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Executive Summary

The main objective of this Internship is to develop an understanding towards the technical
aspects and business oriented aspects and studying about organization atmosphere. It helps an
individual to boost their skills and other requirements in order to work effectively and efficiently
during the job after graduation.
EDGE information and communications technology (ICT) is a learning organization in United
Arab Emirates. EDGE has been building innovative Information Technology Providers. EDGE
has building innovative and comprehensive Information Technology service providers in the
realm of IT.EDGE ICT combining our rock-solid professional domain knowledge, technical
expertise, reflective knowledge of latest industrial trends and quality delivery model that offer
end to end progressive and comprehensive IT solutions. EDGE strive to fulfill their vision "To
be the first choice in the "realm of IT" by providing innovative and efficient solutions to exceed
expectations." The organization has been a partner to Microsoft since 2010.EDGE involves in
Software Solution, Security Solutions, Professional services, Information Technology
Management. EDGE ICT is one of the known multi-disciplined information technology
integrators actively involved in the in UAE, India and United States. EDGE has building
software and ICT infrastructure solutions for many companies across the region .As a student of
Business Administration the internship in the organization was a wonderful business oriented
experience. EDGE assigned me with jobs of Business Coordinator, Accountant, Secretarial jobs
and making Of Wages Protection System(WPS).
The internship helped in knowing about what business is, why business is a good field to work
on motivating individuals to start the business. As a business coordinator I had generated clients
of top reputed five star hotels in Abu Dhabi. As a part of Internship I learned about the strengths
and threats the company faces from its competitors. Moreover the organization atmosphere
taught a lot about employee to employee interaction, employee to superior interaction, etiquettes
and how to interact with new staffs and other nationalities. As an accounting student it helped me
to learn about Quickbooks and techniques of setting up of wages, sending meeting requests to
clients and attending meeting in order to maintain a relationship with clients and generate sales.
The Internship helped to know about strengths, weaknesses and opportunities that I possess and I
believe have achieved as what I had planned before Internship which help me in future job
whether in United Arab Emirates or abroad. This internship report explains about the
organization profile, industry analysis, research methodology and analysis and interpretations.

Nature of Study
This study is conducted to study various aspects of an Information Technology firm EDGE ICT
solutions. The study covers about the organization’s activities. The research method is primary
which includes direct interviewing, personal approach and observation. The secondary include
sources of documents like files of clients ,payables,bank statements,websites,catalogues.The
study also includes different analyses and interpretations like SWOT analyses

Objective Of study
 Study about Information Technology market
 Study about Accounting Aspects Of EDGE Informations and Communications
Technology
 Study about sales in the Information Technology field
 To evaluate about the growth of Information Technology


Scope Of Study
This study focuses is to provide information about the purposes of doing internship, the
procedures within the company to maintaining relationships with clients , attract customers , and
accounts management ,meetings, wages protection system . It gives the opportunity to get the
real working environment in an Information Technology and Communications firm.

This study will be useful to:
 The employees
It will help the employees of EDGE information and communications technology in
marketing and selling their services better especially the interns and candidates that are
new to organisation.


 The manager of the company –
It will help them in updating their policies and procedures as well as their future
decisions.
 The customers of the company –
It will help them in being informed about the services provided by EDGE information
and communications technology, Abu Dhabi.
 The investors –
It will provide them information about the company that they are planning to invest into.
The company’s status and position in the market can be studied.
























INDUSTRY ANALYSIS















Market Analysis
According to the latest forecast by IT market analysis firm Gartner, worldwide IT spending is
projected to total US$3.7 trillion in 2013, a 4.2% increase from 2012 spending of US$3.6 trillion.
The 2013 outlook for IT spending growth in US dollars has been revised upward from 3.8% in
the Q3 2012 forecast. Gartner said much of this spending increase is the result of projected gains
in the value of foreign currencies versus the dollar. When measured in constant dollars, 2013
spending growth is forecast to be 3.9%.
In June 2011, Gartner revised its estimate of total spend on IT in 2011 upwards for the second
time in the year. It now estimates that global IT spending will grow by 7.1% over 2010’s figure,
to US$3.67 trillion.
Worldwide devices spending, which includes PCs, tablets, mobile phones, and printers, is
forecast to reach US$666 billion in 2013, up 6.3% from 2012. However, this is a significant
reduction in the outlook for 2013 compared with Gartner’s previous forecast of US$706 billion
in worldwide devices and 7.9% growth. The long-term forecast for worldwide spending on
devices has been reduced as well, with growth from 2012 to 2016 now expected to average 4.5%
annually in current US dollars (down from 6.4%), and 5.1% annually in constant dollars (down
from 7.4%). These reductions reflect a sharp fall in the forecast growth in spending on PCs and
tablets, which is only partially offset by marginal increases in forecast growth in spending on
mobile phones and printers.
Gartner says that the tablet market has seen greater price competition from Android devices as
well as smaller, low-priced devices in emerging markets, and this shift towards relatively lower-
priced tablets has led the company to lower its average selling prices forecast for 2012 until
2016. These lower prices are also responsible for slowing device spending growth in general, and
PC and tablet spending growth in particular.
Gartner forecasts that worldwide enterprise software spending will total US$296 billion in
2013, a 6.4% increase from 2012. This segment will be driven by key markets such as security,
storage management, and customer relationship management. However, beginning in 2014,
markets aligned to big data and other information management initiatives, such as
enterprise content management, data integration tools, and data quality tools, will begin to see
increased levels of investment.
The global telecom services market continues to be the largest IT spending market. Gartner
analysts predict that growth will be predominately flat over the next few years, as revenue from
mobile data services compensates for the decline in total spending for both the fixed and mobile
voice services markets. By 2016, Gartner forecasts that mobile data will represent 33% of the
total telecom services market, up from 22% in 2012.
Worldwide mobile phone sales to end-users totaled 1.75 billion units in 2012, a 1.7% decline
from 2011 sales, according to Gartner. By the end of Q1 2013, smart phone will account for
more than half of all mobile phones shipped worldwide according to Gartner. Data from Q4 2012
revealed that smart phone shipments hit a record high of 44% of the overall mobile phone market
of 472 million. With smart phone numbers growing by almost 40% year on year every quarter,
while shipments of so-called feature phones drop by around 20% in the same period, that would
put smart phones substantially ahead of feature phone shipments—at 286 million against 211
million—during the first quarter of 2013. Samsung dominated both the mobile phone and smart
phone markets, shipping a total of 107 million units globally in the final quarter of 2012, of
which about 64 million were smart phone. Nokia was the second-largest player, accounting for
85 million shipments, while Apple was third with 43.4 million shipments. Apple and Samsung
together accounted for 52% of the smart phone market, up from 46.4% in the third quarter,
according to Gartner.
Gartner added that Samsung’s resources and ability to build a broad market reach are advantages
that no other competitor can easily match. However, the competition will intensify in 2013 as
players such as Sony and Nokia improve. With Samsung commanding more than 42.5% of the
Android market globally, and the next vendor at just a 6% share, the Android operating system is
being overshadowed by Samsung’s brand, with the Galaxy name nearly a synonym for Android
phones in consumers’ minds.
Market Overview
The UAE's spending on IT products and services is projected to reach nearly US$3.8bn in 2012
with slower growth compared with 2011. The PC market managed double-digit growth in 2011
but structural weaknesses still stand in the way of a more pronounced recovery, including weak
credit conditions and Dubai's onerous debt repayment schedule.
In 2011, UAE electronics retailers reported a surge in demand for their products, although this
was often fuelled by price cuts. Abu Dhabi has been making most of the running in the wake of
the Dubai financial crisis, but growth potential also exists in the northern emirates where the
government has launched a major infrastructure investment programme.
IT spending is projected to grow at a 2012-2016 CAGR of 9%. Cloud computing and business
analytics are among enterprise IT investment priorities. Drivers of IT spending should include
local and federal government initiatives, long-term infrastructure projects, significant population
growth and the development of non-oil sectors.
Industry Developments
Cloud services are central to the emirate's e-government strategy for the next three years. The
UAE's General Information Authority (GIA) is leading efforts to provide cloud services to
federal government entities. In December 2010, the GIA delegations from various government
bodies, including the Federal Council for National Affairs, the Ministry of Labour and the
Ministry of Environment and Water, came together to plan a cloud strategy.Federal spending
will be an important driver of IT opportunities. The Ministry of Education is leading an initiative
to supply computers and the internet to state schools after concerns that they were lagging behind
private schools in IT and internet use. Another key area for federal IT spending will be
healthcare. The government's 'Wareed' healthcare IT initiative aims to establish a completely
integrated electronic platform linking 13 state-run hospitals and 67 affiliated clinics across the
country.
Competitive Landscape
Business software giant SAP has yet to launch its 'on design' cloud computing portfolio in the
Middle East region, believing that the market is not yet sufficiently mature. In 2011, SAP bet on
business analytics solutions to drive local growth. According to the vendor, 44% of its regional
revenues in Q111 were generated from business analytics solutions. Aside from the 'big two'
enterprise software vendors, SAP and Oracle, there are 15-20 competitors with niches in the
market.

