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1.

Verify that W
1
= {(a
1
, ..., a
n
) ∈ F
n
| a
1
+· · · +a
n
= 0} is a subspace of F
n
but that
W
2
= {(a
1
, ..., a
n
) ∈ F
n
| a
1
+· · · +a
n
= 1} is not.
2. Let W
1
= {A ∈ M
m×n
(F) | a
ij
= 0 whenever i > j},
and W
2
= {A ∈ M
m×n
(F) | a
ij
= 0 whenever i ≤ j}.
Show that M
m×n
(F) = W
1
⊕W
2
.
3. Let W
1
arid W
2
be subspaces of a vector space V . Prove that V = W
1
⊕ W
2
if and
only if each element in V can be uniquely written as w
1
+ w
2
, where w
1
∈ W
1
and
w
2
∈ W
2
.
4. Show that a subset W of a vector space V is a subspace of V if and only if ⟨W⟩ = W.
5. Prove that a set S is linearly dependent if and only if S = {0} or there exist distinct
vectors v, w
1
, w
2
, ..., w
n
in S such that v is a linear combination of w
1
, w
2
, ..., w
n
.
6. The vectors v
1
= (2, −3, 1), v
2
= (1, 4, −2), v
3
= (−8, 12, −4), v
4
= (1, 37, −17), and
v
5
= (−3, −5, 8) span R
3
. Find a subset of {v
1
, v
2
, v
3
, v
4
, v
5
} that is a basis for R
3
.
7. Let {u, v} be a basis for a vector space V . Show that both {u +v, αu} and {αu, βv}
are bases for V , where α and β are arbitrary nonzero scalars.
8. Let W
1
and W
2
be subspaces of a vector space V such that V = W
1
⊕W
2
. If B
1
and
B
2
are bases for W
1
and W
2
, respectively, show that B
1
∩ B
2
= ∅ and B
1
∪ B
2
is a
basis for V .
9. Let B
1
and B
2
be disjoint bases for subspaces W
1
and W
2
, respectively, of a vector
space V . Prove that B
1
∪ B
2
is a basis for V , then V = W
1
⊕W
2
.
10. Let B be a basis for a vector space V , and let S be a linearly independent subset of
V . There exists a subset S

of B such that S ∪ S

is a basis for V .
11. Let V and W be vector spaces and T : V → W be linear. Let {w
1
, ..., w
k
} be a
linearly independent subset of im T. If S = {v
1
, ..., v
k
} is chosen so that T(v
i
) = w
i
for i = 1, ..., k, prove that S is linearly independent.
12. Deﬁne T : F[x] → F[x] by T(f(x)) =

x
0
f(t)dt. Show that T is a injective linear
map but not surjective.
13. Let V and W be ﬁnite-dimensional vector spaces and T : V → W be linear.
(a) Prove that if dim(V ) < dim(W), then T cannot be onto.
(b) Prove that if dim(V ) > dim(W), then T cannot be one-to-one.
14. Let V and W be vector spaces such that dim(V ) = dim(W), and let T : V → W be
linear. Find ordered bases B and C for V and W, respectively, such that [T]
B,C
is a
diagonal matrix.
15. Let U, V , and W be vector spaces, and let S : U → V and T : V → W be linear.
(a) If TS is one-to-one, prove that S is one-to-one. Must T also be one-to-one?
(b) If TS is onto, prove that T is onto. Must S also be onto?
(c) If S and T are one-to-one and onto, prove that TS is also.
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16. Let V and W be vector spaces, and let T : V → W be linear and invertible. Prove
that T
−1
: W → V is linear.
17. Let T : V → W be a linear transformation of a vector space V onto a vector space
W. Deﬁne the mapping

T : V/ ker(T) → W by
˜
T(v + ker(T)) = T(v)
for any coset v + ker(T) in V/ker(T).
(a) Prove that

T is well-deﬁned.
(b) Prove that

T is linear.
(c) Prove that

T is an isomorphism.
(d) Prove that the below diagram commutes; that is, prove that T =

T ◦ π.
..
V
.
W
.
V/ker(T)
.
T
.
π
.

T
18. For A and Bin M
n
(F), deﬁne A ∼ B to mean A is similar to B. Prove that ∼ is an
equivalence relation on M
n
(F).
19. Prove that if A and B are similar n ×n matrices, then tr(A) = tr(B).
20. Let V be a ﬁnite-dimensional vector space with ordered bases B and C. Prove that if
P is a transition matrix from B to C, then P
−1
is a transition matrix from C to B.
21. Let A be an n ×n matrix with entries in a ﬁeld F, let B be an ordered basis for F
n
,
and let C = [L
A
]
B
. Prove that C = P
−1
AP, where P is the n×n matrix whose j−th
column equals the j−th vector of B.
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