PInces, pInted by Richard Tofel, London, 1554.
168. Reli gious f'natics dancing amid the graves in a churchyard,
in defance of civilian superstition and ecclesiastic ukases. From
a Gelman engraving, about 1600.
169. Ghost cotillion of the souls of Black Death victims who were
buried alive in 1347. Frm an engraving by A. Aubrey, Gelwany,
'y· .iaakr ltl1b �Ull�\n\tattb«
170. Death and the artists. Designed by Conrad Meyer, frm
Rudolf Meyer's Sterbespiegel (irror of Dying), Zurich, 1650.
171. Death on the barricades in the March Revolution, 1848.
From a Danse Macabre series by Ad Rethel.
Memento Mori

A memento mori (Latin for �remember that you must die") is an
object or pictorial symbol associated with death. Such symbols
include skulls, bones, coffns, urns, angels of death, upside-down
torches, graves and gravestones, hourglasses, scythes, spades,
toads, serpents, worms, owls, ravens, cypresses, weeping willows,
tuberoses, parsley, and many more. A good number of these
associations (and of our present-day funeral practices) can be
traced back to antiquity. These emblems of mortality have long
been used as items of adornment: Mary, Queen of Scots, owned a
skull-shaped watch; Martin Luther had a gold ring with a death's­
head in enamel; even today skull motifs are used in all sorts of
jewelry and brie-a-brae.
172 Scribes counting the severed heads of slain enemies after a
battle. Aller an Assyrian-Babylonian wall relief Konyunjic
173. Page [rom an Egptian papyrus Book of the Dead. which
was placed into Ihe tomb with the mummies as c guide for the
souls of the departed.
174. Death as mounted hunter and as reaper. Frm Der
Ackermann aus Bahmen (he Ploughman from Bohemia),
Bamberg, 1463.
175. A skull-watch.
176. One of the eaIliest extant printed labels for a poison bottle,
representing Death as a WOlw-eaten corpse. By an unknown
Rhenish arist, 1480-90.
177. Allegoric reprsentation of Death. From Le grant kalendrier
et compost des Bergiers, printed by Nicolas le Roage, Tryes,
178. The Tree of Death (barial tree on the Island of Cafolos).
From Sir John Maandev ile 's Tvels, pIinted by Wynkyn de
Warde, London, 1499.
179. Death leaping from Hell on his charger with arrow and
cofn, to claim his Jights over mortals. Frm Le grant kalendrieJ�
printed by Nicolas le Roage, Tryes, 1496.
180. Emblem of Death, with the motto "EveJbodyaferwards. "
Designed by Master A. 1,frm the Heiligtl1  blch {ook of
Relics}, Vienna, 1502.
181. Death in the cloister. Frm Robert Gobin's Les LOlps
Ravissans (he Ravishing Wolves), printed by Antoine Verard,
Paris, 1503.
J 82 The AngeJ of Death taking the soul, in the form of a child,
from a dying man. From Reiter óMortilogus, printed by Oegelin
and Nadler, Augsburg, J 508.
183. Coat-of-arms of Death. Engraving by Albrecht Durer,
Nuremberg, 1503.
lmfltgttt anDfm
WN0frplan DctDoterU
Jo4. Death leaving the mouth of HeJ and hunting a victim. From
The Boke named the Royal, printed by Wykyn de Warde for
Wj}jam Caxton, London, 1507
185. Macabre printer's device, using selpents, skul and
hourglass as symbols of Death. The mark of Andreas Gesnel�
Zurich, 1550.
f11 .vii,. £m ganrbaupt:no £il
ßÇ =00m4.I}.þ1m·|tl

186. Relic monstrance in the form of skull and sword, symbol of
the Society of Malricius. Frm Lucas Cranach the Elder's
HeiligthwlS Bach, Wittembelg, 1509.
187. Hamletesque design of a young man with a death's-head
Engraving by Lucas van Leyden, 1519.
188. The triumph of Dealh. Frm Geofry Tory's Horae, printed
by Simon de CoJines, Paris, 1525.