Hardware
UAE computer hardware sales including PCs, notebooks and accessories are forecast at
US$2.0bn in 2012, with slower growth than in 2011. The segment is forecast to grow at a CAGR
of 7% between 2012 and 2016 in US dollar terms.
In 2011, electronics retailers reported double-digit annualised growth fuelled by price cuts. An
influx of tourists has also boosted spending on consumer electronics goods, although, in the
wake of the Dubai financial crisis, access to credit remains a constraint on domestic consumer
demand. Migrations to the
Windows 7 operating system and product innovation could help to trigger new cycles of
hardware upgrades.

Software
Hardware
UAE computer hardware sales including PCs, notebooks and accessories are forecast at
US$2.0bn in 2012, with slower growth than in 2011. The segment is forecast to grow at a CAGR
of 7% between 2012 and 2016 in US dollar terms.
In 2011, electronics retailers reported double-digit annualised growth fuelled by price cuts. An
influx of tourists has also boosted spending on consumer electronics goods, although, in the
wake of the Dubai financial crisis, access to credit remains a constraint on domestic consumer
demand. Migrations to the Windows 7 operating system and product innovation could help to
trigger new cycles of hardware upgrades.
Forecast for the UAE IT market over the next five years to 2018 to reflect the increasing
downward pressure on PC sales, especially in the consumer segment where desktops and
notebooks are being cannibalized by more mobile form factors such as smart phone and tablets.
Investments in high capacity servers for data centers to be a key growth driver in the hardware
division of the IT market. This will, in turn, boost value growth in the software and services
sectors, with cloud-based services expected to grow rapidly during our forecast period.
Meanwhile, the anticipated uptick in investments and visitors into the country in the run-up to
2020 World Trade Expo poses a significant upside risk to growth forecast. We expect
government agencies and private companies, especially those in consumer-centric industries
such as aviation, retail and hospitality to invest in IT solutions to improve their operations and
services in preparation for the 2020 Expo.


I ndustry Analysis
Global I nformation Technology Market
The information technology (IT) market is both a huge industry in itself and the source of
dramatic changes in business practices in all other sectors. The term IT covers a number of
related disciplines and areas, from semiconductor design and production, through hardware
manufacture (mainframes, servers, PCs, and mobile devices), to software, data storage,
backup and retrieval, networking, and, of course, the internet.
The term "information technology" in its modern sense first appeared in a 1958 article
published in the Harvard Business Review; authors Leavitt and Whisler commented that "the
new technology does not yet have a single established name. We shall call it information
technology (IT).
The term has been defined as "the study, design, development, application, implementation,
support or management of computer-based information systems." IT is a branch of
engineering dealing with the use of computers and telecommunications equipment to store,
retrieve, transmit and manipulate data.
Electronic computers, using either relays or valves, began to appear in the early 1940s. The
electromechanical use Z3, completed in 1941, was the world's first programmable computer,
and by modern standards one of the first machines that could be considered a complete
computing machine.
Colossus, developed during the Second World War to decrypt German messages was the first
electronic digital computer, but although programmable it was not general-purpose, being
designed for a single task. Neither did it store its programs in memory; programming was
carried out using plugs and switches to alter the internal wiring.
The first recognisably modern electronic digital stored-program computer was the Manchester
Small-Scale Experimental Machine (SSEM), which ran its first program on 21 June 1948.

Market Analysis
Summary of sectors within the Global Information Technology Market
Market Segment
(Global)
Current Market
Value ($)
Compound
Annual Growth
Rate (%)
Predicted Market Value
($)
Internet of Things
(IOT) Market
44bn (2012) 30.1 290bn (2017)
Organic Light-
Emitting Diode
(OLED) Market
4.9bn (2012) 32.6 20.3bn (2017)
Application Server
Market
7.0bn (2011) 17.0 21.2bn (2018)
Memory Integrated 62.0bn (2012) 6.3 85bn (2018)
Summary of sectors within the Global Information Technology Market
Market Segment
(Global)
Current Market
Value ($)
Compound
Annual Growth
Rate (%)
Predicted Market Value
($)
Circuit Market
Electronics Contract
Manufacturing
Market
435bn (2012) 9.0 670bn (2018)
Analog Integrated
Circuit Market
20.41bn (2012) 9.0 31.35bn (2016)
Light-Emitting
Diodes (LEDs)
Market
19.5bn (2012) 9.9 31.4bn (2017)
Surface Acoustic
Wave Sensors
Market
1.1bn (2011) 11.8 1.8bn (2016)
Chipless RFID
Market
1,087mn (2011) 29.3 3,925mn (2016)
Service Robotics
Market
20.73bn (2012) 17.4 46.18bn (2017)
Conformal Coatings
Market
8.5bn (2012) 1.0 9.0bn (2017)
Summary of sectors within the Global Information Technology Market
Market Segment
(Global)
Current Market
Value ($)
Compound
Annual Growth
Rate (%)
Predicted Market Value
($)
Cyber Security
Market
63.7bn (2011) 11.3 120.1bn (2017)
Software Defined
Networking Market
198bn (2012) 60.43 2.10bn (2017)
Industrial Wireless
Sensor Networks
Market
1.610bn (2011) 15.58 3.795bn (2017)
Pico Projectors
Market
0.49bn (2011) 75 8.12bn (2016)

Global spending on the information technology market is expected to have hit the US$3.6
trillion mark during 2011, rising 5.6% on the previous year.
The global IT services market has been forecast to grow at a compound annual growth rate
(CAGR) of 5% over the next five years, to reach a market value of US $1,147 billion by
2017.
Growth in global hardware spending in 2011 was predicted to be 11.7% over the 2010 spend
of US$375 billion. This is slightly behind the 12.1% growth achieved in 2010, by comparison
with the spend for 2009, but it represents a significant upward revision on an earlier
prediction of growth of 9.5% for the hardware segment in 2011.
The world healthcare IT market is expected to grow from $99.6 billion in 2010 to $162.2
billion in 2015, at a CAGR of 10.2% from 2010 to 2015. Need to cut healthcare costs,
enhance clinical/administrative workflow of hospitals, and huge demand for faster, error-free,
efficient healthcare delivery, is fuelling the healthcare provider IT market worldwide.
Furthermore, the initiatives taken by the government for adoption of healthcare IT systems
globally are also a significant driving force.
One of the biggest growth areas in the information technology market is computer services. In
2010 the total global spend on services amounted to US$793 billion. This value was predicted
to have risen by 6.6% through 2011 to US$846 billion, up two percentage points on the
forecast it made in March 2011.
Cloud computing continues to be a major factor in corporate spending, which is not surprising
when one considers that "the cloud" encompasses servers, storage, networking, and
application services. Spending on cloud computing in 2011 was predicted to increase four
times faster than IT spending overall.
Worldwide spending on "public cloud" services was around US$74 billion in 2010,
comprising some 2% of overall IT spending. This value was anticipated to rise to US$89
billion in 2011, an increase of 20%. By 2015 this spend will have almost doubled, reaching
US$177 billion. This will amount to around 5% of total global IT spend.
Computer gaming is becoming an ever-more-important sector of the information technology
market. Global spending on gaming will exceed US$74 billion in 2011, up 10.4% from 2010.
Of this, software will be worth some US$44.7 billion while the rest is taken up by "the
gaming eco-system," which comprises high-end gaming PCs and the online environment for
online games, which are expected to be a major growth segment to 2015.
The United States has the most advanced information technology industry in the world. There
are more than 100,000 software and information technology (IT) services companies in the
US, and over 99% are small and medium-sized firms (i.e. under 500 employees). This total
includes software publishers, suppliers of custom computer programming services, computer
systems design firms and facilities management companies. The industry draws on a highly
educated and skilled US workforce of nearly 2 million people, which has continued to grow
over the past decade.
The market holds significant opportunities for industry players due to increasing IT spending
in the healthcare, retail, and transportation sectors.
Furthermore, the increasing global demand for systems, software, and services, as well as IT
spending by governments, and the banking and financial sectors are likely to boost the global
IT services market.
In 2011 Apple's Mac platform passed a global market share of 5% for the first time in 15
years. This is suggested to be down to strong growth from the Asia-Pacific region, with China
becoming Apple's second largest market for Macs. Mac shipment growth outpaced the PC
market in the third quarter of 2011 for the 22nd straight quarter. Apple's growth of 24.6%
currently dwarfs the 5.3% growth seen by PC shipments in the same quarter.
Despite 22 consecutive quarters of Apple Macs outpacing PCs in terms of shipments,
Microsoft Windows still holds by far the largest market share of the global operating systems
industry, with 84.51%. Mac is a clear second place, with 14.35%, while Linux has 0.77% of
the market.
Despite having released two newer versions of its operating system, Windows XP, released in
2001, is still the highest used OS out of the Microsoft Windows suite, with 41.36% of
Windows users using it. Windows 7 is a close second with 39.82%, while Windows Vista
trails in third place with 17.42%.

