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Verify that W

1

= {(a

1

, ..., a

n

) ∈ F

n

| a

1

+· · · +a

n

= 0} is a subspace of F

n

but that

W

2

= {(a

1

, ..., a

n

) ∈ F

n

| a

1

+· · · +a

n

= 1} is not.

2. Let W

1

= {A ∈ M

m×n

(F) | a

ij

= 0 whenever i > j},

and W

2

= {A ∈ M

m×n

(F) | a

ij

= 0 whenever i ≤ j}.

Show that M

m×n

(F) = W

1

⊕W

2

.

3. Let W

1

arid W

2

be subspaces of a vector space V . Prove that V = W

1

⊕ W

2

if and

only if each element in V can be uniquely written as w

1

+ w

2

, where w

1

∈ W

1

and

w

2

∈ W

2

.

4. Show that a subset W of a vector space V is a subspace of V if and only if ⟨W⟩ = W.

5. Prove that a set S is linearly dependent if and only if S = {0} or there exist distinct

vectors v, w

1

, w

2

, ..., w

n

in S such that v is a linear combination of w

1

, w

2

, ..., w

n

.

6. The vectors v

1

= (2, −3, 1), v

2

= (1, 4, −2), v

3

= (−8, 12, −4), v

4

= (1, 37, −17), and

v

5

= (−3, −5, 8) span R

3

. Find a subset of {v

1

, v

2

, v

3

, v

4

, v

5

} that is a basis for R

3

.

7. Let {u, v} be a basis for a vector space V . Show that both {u +v, αu} and {αu, βv}

are bases for V , where α and β are arbitrary nonzero scalars.

8. Let W

1

and W

2

be subspaces of a vector space V such that V = W

1

⊕W

2

. If B

1

and

B

2

are bases for W

1

and W

2

, respectively, show that B

1

∩ B

2

= ∅ and B

1

∪ B

2

is a

basis for V .

9. Let B

1

and B

2

be disjoint bases for subspaces W

1

and W

2

, respectively, of a vector

space V . Prove that B

1

∪ B

2

is a basis for V , then V = W

1

⊕W

2

.

10. Let B be a basis for a vector space V , and let S be a linearly independent subset of

V . There exists a subset S

′

of B such that S ∪ S

′

is a basis for V .

11. Let V and W be vector spaces and T : V → W be linear. Let {w

1

, ..., w

k

} be a

linearly independent subset of im T. If S = {v

1

, ..., v

k

} is chosen so that T(v

i

) = w

i

for i = 1, ..., k, prove that S is linearly independent.

12. Deﬁne T : F[x] → F[x] by T(f(x)) =

∫

x

0

f(t)dt. Show that T is a injective linear

map but not surjective.

13. Let V and W be ﬁnite-dimensional vector spaces and T : V → W be linear.

(a) Prove that if dim(V ) < dim(W), then T cannot be onto.

(b) Prove that if dim(V ) > dim(W), then T cannot be one-to-one.

14. Let V and W be vector spaces such that dim(V ) = dim(W), and let T : V → W be

linear. Find ordered bases B and C for V and W, respectively, such that [T]

B,C

is a

diagonal matrix.

15. Let U, V , and W be vector spaces, and let S : U → V and T : V → W be linear.

(a) If TS is one-to-one, prove that S is one-to-one. Must T also be one-to-one?

(b) If TS is onto, prove that T is onto. Must S also be onto?

(c) If S and T are one-to-one and onto, prove that TS is also.

1

16. Let V and W be vector spaces, and let T : V → W be linear and invertible. Prove

that T

−1

: W → V is linear.

17. Let T : V → W be a linear transformation of a vector space V onto a vector space

W. Deﬁne the mapping

T : V/ ker(T) → W by

˜

T(v + ker(T)) = T(v)

for any coset v + ker(T) in V/ker(T).

(a) Prove that

T is well-deﬁned.

(b) Prove that

T is linear.

(c) Prove that

T is an isomorphism.

(d) Prove that the below diagram commutes; that is, prove that T =

T ◦ π.

..

V

.

W

.

V/ker(T)

.

T

.

π

.

T

18. For A and Bin M

n

(F), deﬁne A ∼ B to mean A is similar to B. Prove that ∼ is an

equivalence relation on M

n

(F).

19. Prove that if A and B are similar n ×n matrices, then tr(A) = tr(B).

20. Let V be a ﬁnite-dimensional vector space with ordered bases B and C. Prove that if

P is a transition matrix from B to C, then P

−1

is a transition matrix from C to B.

21. Let A be an n ×n matrix with entries in a ﬁeld F, let B be an ordered basis for F

n

,

and let C = [L

A

]

B

. Prove that C = P

−1

AP, where P is the n×n matrix whose j−th

column equals the j−th vector of B.

2

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