] ( ] Ilei Qu0I¾4O4u¤in ¤¤nm
1�� 1
 ; ��
� LttcndætW�dotæD<r
189. The triamph of Death. Frm Geofry Tory's He in
laadem beatissime virginis MaIe, pInted by Simon da Bois,
Paris, 1527.
190. Death and his demonic helpers ar laIiing everyhere.
From Ellachasem Elimihar's Schachtafeln der Gesandhe
ilustated by Hans Weiditz, printed by Hans Schott, Strassburg,
191. Macabre monwnental brass plate frm the vault of Bishop
Schonberg, Nawnburg, 1576.
192. Macabre representation of the Tree of Knowledge and
Death. Woodcut by Jost Amman, from Jacob Ruef's De conceptu
et generatione hominis, pInted by Peter Fabricius, Frankrt,
gtzy¸¡ormy Cake diddef do�! f  , for
my (akcdiddf( mou grrÍ Orn·mc_rczt
nu|\\bcroÍgOd worHes íuthis life, for
¸IakcdìddÊH thou 1u0ct lo manìc
ìucouOt tìoÌI|ctOlhe dc1th,
Îttthct_ sgtohtc DCCV �:¡q
douhahgoucn me of thincownc trcc
��� ��wt|Ì thou vhÌchchz|¡c_ìurn
n U!ý ÎOrhy bloud
wafh zv\aìcthc of my (innes.
thy hide m|ncYD¬
mcioa:·:|g-:iudge. As;:
and d¡Icalc incrca{c) Íotn~
J/ crcalc thou thy tæc . let not
wzucr . 1ctnot my\OÜa

g1r. Let not my charitic VJXC
Jctnot my humanc J¤h1m:tìcbcccar
downc wìththe drc:de otcc4th.
Wbcndeathe laUhaue cÌolcddìc
193. Prayer for the dead. Frm A Book of Christian Prayers,
printed by Richard Yardley and Peter Short for Richard Day,
London, 1590.
194. The winged Angel of Death W1U skull and howglass.
PJinter's device of Johann Vogt, Goslar, 1607.
195. Relic monstrance in the shape of a skall and thighbone.
Engraving by Christofel van Sichem, from Het geheele leven ons
Heeren jesa Christi, printed by 1 1 Paets, Amsterdam, 1648.
196. T page w/allegoric representation of the Judgment of
Fame after Death. From Herdian of Alexandria's Imperial
HistOlY, published by Hemy Taunton, London, 1635.
JO£ ÍoL f.,., 
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197 Symbolic-emblematic representation of the t rnsitOiness of
might Frm 1 Cary's The Mirrour which Flaters not,
published by R. Thale, London, 1639.
JVo. Macabre calligraphic page with emblems of Death. Frm a
work by Francesco pisani, Genoa, Íb4Ü
JVV. Symbol of Death with the motto "My glass runneth quickly. "
Plinter's device of loost Hangers, Amsterdam, JbJJ.
200. Alchemical allegOY of putrefaction. From Basil Valentine's
Azoth, PaIs, 1659.
201. The deadly demon of tobacco "drinking. " From Jacob
Balde's anti-smoking pamphlet Die Truckene Trunckenheil (The
DIy Drunkenness), printed by Michael Endte/� Nuremberg. 1658.
Ûz_ A LOL t £ c T l 0 H oÏ n|lthc
bíÎÎs otNotraIít¡
let tl.1 Prrftnt Yru:
Bginnír�mc2¶''' ol1rrrmrri� �q,znd
cndIn_·th¢ tg'º-c|¯H~brr Ícl|owin
Å$=l|o¿ ¯Îr gË[J@X( øral¢h _t¤r: Tí LLt
ñccordíng to tho Kcpcrr 01UC ÎQ thc
·A¡ M O5 NoÛ Jxcdkm !t¡t|1y¿
202. Title page in the fon of a gravestone. From Bills of
Mortality. a printed report to the king about the people who died
of the plague from December 1664 to December 1665, printed by
1 Cotes, London, 1665.
203. "The Triumphal Arch of Death. " Eving by Anders Trst
after Johann Koch, from Johann Vavasor's Theatrum mortis
humanae, Ljubljana, 1682.