Key Industry Players
Microsoft Corporation
Microsoft Corporation is engaged in developing, licensing and supporting a range of software
products and services. It also designs and sells hardware, and delivers online advertising to
the customers. It has five segments: Windows & Windows Live Division (Windows
Division), Server and Tools, Online Services Division (OSD), Microsoft Business Division
(MBD), and Entertainment and Devices Division (EDD).
IBM
International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an information technology (IT)
company. The Company operates under five segments: Global Technology Services (GTS),
Global Business Services (GBS), Software, Systems and Technology, and Global Financing.
GTS primarily provides IT infrastructure services and business process services.
Apple Inc.
Apple Inc. along with its subsidiaries is engaged in designs, manufactures and markets mobile
communication and media devices, personal computers, and portable digital music players,
and sells a range of related software, services, peripherals, networking solutions, and third-
party digital content and applications. The Company's products and services include iPhone,
iPad, Mac, iPod, Apple TV, a portfolio of consumer and professional software applications,
the iOS and Mac OS X operating systems, iCloud, and a range of accessory, service and
support offerings.
Dell Inc.
Dell Incis a technology company that offers a range of technology product categories,
including mobility products, desktop personal computers (PCs), software and peripherals,
servers and networking products, storage and services. Its services include a range of
configurable information technology and business services, including infrastructure
technology, consulting and applications, and product-related support services.

Main Future Trends
Faster, more powerful and cheaper: Hardware, networks, and software will become faster,
more powerful and cheaper in the next couple of years. This prediction can basically be found by
extrapolation. For instance, hardware is providing more and more power at decreasing prices.
This observation was precised by Gordon Moore of Intel who showed that the cost-effectiveness
of microchip technology doubles every 18 months. Within our prediction scope of five to ten
years,

Networks as well as software show similar progress: Currently, the available bandwidth
quadruples approximately every 1.5 years. However, software improvements are rather difficult
to quantify. But regardless the kind of software you consider, you can notice an enormous
progress in the last decades. For instance, consider the history of databases, starting out with
hierarchical and network-based databases and ending up with relational and object-oriented
databases. Or the development of office software bundles, beginning with simple text editors and
ending up with very complex multi-user editors for text, presentations, databases, calculations,
and so on.














INTRODUCTION












The term information technology (IT), sometimes called information and communications
technology or ICT, encompasses a vast range of activities. These include:
computer programming;
computer consultancy;
computer gaming;
computer networking activities;
computing facilities management;
data processing;
data hosting activities;
internet service provision;
telecommunications;
web portals.
Excerpt from Information Technology Services Report
Companies in this industry provide services such as software support, computer systems design,
and data processing facilities management. Major companies include Computer Sciences
Corporation, Unisys, and the technology consulting arms of IBM and Hewlett-Packard (all based
in the US), along with Cap Gemini (France), Fujitsu (Japan), Infosys (India), and IT-Systems
International (Germany).
Competitive Landscape
Demand for IT services is driven by rapid technological advances, but spending depends on the
health of the US economy. The profitability of companies depends on technical expertise,
innovative services, and effective marketing. Large companies have advantages in broad service
offerings and global reach, which give them the ability to provide outsourcing services to big
corporate customers. Small companies can compete effectively by specializing in market niches
or by partnering with larger companies that want to broaden their mix of services. The US
industry is fragmented: the 50 largest companies account for about 40 percent of revenue.
Products, Operations & Technology
Computer systems design, development, and integration services account for about 35 percent of
industry revenue; application design and development services, 25 percent; and technical
support, 10 percent. IT services companies help clients use computers, software, and
communications systems more efficiently. In addition to providing advice on using computer
systems, they frequently recommend hardware and software systems to their customers. Firms
provide a variety of associated services, including business function outsourcing, data
warehousing, systems planning, enterprise resource planning, and training

The sector is highly innovative and subject to constant technological development. It is also the
source of dramatic changes in business practices in all other industrial sectors. Consumers and
businesses now expect to be able to communicate with each other instantly and IT has driven
huge increases in productivity in recent decades. A process of convergence has also been
underway for some time between IT and telephony, driven by transforming voice traffic from an
analogue signal to a digital packet, indistinguishable from other data packets travelling through a
computer network.
Cloud computing services are now providing yet another catalyst for ICT convergence, and a
revolution in the way businesses operate. Telecommunications carriers are gradually moving IT
systems and internet data centers into the cloud, while uniform standards are being developed to
speed rapid cloud development. One of the main advantages of cloud computing for businesses
is that they no longer need to buy or maintain expensive and energy-draining servers. IT
administration, including licensing issues, software updates, and IT security management, is
looked after by the cloud computing provider. Cloud computing also allows a dispersed
workforce to work effectively, and collaborate easily, even if they are stretched around the globe.
Infrastructure as a service (IaaS) adoption—the most basic and fundamental form of cloud
computing service—has expanded beyond development and test use cases, the company said.
The Gartner survey found that 19% of organizations are using cloud computing for most of their
production computing, and 20% percent are using storage as a service for all, or most, storage
requirements. Gartner surveyed 556 organizations, between June and July 2012, across nine
countries and multiple industries where cloud planning is a critical issue.
One other key trend is the integration of smart devices, which is changing the way consumers
use their home devices (television sets, smart phone, and personal computers or PCs), and
blurring the boundaries between these formerly separate industries. As a result of advances in
smart phone and tablets, consumers are increasingly using these devices to access the internet.
The difference between mobile phones and tablets is also blurring, with phones becoming mobile
computers rather than simply a device for making calls or sending text messages.
Software subdivides into numerous specialist areas, from relational database technologies to
enterprise applications, to ―horizontal‖ office applications characterized by Microsoft Office, for
example.
Somewhat off the main track of IT at present, but very much related to both increases in
processor power, and to work in simulation and artificial intelligence, is the field of robotics.
This lies outside the scope of this profile, but the linkages between robotics and IT are already
transforming both manufacturing and defense.
In addition, the IT arena is characterized by a number of key trends and emerging technologies
which, again, have the potential to transform the way businesses currently use IT and carry out
their operations, for example, outsourcing IT services, such as desktop PC support, or whole IT-
supported functions, such as accounts processing. In technology, the trend to virtualization refers
to the ability of large servers to be subdivided into a number of virtual machines, which can be
either virtual PCs or virtual servers.
Virtualization carries with it a number of benefits, including stopping what, at one stage, looked
like an endless proliferation of servers inside companies. Splitting one large server into a number
of virtual servers enables the organization to reduce the number of servers it has to
manage. Server virtualization should not be confused with another powerful trend: the creation
of virtual environments inside the machine. The fact that desktop processors are now powerful
enough to mimic real-world physics in computer space is transforming both design and
entertainment.





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ORGANISATIONAL PROFILE








Vision
To be the first choice in the realm of Information Technology by providing innovative and
efficient solutions to exceed expectations.
Mission
Deliver the world’s best Information and communications resolutions that enable business to
outrival.
About EDGE
EDGE Information Technology and Communications (ICT) is one of the information
technology integrators involved in Middle East, India and United States Of America. EDGE has
building software and Information Technology and Communications infrastructure solutions for
many companies across the region. Edge is a comprehensive solution provider, helping their
clients plan, build, manage and support their Information Technology infrastructures through a
wide range of solutions that include software networks ,voice, video, data centers, storage and
security to name a few.
EDGE Information Technology and Communications is a Technology and Communications
solution partner provides technology solutions to spanning a range of verticals. EDGE has
extended its presence to India, USA and Middle East as well. EDGE actively Technology and
Communications Infrastructure solution Virtualization and cloud computing solutions, Hardware
,Data Centre Management Services, Information Technology and Communications services and
business process outsourcing for a variety of industry verticals including Insurance, Banking,
capital markets, Mutual Funds & Asset Management, Wealth Management, Government,
Manufacturing and Retail Management. These solutions and services include managed
Information Technology services, Application Software Development & maintenance, Payment
Solutions ,Business Intelligence, Document Imaging & Digitization ,Information Technology
Consulting and various processing services.


Products
EDGE Information Technology and communications technology is comprehensive service
oriented Information, communication and communication and security technology solution
providers.
EDGE delivers comprehensive Information, Communication security and software solutions
Servers and storage
Pc’s and Desktops
Laptops
Printing and plotting products
Customized and patented software products
Active and passive networking products
Antivirus and Information Technology Adaptive Security Appliances
Mobile Technology Products
Cloud and Grid Computing
Medical/Mobile clinical Assistance
E-menu Products
Physical and Digital Product
Web Site Design, Hosting, and Domain Registration
IP and Digital Communication Products
SMS Marketing Services
Information Technology infrastructure services
o Network Management Solution
o Disaster recovery & Business Continuity
o Infrastructure Management Solution
o Information Technology Management
o Data Mining and Business Intelligence
o Surveillance and Digital Signage
o Data Centre Management
o Remote Infrastructure Management
o Queue Management Systems
o Audio Virtual and PA Solution


Software Solution
Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP)
A complete Software solution for advance business world
EDGE has over 200 Installation across the globe,a tailor made solution for medium and large
organization
Hospital Information Management
A prescription for effective Hospital Management
Industry accredited award winning Medical ERP
Presently over five million patient records and 8000 users handles 20,000 out patients and 12000
in patients per day, Consistent performance for more than 10 years across Middle East,Far East
,India and other other regions with more than 2000 readily reports.
Hotel Information Management Solution
An ultimate solution for effective Hospital Management
Presently over 12 million records and 12000 users across India, Middle East,Far East and Africa
per day.
Consistent performance for more than 11 years with over 4500+ readily reports.
Warehouse Management solution
A single window solution for warehouse Management.
Presently over 12 million records and 12000 users across India, Middle East,Far East and Africa
per day.
Consistent performance for more than 11 years with over 4500+ readily reports.
Jewelry Management solution
A 916 accurate & efficient solution jewelry
Trading Management Solution
100% Accurate computerized Business solution

Cabling Solution
Copper and Fiber Structured Cabling Systems
Industrial Optical Fiber Cabling Systems
Telecommunication Multi Pair Cabling Solution
Hardware and Networking
Storage & Backup Solution
Telecom and Communication
Wireless Computing Solution
Cloud and Virtual Computing
Server Management
Data Capturing and Archiving Solution
Document Management Solution
Virtual Desktop Infrastructure Solution
Telecom and Unified Communication
IP Phone Solution
PABX Solution
Security and Surveillance
Information Technology Security Consultation
Information Technology treat Management analysis
Identify & Access Control Management
Intelligent Traffic Management systems
Digital Forensic Solution
Building Management Solution
Surveillance Solution







CEO
Business
Coordinators
Business
Coordinator 1
Business
Coordinator 2
Business
Coordinator3
IT Head
Accounts
Head
Accountant
Hierarchical Structure
A hierarchical organization follows the layout of a pyramid. Every employee in the organization,
except one, usually the CEO, is subordinate to someone else within the organization. The layout
consists of multiple entities that descend into the base of staff level employees, who sit at the
bottom of the pyramid.
Advantages of Hierarchical Structure
• Employees recognize defined levels of leadership within the organization; authority and levels
of responsibility are obvious.
• Opportunities for promotion motivate employees to perform well.
• Hierarchical structures promote developing employees as specialists. Employees may narrow
their field of focus and become experts in specific functions.
• Employees become loyal to their departments and look out for the best interest of their area.

The Organisational heirachy shows that the CEO is at the top level followed by Information
Technology department Head,Accounts Head,Sales Head.
Each individual reports to their respective superiors following unity chain of command.Under
sales department team there are three business coordinators.
Each business coordinators needs to make their own targets every month and more than
benchmark would be awarded with commission in cash.















RESEARCH METHODOLOGY










Aim
-To study about organization behavior and its atmosphere
-To study about the accounting techniques of EDGE
-To know about accounting treatment for bounced cheques and any other corrections
-How to face competition inside the organization
-How to face competition outside the organization
-How to generate sales
-How to maintain customer relationtionships
-To learn the theoretical part of the textbooks in a practical manner
-To learn about wages protection system implementation
-To enter into sort of training through on and off the training methods
-To learn about the the financial statements
-To learn about previous years and current years position of the company.








Data Sources
Primary data: This report has prepared through extensive use of primary data. It is collected
from group of people who are related with this bank. The following methods are used in
collecting primary data. These are
a) Direct interviewing: I have collected data from the business coordinates,cheif executive,
accountant .From the business coordinate I have learnt about

 the way of sales to be done,
 customer relationship,
 followup after meetings,
 Followup after sales,
 Pricing
 Quotation
 Sending Of Profile Of Company

From the Chief Executive I have learnt about

 The market analysis
 The way of approaching customers
 The way of approaching meetings
 How to track customers
 The way of how staff are being appointed
 The way of salary payment

From the Accountant I have learnt about

 Accounting by Quickbook
 Accounting aspect-Bank Reconcilation Statement
 Reentering Of Dates which is wrongly entered
 Preparing Invoice
 Preparing Of Deliver Notes
 Accounting Treatment Of Goods Received In
 Accounting Treatment Of Fixed Assets
 Accounting Treatment Of Accounts Receivables
 Accounting Treatment Of Accounts Payable
 To identify any double entries that may change the whole motive


b) Personal communication:
I have gathered information through personal communication with the Information Technology
officers, executives, business coordinates and accountant of the organisation .Through personal
communication the various ideas were exchanged as different people at various levels possess
different skills ,ideas ,knowedge.


c) Observation method: I went to every department of organisation and observe their
activities.Through this I learnt:

To prepare quotation

To prepare invoice

To prepare for meetings

To prepare for interview of candidates

How to approach customers

How to avoid conflicts

How to conduct meetings


Secondary data: Secondary sources are those which are published or processed materials. I have
collected secondary data from the following sources-
1. Various types of official documents including Profile of company
2. Some published research report, books, journal and articles
3. Minutes Of meetings
4. File study, some books on Accouting.
5. Company sites


Limitations

1) Period
Period Of Internship was too short unable to discover and learn new things
2) Lack Of certainity
The accounting information is not yet audited.So it is unaware whether the entered transactions
are accurate.
3 )Avoiding Publishing
The disclosing of Information related to accounts and other matter was not entertained even to
students .So it did not help in practicing after internship.
4)New atmosphere
The organisations other than EDGE including its competitors do not follow the same manner as
EDGE.Its different.So when an individual does internship in this organization, he might find
difficulty to cope up with other organisations after getting trained in EDGE.













ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION










SWOT analysis
SWOT analysis is a very flexible tool. The SWOT analysis is an extremely useful tool for
understanding and decision-making for all sorts of situations in business and organizations.
SWOT is an acronym for Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats. The SWOT analysis
headings provide a good framework for reviewing strategy, position and direction of a company
or business proposition, or any other idea.
Purpose of a SWOT analysis

The overall purpose of a SWOT analysis is to examine the internal and external factors that help
or hinder your department in achieving each of your objectives. It can be used as a brainstorming
tool, simply to see how you (and perhaps some people outside of your department) see your
department. It can also be used very effectively in the early stages of a program assessment, to
help focus your attention on key areas.
Conducting a SWOT analysis


Keys to a successful SWOT analysis are to use it in the context of a particular objective and to
get input from a wide variety of perspectives. One way to manage that is to do it as a Gallery
Walk. However you go about it, you want to establish an environment in which everyone
involved feels free to offer their point of view.
Some example questions to ask:
Strengths
 What are we good at?
 What resources do we have (personnel, space, equipment, other)?
 Who are our allies/partners, in the institution or elsewhere?
 Are we competitive with our peers (other STEM departments on campus, or other
geoscience departments at peer institutions)?
Weaknesses
 What are we not doing well, that we should be?
 What resources do we need, but lack?
 What annoys, frustrates, or disappoints our students, colleagues, or other constituents
(alumni, potential employers of our students, prospective students, etc.)?
 What are our peers (other STEM departments on campus, or other geoscience departments
at peer institutions) doing better than we are?
Opportunities
 What changes can we expect in the coming years, on campus or in a broader context? Can
we contribute in a positive way?
Threats
 What are other departments doing that we aren't?
 What changes can we expect in the coming years, on campus or in a broader context, that
will negatively impact us?

Strengths
 End-user sales control and direction.
 Right products, quality and reliability.
 Superior product performance vs
competitors.
 Better products life and durability.
 Some staff have experience of end-user
sector.
 Have customer lists.
 Direct delivery capability.
 Products innovations ongoing.
 Can serve from existing websites.
 Products have required accreditations.
 Processes and IT should cope.
 Management is committed and
confident.
 Can supply products and services abroad

Weaknesses
 Customer lists not tested.
 We would be a small player.
 No direct marketing experience.
 Need more sales people.
 Limited budget.
 No pilot or trial or sampling done yet.
 Don't have a detailed plan yet.
 Delivery-staff need training.
 Customer service staff need training.
 Management cover insufficient.

opportunities
 Could develop new products.
 Local competitors have poor service.
 Profit margins will be good.
 End-users respond to new ideas.
 Could extend to overseas.
Threats
 Clients may not prefer considering
organization being small
 Existing core business distribution risk.
 Market demand very seasonal.
 Retention of key staff critical.
 Could distract from core business.
 New specialist applications.
 Can surprise competitors.
 Support core business economies.
 Could seek better supplier deals.
 Generate new clients

 Possible negative publicity.
 Vulnerable to reactive attack by major
competitors.