204. The winged hourglass and the sce, symbolzing the fght
of time and the certainty of death. From a Rosicmcian emblem
book seventeenth century.
205. The skeleton on the casket and the broken tree stump
symbolize Death, and the buring candle represents the human
mind Ising to Heaven. From a Rosicmcian emblem book,
seventeenth centUlY.
206. The ur, the leafess branch and the weeping wilow as
symbols of Death. By the American wood engraver Alexander
Anderson ( 775-1870).
207. The toad of Death. From a pen drawing in an occult
manuscript La Magie Noire (Black magic), France, nineteenth
1think the Vessel, that with fugit ive
Articulation answer'd, once did live,
And MelTy-make; and the cold Lip I kiss'd
How many Kisses might Ltake-and give.
208. Macabre illustration by Edmund J. Sullivan for Quatrain
¹of The Rllbaiyat of Omar Khayyam, by Edward Fitzgerld,
London, l859.
Oh, come with old Khayam, and leave lhe Wise
To talk; one thing is certain, that Life fies;
One thing is certain, and the Rest is Lies:
7e Flower (hat once has blown for ever dies.
209. Macabre illustration by Edmund J. Sullivan for Quatrain
XXVI of The Rubaiyat of Dmar Khayyam, by Edward Fizgerald,
London, 1859.
Resurrection and Reckoning
In Christian belief. Christ rose from the dead, and on Judgment
Day. the last day of the world. everyone who ever lived will
awaken from the dead and be tred by the Lord and His angels.
Many great works of art have been based on this theme.
210. Detail from "The Last Judment. " Engraving by Allard du
Hameel after Hieronimus van Aeken Bosch.
211. The Resurrection of ChIst. Frm Leiden Christi (The
Passion of Christ), printed by Albrecht Pfster, Bamberg, 1470.
2 J 2. The Last Judgment. Woodcut byMichael Wolgemut, from
Hartman Schedel's Libel' Cronicarum, printed by Anton
Koberger, Nuremberg. J 493.
213. The Last Judgment. From the Bambergische
Halsgerichtsordnung, 1510. The quotations are: "For with what
judgment ye judge, ye shall be judged" (atthew 7:2) and "The
Lord executeth righteolsness and jldgment for all that are
oppressed " (salms 103:6).
214. Weighing of souls by the Archangel Michael. Xylographic
page from Ars Moriendi, printed by Johann WeissenbUger,
Landshut, 1514.
» J 1 ` ¯
. �®m.
¹«lul? f ) ¸
L U U 1 S Õ C H ! 1XO*I. T1I,
Ù ói I A l
215. Allegoric representation of reslrrection. From Robert
Blair's The Grave, engraved by Louis Schiavonetti after William
Blake, pInted by 1Bensley, London, 1808.
Religio-Political Devilry
Devils, demons and similar infernal figures (including swine)
have been favorite material for religious and political
pamphleteers and caricaturists of all denominations and
convictions for centuries. Writers and artists attacking such real
and alleged abuses as drinking, dancing, smoking, gambling,
counterfeiting and usury have not hesitated to press Satan into
their service. This concluding chapter presents a wide panorama
of these polemic graphics with a smell of brimstone.
216. Jewish scholars, wearing the pointed hats forced upon them
by the law, are sucked by their wetnure, the "Dev's pig "
From the eaIliest extant anti-Semitic bradside, Germany, 1475.
217. Papist crowning the Devil's pig. Woodcut by Hans Weiditz,
frm Ciceros Olfcien, printed by Heinrich Steiner, Al1gsblg,
lit Otr wurl auf
218. The Demon of Dice and the terrible fate of dice-player.
From a pamphlet How the Die Was Invented; attributed to
Albrecht Diirer, pIinted by Conrad Kacherofen, Leipzig, 1487.
219. The Dice-Demon tempting the gambler. Detail frm a
bradside waring against dice-playing, France, 1490.