Learning from Internship
Week 1
On the very first day I was introduced to the business coordinators and a training session was
given based on sales and marketing and to the accounting (management accounting) department
as I am doing specialization in accounting.
As a part of the training session I was asked to learn about the different products that company
trades in.I was provided with different documents that helped me to understand the products and
services better
a) Cannovate
The company mainly focused on the brand cannovate which produces and sells printers
,servers.The description of the product,the features including the size is mentioned in the
book.
b) Organisation Profile Catalogue
The organization profile catalogue explains what any individual when reads it
understands what is the company’s status and what are their products and services .
c) Quickbooks guide
The quickbooks guide software helped to operate the quickbooks software in a well
efficient manner.It explained about various accounting treatments for cash, cheques, bills
receivable, bills payable,treatment for fixed assets,treatment for current assets


Week2
The Duty was to call the companies in U.A.E from Abu Dhabi chamber website.The main idea is
to introduce the company to other companies which require IT.We start by introducing our
products and services and fix with them a meeting. A company profile is sent introducing about
ourselves(self) along with our major experiences and projects.
Different filings were to be made in different folder classifying between vendors and suppliers
and bank statements and credit card statements.
 Invoices (receivables) billed to your customers - file in numerical order, most recent on top.
 Unpaid (payables) bills (File in folders by A-Z supplier name) and put the items within the
account folders in order by date due (take discounts if some suppliers give a discount for paying
within a certain number of days) -- place all unpaid supplier bills outstanding in this folder.
 Paid (expenses) bills (File A-Z by supplier name) -- place all paid bills in this folder.
 Bank statements - file in date order - most recent on top, keep credit card statements in this
folder too.
 Petty Cash records of expenses - put receipts into an envelope, mark the envelope 'by month' and
put the total amount of the receipts onto the envelope. Hole punch the envelope and file in Month
order.


Week3
Meetings
Before the meeting a meeting request is sent to the company IT head. When that individual
accepts it,we attend the meeting we discuss about our major products and services we have done
so far.The main idea is to find out what requirements regarding IT they have or may require in
future.If there are no IT requirements then we put forward our proposal.
Two instances
1)At a private 5 star hotel they were using server which had only basic features.Actually they
were using it for a long time with periodic backups.There we introduced the new server with
advanced features which they were interested to know about it.A quotation was then asked by
them and was sent to them later.
2)At another private hotel it was seen that they were requiring phones in each department.But it
was also found that they were using common small printers for each computer which is very
expensive.We suggested them the idea of a common wireless printer with scanner and copier and
fax which can be used at a common place by everyone. A quotation was then asked by them and
was sent to them later.
Our company got both the deals.We have also given the task of upcoming dubai project of a
hotel and another hotel which is just undergoing construction ;all the IT related to that hotel.
Week 4
Accounts
The Quickbooks software was used.
First the records of purchases from supplier,customer was categorized company wise.
Secondly the date of cheques were entered when it was paid;it was corrected to date issued.
Third,the items when bought as inventory which is to be sold was entered.
The items which are part of company were entered as fixed assets
The following were recorded
>Payment
>Payment received
>Purchasing from each vendor
>Sales to each customer
>Payments Of Courier Charges
>Payments Of Inward charges
>Journal entries
>correcting Of balances of bank balance (reports prepared by Quickbooks Software)
> Entering invoices


Quotation
The quotation includes the aspects like why edge and
1)our innovations
2)Quality policy Of EDGE
3)Maintainance
Warranty
Damage/Loss
Change Of Ownership/Location
Force Majeure
Arbitration
Response time
Emergency response
Failure of equipment
Travel expenses
Transparency
Payment methods
Prerequisite
Project management methods
Project closeout
Renewals Of contract
Risk Management
EDGE Support Details
Coverage/Response
Availability after working hours
Parts Replacement





A proforma of Quotation is enclosed
No Model Description Unit
Quantity
Quantity Unit Price Total
Price



Week 5
The setting of wages protection system and sending it to the bank. Wages Protection System
(WPS) is an electronic salary transfer system that allows institutions to pay workers’ wages via
banks, bureaux de change, and financial institutions approved and authorized to provide the
service.
Joining WPS requires:

1. The company needs to be registered with the Ministry;
2. The company should have a bank account with one of the banks operating in the
UAE;
3. The company should enter into contract with any bank, bureau de change or
financial institution approved and authorized by the Central Bank of the UAE to
provide the service. The two parties shall agree on any service fees and charges.
4. Workers’ wages will be transferred via WPS by the deadlines specified in the
Ministerial Resolution No. 788 of 2009.

The system, developed by the Central Bank of the UAE, allows the Ministry of Labour to create
a database that records wage payments in the private sector to guarantee the timely and full
payment of agreed-upon wages.

The WPS covers all institutions registered with the Ministry across all sectors and industries and
will benefit different categories of labour.
The WPS applying mechanism is as below:

The company shall open an account with one of the banks operating in the
country, in case it doesn’t have one upon joining the WPS system;
The company shall enter into contract with a WPS agent that is approved and
authorized by the Central Bank of the UAE to provide this service, here the agent
is Al Ansari Exchange; a certain amount is deposited with them for payment of
salary.
The organization shall issue instructions to its bank to transfer wages to workers.
Instructions shall be accompanied by a detailed wages list and a copy of the list
shall be sent to the agent.The list includes basic pay(the amount shown in visa
contract) and variable pay(commissions if any).I was entitled to prepare the list
and get it signed from the superior and send it .

The WPS will send workers' details and wages as well as the salary transfer
instructions electronically to the Central Bank of the UAE, who will then forward
those details to the Ministry of Labour database in order to make sure that the
details received correspond with those registered with the Ministry;
The WPS will send the approved information to Al Ansari in order to start
paying the wages.





Debit Credit
Increase in asset accounts Decrease in asset accounts
Increase in expense accounts Decrease in expense accounts

Decrease in liability accounts Increase in liability accounts
Decrease in equity accounts Increase in equity accounts
Decrease in revenue accounts Increase in revenue accounts

Journalizing Transactions
Analyzing transactions and recording them as journal entries is the first step in the accounting
cycle. It begins at the start of an accounting period and continues during the whole period.
Transaction analysis is a process which determines whether a particular business event has an
economic effect on the assets, liabilities or equity of the business. It also involves ascertaining
the magnitude of the transaction i.e. its currency value.
After analyzing transactions, accountants classify and record the events having economic effect
via journal entries according to debit-credit rules. Frequent journal entries are usually recorded in
specialized journals, for example, sales journal and purchases journal. The rest are recorded in a
general journal.
QuickBooks has a General Journal Entry window that you can use for special transactions (such
as selling a depreciated asset) or for all transactions if you prefer the traditional system.
Process
Also, when you enter a transaction directly into an asset, liability, or equity account register,
QuickBooks automatically labels the transaction "GENJRNL" in the register and "General
Journal" on reports that list transactions.
With general journal entries in QuickBooks, managers and accountants can record transactions,
or transfers of amounts between accounts. To add a general journal entry, choose "Company,"
then "Make General Journal Entries" within the QuickBooks interface. From there you can enter
the details of the entry, including which accounts the data is associated with, the debit or credit in
question, any customers, employees or others associated with the data, and other optional
information.







LEARNING FROM INTERNSHIP

Professional Skills
The internship provided me a hands-on chance to apply the education and knowledge that
gained in graduation, it also helped me to strengthen my professional skills. Transferable skills
like communication, teamwork, professional etiquette and work ethic can usually only be
developed through actual experience. In internship I learnt through feedback and correction
offered by your superior, it improved my skills before you dive into future career.
Have an Edge in the Job Market
Employers are usually more concerned with the work experience than our qualifications and
internships are often the only way to get the work experience in need to secure a job, so they're a
vital part of your resume. Many employers prefer or require applicants who have done an
internship or relevant work experience and in many of the more competitive job markets it is
essential to set an individual apart from the others.
Information Technology Market
Internships helped in understanding of Information Technology in the market.Its contribution
towards economy and market share and demand of customers and how the future of Information
Tehnology would be.

Networking Opportunities (within the organization)
Internships are a great way to meet people in different fields within the organization. Even if you
have experience, knowing people is always a benefit. An internship allows to meet people who
will help me land a job later on and give the contacts in the industry you’re trying to break into.
Plus, references from people in the industry will really add weight to the application.

Apply Classroom Knowledge
An internship can be seen as the pinnacle of an undergraduate education and gave me the chance
to use the skills you've learned in the classroom in a real-world setting. It’s a chance to prove the
worth of your qualifications and to show that you can perform in the role you've been given.
Gain Confidence
Getting experience is a great way to build your confidence. What's more, I have an impressive
resume, and I am more confident in chances of securing a job at any level and anywhere. After
done with internship, if an interviewer asks if me to do something, I can say ―absolutely" and
supplement my assertion with examples.
Time management skills
To be an effective employee and successful one must be able to manage his time efficiently. In the workplace
however it can be quite different, often with a much higher tempo of tasks needing to be completed and usually
unforeseen variations during the day. I used the opportunity of an internship to learn new techniques of how to
manage your time better.

Attending meetings
Attending Internal meetings was a new experience.I was asked to write down the minutes which
is an important task in a meeting.Meetings are always an important part as it helps in each
departments employees knowing about the matters of each department,external aspects of
organization.Moreover how decision making takes place can be known.The minutes which I had
written down ,I believe it would be a good training for me and a future reference to the
organization.

















CONCLUSION





It is seen that Information Technology sector is growing and expected to grow by 60% in the
coming years. Digital technologies and connectivity are transforming the world around us.
Information technologies are at the core of widespread democratization of innovation. The
impact is being felt across all sectors and continents. The potential to tackle the grand challenges
of our time, such as providing access to health and education, all Information Technology
accepted have been given a new lease of life.
Through the internship I learnt how to behave in an organisation,accounting aspects like Bank
reconciliation statements,journalizing,ledger posting, market of Information Technology
Sector,customer management and wages protection system. EDGE has given me enough
knowledge,skills to be a good employee in my future career and maintain it throughout.
The study was based on primary and secondary sources of data. Primary data was collected
through means of direct interview,observation,personal communication where as secondary data
included the Various types of official documents including Profile of company , published
research report, books, journal and articles, Minutes Of meetings ,File study, some books on
Accouting,Company sites.










RECOMMENDATIONS
1)Develop the accounting system:
The company’s accounting system is currently at primary level. The organization should make
efforts to use established accounting software for the management of the company’s books of
accounts. The data entries must be up to date such that it must be ready at any time for auditing.
2 )Efforts to analyze competition
The company can make efforts to analyze the competition within the industry so that they can
come up with more innovative ideas to carry out their business and become a leader in their
sector.

3) Expansion
The company should further focus on expanding its customer base to markets which have not yet
been reached by the company.
4) Technology
Even with existing technologies, it’s necessary to find important niche areas that perceive great
value. The value of these technologies can be generalized and become the norm.







Information Technology (IT) is very powerful in today’s world, and financial institutions
are the backbone of the Indian economy. Indian Banking Industry today is in the midst of
an IT revolution. Nearly, all the nationalised banks in India are going for information
technology based solutions. The application of IT in Banks has reduced the scope of
traditional or conventional banking with manual operations. Nowadays banks have
moved from disbursed to a centralised environment, which shows the impact of IT on
banks. Banks are using new tools and techniques to find out their customers need and
offer them tailor made products and services. The impact of automation in banking sector
is difficult to measure.

The literature available to the researcher on the application of Information technology in
Indian banks are classified according to the related topics as mentioned below:
Technological development in banking sector
The technological development in the banking sector began with the use of Advanced Ledger
Posting Machines (ALPM) in the 1980s and nowadays banks are using core banking solution
(CBS) for providing better services to their customers. Over the years several studies have been
conducted both at the industry and academic level to examine the impact of IT on banking
productivity and profitability.
1. Application of IT in banking
2. IT framework for Indian banking
3. Technological developments in cooperative banks
4. Indian banking sector : challenges and opportunities
E-learning in the UAE
E-learning is gaining momentum in the UAE ... "The major demands that urge us to bring in e-
Learning programs are shortage in faculty and staff, the cultural background of male and female
students, and the need to continue education".
E-leaning has become a major priority in the UAE. The launch of the Dubai Electronic
Government in 2001 caused a huge change in the steps directed toward e-learning. Although the
intention of the E-government is mainly to facilitate government works, it facilitates various e-
learning projects in the country such as Dubai Internet City and its Knowledge Village (Karam,
2002).
In line with the current trends to integrate information and communication technologies (ICTs)
in education, UAE emphasizes the need to use technologies in all educational levels. This
emphasis comes in response to the needs to facilitated learning and teaching, and increase access
to learning opportunities.
The Vision 2020 program is one of the reform projects launched by the Ministry of Education in
1998-1999 to improve education in the country. The project underlined strategies to provide
schools with the latest instructional technologies and educational resources to promote self-
leaning with the latest instructional technologies and educational resources to promote self-
learning and continues education programs (Ministry of Education and Youth, 2004).
The IT Education Project (ITEP) was also established in 2001 to complement the efforts for
providing schools with the latest ICT through installing computer labs in all schools in Dubai
and Abu Dhabi as a first stage to be implemented eventually in all other emirates. The project
provided all participating schools with high-speed Internet connections and video conferencing
facilities. In order to support teachers, the ITEP project established IT Academies for teacher
training. Moreover, the project established an online community for learners and educators in the
regions to share knowledge, and an online market for offering products from the world leading
IT companies (IT Portal, 2003).
In additional to that, technology in all colleges and universities in UAE is rapidly becoming a
way of life for learners and educators. Classrooms are equipped with various technologies (i.e.
computers, projectors, smart boards) and wireless cover giving instant access to the Internet and
the World Wide Web.
This access to the Internet provided the base for the development of e-learning. Thus, teachers
and learners in the UAE now possess laptops and use them regularly to meet the learning goals
and development modes of e-leaning (Raj & Bukey, 2002). E-learning in the literature is defined
"as the use of Internet technologies to deliver a broad array of solutions that enhance learning
and training" (Rosenberg, 2001).

This rapid development of the country in the business and the IT industry increased the demand
for innovative leaders with skills, knowledge and experiences who demonstrated leadership,
confidence, and excellent communication. The education system has been required to meet the
needs of a fast development society. Educational institutions, in response, are encouraged to
embrace e-learning programs to provide more flexibility for learning in the country.
Educational technology leads to increased learning and academic performance as well as
increased computer literacy and social skills in students of all ages. While differences in
computer use among different countries were common in the past, with more developed
countries using it, today's educational technology should also be made available to the
developing countries. Regardless of the benefits of computers in the classroom, the problem
remains that teachers are not using this technology. Reasons for this lack of use are unclear.
While some report the lack of availability and access to computers as the reason for teacher non-
use of educational technology, others conclude that teacher beliefs are the problem. Many
teachers continue to believe that computers are not an essential component in student instruction
and learning. To change these views, professional training of teachers must provide experiences
with the potential to alter beliefs.
Since the literature presents inconsistent findings about reasons for the lack of teacher use of
computers and technology in the classroom, more information is needed to fully understand this
issue. A study is needed to determine whether teacher comfort with computer and technology use
is related to their use in the classroom and whether their beliefs about the need for computers and
technology to help students is related to computer use. One of the best ways to find out how a
teacher feels about an issue is to ask them, implying the need for survey research to gather
related data. Further, this study must also determine students` views about what they need to
increase their use of computers and technology in the classroom, barriers to this use, and what
they recommend for a program to help them change beliefs and practices and reach this goal.

Operating systems
The most widely used operating system in either five- or fourstar hotels was clearly MS
Windows. Its usage as an operating system on personal computers as well as on the network
provides a familiar platform, which is also easy to use. In contrast, Novell Netware seemed to
be more prevalent in five-star hotels (52.8%) than in the four-star ones (17.1%). Linux was
also used more widely in five-star hotels (27.8%) than in four-star hotels (12.2%). In
comparison, it was found that the use of UNIX, Mac, AS/400, and RS/600 was overall minimal
in all the hotels included in our sample.
Application software
Similar to the popularity of MS Windows, the most widely used application software was
Microsoft Office for both four-star and five-star hotels. MS Office was slightly more prevalent in
the four-star hotels (84.4%) than the five-star ones (75.0%). FIDELIO was overall the preferred
choice as a property management system in all hotels, though more popular in five-star hotels
(58.3% versus 46.3%). Interestingly, though, DELPHI was much more widely adopted by five-
star hotels (25.0%) than the four-star ones (2.4%). FIDELIO is a DOS-based software package
that is primarily focused on front office management. Among its main features is a customer
relations management application that keeps records of guest preferences and transactions.
FIDELIO also handles catering events, food and beverage quality management as well as yield
management.
IT equipment and services
Both four-star and five-star hotels in the UAE provide a wide range of IT equipment and
services. Business centers seemed to be slightly more prevalent in five-star hotels (94.4%) than in
their four-star counterparts (80.5%). There was, however, a noticeable difference in terms of
voice mail services between the five-star hotels (5.6%) and the four-star ones (63.4%). This
somewhat unexpected result is in striking contradiction with the finding that 88.8% of the five-
star hotels provide teleconferencing services versus 21.9% of the four-star hotels. Intranet
facilities were much more prevalent in five-star hotels (97.2%) than in the four-star ones
(56.1%).
Similarly, web-based systems were more common in five-star than in four-star hotels, although
web-based interactions have become increasingly important in the hotel industry for information
exchange, advertising, reservations, and transaction processing. Yet it was found that web-based
reservations were clearly more in use in five-star hotels (91.7%) than in four-star ones (61.0%).
This was also the case for web-based connections to suppliers and partners (55.6% of five-star
hotels versus only 26.8% of four-star hotels). Personalized web pages were still very much a
five-star hotels’ feature (41.7%) with only 12.2% of the four-star hotels offering such service. As
wireless internet becomes more affordable, it can be observed a higher availability in both five-
star (80.6%) and four-star hotels (73.7%).