220. The Papist Devil, "Ego sum Papa" µam the Pope). From a
Refolnation handbill against Pope Alexander VI, Paris, late
ffeenth century.
221. George Zingel, one of the Papist adversaIes of the reformer
Jacob Lochner, depicted as an inferal monster. From Lochner's
polemic treatise Apologia contr poetamm aceniml1 Hostem
Georgium Zingel, pInted by Johann Grininger, Sta.ssblg,
222. Demonic anti-Papist caIcature. Frm the t ile page of
Opera Poetica by the refOlmer Ulrich van Hatten, printed by
Henri PetI, Basle, 1538.
223. T page frm Thomas Marer's anti-RefOlwation
pamphlet Von dem grssen Latherischen Narrn (On the Big
Latheran Fool), aboat 1518.
224. Reform minister ofciating at the malTiage of the fool and
the she-dev From Thomas Murer's anti-Lutheran pamphlet
Von dem grossen Lutherischen Narrn, about 1518.
225. Martin Lather's tIwnph over the monk's devi From
Mattheus Gnidias' Dialogi, a Refm pamphlet against the
Papists Marer and Weddel, Gelwany, 1521.
Statua hcrcticorum
226. The Column of Heresy. From an antiLutheran pamphlet
Catalogus Haereticomm omnium pene, Cologne, 1526.
227. Title page from a conformist selmon by Andras Musculus,
Yom Hosen Teufel (the disordeIy, inl'1lUS and audacious devil
of the long bag breeches; an admonition and cal to ordel),
printed by johann Eichhor, Frankfurt am Gder, 1555.
228. The "Devi's RotisseIe. " From a satiric Refmation
handbil depicting the larding, stufng and roasting of jesuits by
the Devils, designed by 1 Hildeberg, Gelmany, 1580.
UiO1Æ.½ Q-
229. "Piramide papistique,
satiric-allegoric representation of
the Roman Church hierarchy as the Serpents of He1. From a
Prtestant anti-Papist bradside, Holland, late sixteenth century.
230. The Goddess Heresy. Frm a satiric anti-Refolation
handbildesigned by Anton Eisen, Paderbor, Gelwany, late
sixteenth centUlY.
231. The Papal hierarchy as mash in the Dev's vineyard. From
a German anti-Papist bradside, late sixteenth century.
232. Papist indulgence peddlers in the jaws of Hell. From a
satiric Reformation handbil, Gennany, late sixteenth century.
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233. The Dev of tobacco "drinking. " Frm William Horby's
The Scourge of Dnmkennes, an anti-smoking pamphlet printed by
C. EJd for Thomas Baylie, London, 1618.
234. The Dev 's mil of discord. From an anti-Huguenot handbil
printed by J Moreau, Paris, 1630.
The Englilh Vfurer.
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235. The Devil of Usury. From John Bton 's pamphlet against
loan sharks. The English Usurel� printed by 10hn Norton [or
Francis Bowman of Oxford, London, 1634.
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236. The Round-head Dev From an anti-Puritan pamphlet by
John TaylOl� The Dev Tur 'd Round-Head, London, 1642.
237. The Money Devl. From a satiric handbill against loan
shaIs, Frclce, about 1650.
238. Pluto, the Papist Devi, falling sick over the order of the so­
called Long Parliament to deface all Romanistic churches and to
destry all their idolatrus images. From the pamphlet A
Dreame; Q� Newes frm Hell, anonymously pInted in London,
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239. The Harford (Connecticut) Federalist Convention candidate
(the ImpeIial Devi. From an anti-Brtish campaign leafet for
james Monre printed in New England, 1812.
240. Sf. Michael casting Lucifer, the power of sin, out of Heaven.
Oramented tailpiece from a French book pIinted in 1650.
241. incubi inducing sweet sexual dreams in a sleeping girl.
Designed by C Tschechonin for the Russian peIiodical Satyricon,
St. Petersbll g, 1913.
242. Final page, "Finis coronat " (the end crowns (the work}.
From Jacob Cats' autobiographical poem An Eighty-Two-Year­
Long Life, published by Jan van der Deyster, Leyden, 1732.