Liquidity ratios are the ratios that measure the ability of a company to meet its short term debt
obligations. These ratios measure the ability of a company to pay off its short-term liabilities
when they fall due.
The liquidity ratios are a result of dividing cash and other liquid assets by the short term
borrowings and current liabilities. They show the number of times the short term debt obligations
are covered by the cash and liquid assets. If the value is greater than 1, it means the short term
obligations are fully covered.
Generally, the higher the liquidity ratios are, the higher the margin of safety that the company
posses to meet its current liabilities. Liquidity ratios greater than 1 indicate that the company is
in good financial health and it is less likely fall into financial difficulties.
Most common examples of liquidity ratios include current ratio, acid test ratio (also known as
quick ratio), cash ratio and working capital ratio. Different assets are considered to be relevant
by different analysts. The value of inventory is also considered relevant asset for calculations of
liquidity ratios by some analysts.
The concept of cash cycle is also important for better understanding of liquidity ratios. The cash
continuously cycles through the operations of a company. A company’s cash is usually tied up in
the finished goods, the raw materials, and trade debtors. It is not until the inventory is sold, sales
invoices raised, and the debtors’ make payments that the company receives cash. The cash tied
up in the cash cycle is known as working capital, and liquidity ratios try to measure the balance
between current assets and current liabilities.
A company must posses the ability to release cash from cash cycle to meet its financial
obligations when the creditors seek payment. In other words, a company should posses the
ability to translate its short term assets into cash. The liquidity ratios attempt to measure this
ability of a company.

―Acid-test ratio‖ is also known as quick ratio. The most basic definition of acid-test ratio is
that, ―it measures current (short term) liquidity and position of the company‖. To do the analysis
accountants weight current assets of the company against the current liabilities which result in
the ratio that highlights the liquidity of the company.
The formula for the acid-test ratio is:
Quick ratio = (Current Assets – Inventory) / Current liabilities
This concept is important as if the company’s financial statements ( income statement, balance
sheet) get through the analysis of the acid-test ratio, then the short term debts can be paid by the
company

YEAR
QUICK ASSETS(AED)
TOTAL CURRENT
LIABILITIES(AED)
QUICK RATIO

2009 182,340.00 349,471.00 0.52

2010 274,152.29 1,30,387.00 2.10

2011 2,75,748.54 1,48,813.00 1.85

2012 3,00,352.46 1,74,476.00 1.72

2013 3,09,733.94 1,99,766.00 1.55


YEAR

TOTAL CURRENT ASSETS(AED)
TOTAL CURRENT
LIABILITIES(AED)
CURRENT RATIO
2009

485,303.00 3,49,471.00 1.38
2010

4,65,002.29 1,30,387.00 4.33
2011

3,36,693.54 1,48,813.00 2.26
2012

3,46,334.46 1,74,476.00 1.98
2013

4,06,987.94 199,766.00 2.03









INTERPRATION:
• Table shows that current ratio increases in the year 2009 and 2010 from 1.38 to 4.33 and later in
2011 there is a decline to 2.26. Later again there is a decline in 2012 to 1.98 and again in 2013
there is a growth of 2.52%. This shows that current ratio of the company has not been stable
over the 5 years.
• The current assets increased from 2009-2010 and 2011-2012 which led to the increase in the
current ratio. Whereas the current liabilities increased from 2010-2011 which led to the decline
in current ratio. Similarly, in 2012-2013 the increase in current liabilities led to the decline in
current ratio.
• In 2011, there was a decline of 47% in the current ratio. This was due to the decline of currents
assets by 63% which was more than the growth of 14.13% of current liabilities.
• In 2012, the current ratio declined by 12.3% which was due to the in current assets by 45% and
an increase in current liabilities by 10%.
• In 2013, the current ratio showed a growth of 2.52% due to the increase in current assets by
17.5%.





YEAR
GROWTH IN
CURRENT
ASSETS
GROWTH IN
CURRENT
LIABILITIES
GROWTH IN
CURRENT RATIO

2010 -4.1% -6.2% 213.%

2011 -27.5% 14.13% -47%

2012 2.86% 17% -12.3%

2013 17.5% 14% 2.52%
Debt Management Ratios

Debt Management Ratios attempt to measure the firm's use of Financial Leverage and ability to
avoid financial distress in the long run. These ratios are also known as Long-Term Solvency
Ratios.
Debt is called Financial Leverage because the use of debt can improve returns to stockholders in
good years and increase their losses in bad years. Debt generally represents a fixed cost of
financing to a firm. Thus, if the firm can earn more on assets which are financed with debt than
the cost of servicing the debt then these additional earnings will flow through to the stockholders.
Moreover, our tax law favors debt as a source of financing since interest expense is tax
deductible.
With the use of debt also comes the possibility of financial distress and bankruptcy.The amount
of debt that a firm can utilize is dictated to a great extent by the characteristics of the firm's
industry. Firms which are in industries with volatile sales and cash flows cannot utilize debt to
the same extent as firms in industries with stable sales and cash flows. Thus, the optimal mix of
debt for a firm involves a tradeoff between the benefits of leverage and possibility of financial
distress.
Debt Ratio

A financial ratio that measures the extent of a company’s or consumer’s leverage. The
debt ratio is defined as the ratio of total debt to total assets, expressed in percentage, and can be
interpreted as the proportion of a company’s assets that are financed by debt.
The higher this ratio, the more leveraged the company and the greater its financial risk.
Debt ratios vary widely across industries, with capital-intensive businesses such as utilities and
pipelines having much higher debt ratios than other industries like technology. In the consumer
lending and mortgage businesses, debt ratio is defined as the ratio of total debt service
obligations to gross annual income.






YEAR
TOTAL ASSETS (AED)
TOTAL OWNER'S EQUITY (AED)
DEBT RATIO

2009 3077851 1120808 0.63

2010 5090877.29 4530032.29 0.11

2011 3567649.54 1974273.54 0.44

2012 5173570.46 4783220.46 0.07
2013 7672470.94 5456802.01 0.28








YEAR



GROWTH IN
TOTAL ASSETS




GROWTH IN
OWNER’S
EQUITY




GROWTH
IN DEBT
RATIO

2010 65% 304% -82%

2011 -29% -56% 74%

2012 45% 142% -84%

INTERPRETATION:
• Table shows that the debt ratio has been fluctuating over the years. Initially in 2009 it
was 0.63 then it declined to 0.11 in 2010. Again in 2011, there was an increase in the debt
ratio which was 0.44 further declining to 0.07 in 2012. In 2013 there was again an
increase in debt ratio to 0.28.
• The total owner’s equity increased in 2010 and 2012 which led to the decline in debt ratio
whereas in 2012 and 2013 due to the increase in total assets there was an increase in the
debt ratio.
• In 2010, there was a decline of 82% in debt ratio due to the increase of 304% in total
owner’s equity and a comparatively lesser increase of 70% in total assets.
• In 2010, there was a growth on 74% in debt ratio due to the decline of 56% in total
owner’s equity which was more than the decline of 29% in total assets.
• In 2011, there was again a decline of 50% in debt ratio due to the immense increase of
142% in total owner’s equity which was more than the increase of 73% in total assets.
• In 2013, there was an immense increase of 65% in the debt ratio due to the growth of
48% in total assets and 14% in total owner’s equity.




Debt Equity Ratio
The debt-equity ratio is another leverage ratio that compares a company's total liabilities to its
total shareholders' equity. This is a measurement of how much suppliers, lenders, creditors and
obligors have committed to the company versus what the shareholders have committed.

To a large degree, the debt-equity ratio provides another vantage point on a company's leverage

2013 48% 14% 65%
position, in this case, comparing total liabilities to shareholders' equity, as opposed to total assets
in the debt ratio. Similar to the debt ratio, a lower the percentage means that a company is using
less leverage and has a stronger equity position.
A conservative variation of this ratio, which is seldom seen, involves reducing a company's
equity position by its intangible assets to arrive at a tangible equity, or tangible net worth, figure.
Companies with a large amount of purchased goodwill form heavy acquisition activity can end
up with a negative equity position.

Formula:



YEAR
TOTAL ASSETS (AED)
TOTAL OWNER'S EQUITY (AED) DEBT EQUITY
RATIO

2009 3077851 1120808 1.74

2010 5090877.29 4530032.29 0.12

2011 3567649.54 1974273.54 0.80

2012 5173570.46 4783220.46 0.08
2013 7672470.94 5456802.01 0.40



YEAR
GROWTH IN
TOTAL ASSETS
GROWTH IN
OWNER’S
EQUITY
GROWTH IN
DEBT
EQUITY
RATIO

2010 65% 304% -93%

2011 -29% -56% 74%

2012 45% 142% -90%

2013 48% 14% 400%

INTERPRETATION
The table shows in 2010 and 2012 there is a decline in debt ratios but in 2011 and 2013 there is a
positive growth in debt equity ratio.
As concerned to assets there shows a decline of 29% from 65%.But there shows a growth
percent increase to 45% and from 45% to 48%.
As concerned to owners equity there is decline to 56% in 2011 and in 2012 there is a sudden
growth from 56% to 142% in 2012 and in 2013 there is a decline.


Equity Multiplier
The equity multiplier is a financial leverage ratio that measures the amount of a firm's assets that
are financed by its shareholders by comparing total assets with total shareholder's equity. In other
words, the equity multiplier shows the percentage of assets that are financed or owed by the
shareholders. Conversely, this ratio also shows the level of debt financing is used to acquire
assets and maintain operations.
Like all liquidity ratios and financial leverage ratios, the equity multiplier is an indication of
company risk to creditors. Companies that rely too heavily on debt financing will have high debt
service costs and will have to raise more cash flows in order to pay for their operations and
obligations.
Both creditors and investors use this ratio to measure how leveraged a company is.
Formula
The equity multiplier formula is calculated by dividing total assets by total stockholder's equity.




Analysis
The equity multiplier is a ratio used to analyze a company's debt and equity financing strategy. A
higher ratio means that more assets were funding by debt than by equity. In other words,
investors funded fewer assets than by creditors.
When a firm's assets are primarily funded by debt, the firm is considered to be highly leveraged
and more risky for investors and creditors. This also means that current investors actually own
less of the company assets than current creditors.



Lower multiplier ratios are always considered more conservative and more favorable than higher
ratios because companies with lower ratios are less dependent on debt financing and don't have
high debt servicing costs.

YEAR TOTAL ASSETS (AED)
TOTAL OWNER'S EQUITY (AED)
EQUITY MULTIPLIER

2009 3077851 1120808 2.74

2010 5090877.29 4530032.29 1.12

2011 3567649.54 1974273.54 1.81

2012 5173570.46 4783220.46 1.08

2013 7672470.94 5456802.01 1.40







INTERPRETATION:
• In 2010, the equity multiplier declined by 59% due to the increase of 304% in total
owner’s equity which was greater compared to 65% decline in total assets.
• In 2011, the equity multiplier grew by 61% which was due to the decline in total owner’s
equity which was more than the decline of 29% in total assets.

• In 2012, the equity multiplier again declined by 40% which was due to the increase of
142% in total owner’s equity was greater than the increase of 45% in total assets.
• In 2013, the equity multiplier grew by 29% due to the increase of 48% in total assets and
14% in total owner’s equity.










YEAR



GROWTH IN
TOTAL ASSETS



GROWTH IN
OWNER’S
EQUITY



GROWTH IN
EQUITY
MULTIPLIER

2010 65% 304% -59%

2011 -29% -56% 61%

2012 45% 142% -40%

2013 48% 14% 29%


Asset Management Ratios

Asset Management Ratios attempt to measure the firm's success in managing its assets to
generate sales. For example, these ratios can provide insight into the success of the firm's credit
policy and inventory management. These ratios are also known as Activity or Turnover Ratios.
Receivables Turnover and Days' Receivables
The Receivables Turnover Ratios assess the firm's management of its Accounts Receivables and,
thus, its credit policy. In general, the higher the Receivables Turnover Ratio the better since this
implies that the firm is collecting on its accounts receivables sooner. However, if the ratio is too
high then the firm may be offering too large of a discount for early payment or may have too
restrictive credit terms. The Receivables Turnover Ratio is calculated by dividing Sales by
Accounts Receivables. (Note: since Accounts Receivables arise from Credit Sales it is more
meaningful to use Credit Sales in the numerator if the data is available.)









Growth in Receivables Turnover from 2009-2013

YEAR

SALES (AED)

ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLES
(AED)

RECEIVABLES TURNOVER

2009

2429783

1565205

1.55

2010

6010577

2647878.78

2.26

2011

7857855

1469645

5.35

2012

9459264

3325908.34

2.84

2013

9178458

4497587

2.04




Growth in Receivables Turnover from 2010-2013

YEAR

GROWTH IN SALES
GROWTH IN
ACCOUNTS
RECEIVABLES
GROWTH IN RECEIVABLES
TURNOVER

2010

147%

69%

45%

2011

30%

-44%

136%

2012

20%

126%

-46%

2013

-2.9%

35%

-28%



INTERPRETATION:
• Table shows the receivables turnover ratio over the 5 years from 2009-2013. In 2011,
there was an increase in receivables turnover due to the increase in sales and decline in
accounts receivables.
• In 2010, the receivables turnover grew by 45% due to the increase in sales by 104%
which was greater compared to 69% increase in accounts receivables.
• In 2011, the receivables turnover grew by 30% due to the decline of 44% in accounts
receivables and 20% increase in sales.
• In 2012, the receivables turnover declined by 46% due to the increase of 126% in
accounts receivables and just 20% increase in sales which was lesser compared to the
increase in accounts receivables.
• In 2013, the receivables turnover declined by just 28% due to 35% decline in accounts
receivables and 2.9% decline in sales .
INVENTORY TURNOVER
The Inventory Turnover Ratio measures the firm's management of its Inventory. In general, a
higher Inventory Turnover Ratio is indicative of better performance since this indicates that the
firm's inventories are being sold more quickly. However, if the ratio is too high then the firm
may be losing sales to competitors due to inventory shortages. The Inventory Turnover Ratio is
calculated by dividing Cost of Goods Sold (COGS) by Inventory.

YEAR COGS (AED) INVENTORY (AED)
INVENTORY
TURNOVER

2009

3117895

302963

10.29

2010 3958745 1400850 2.83

2011

4512587

1040945

4.34

2012

5825905

1667982

3.49

2013

8125981

2847254

2.85




INTERPRETATION
shows the inventory turnover ratio over the 5 years from 2009-2013. Initially the
inventory turnover ratio was 10.29 in 2008. Later it declined in 2010,2012,2013 and
remained comparatively stable.
The cost of goods sold initially declines from 27% to 14% and increases to 29% and 39%
A significant decline is shown in growth of inventory at initial stage but later it was
improved.



YEAR GROWTH IN COGS
GROWTH IN
INVENTORY
GROWTH IN INVENTORY
TURNOVER

2010

27%

362%

-73%

2011

14%

-26%

53%

2012

29%

60%

-19%

2013

39%

71%

-18%
PROFITABILITY RATIOS
Profitability Ratios attempt to measure the firm's success in generating income. These ratios reflect the
combined effects of the firm's asset and debt management.
PROFIT MARGIN
The Profit Margin indicates the dirhams in income that the firm earns on each dirhams of sales. This
ratio is calculated by dividing Net Income by Sales.

Profit margin ratio in 2009-2013

Year Net Income(in AED) Sales (AED) Profit Margin

2009

-705422

2429783

-20.57

2010

1877796

6010577

26.79

2011

2017678

7857855

25.68

2012

2264939

9459264

23.94

2013

2970773

9178458

23.62








YEAR
GROWTH IN NET
INCOME
GROWTH IN
SALES
GROWTH IN PROFIT
MARGIN

2010

-366%

147%

-230%

2011

7%

30%

-4%

2012

12%

20%

-7%

2013

31%

-2.9%

-1%



INTERPRETATION:
• Table represents the profit margin over 5 years from 2009-2013. It shows that the profit margin
has been declining over the 5 year period. In the initial year in 2009 there was a loss of 20.57
due to the loss in net income. Later there was an increase in the profit from 2010-2013.
• In 2010, the profit margin declined by 230% due to the immense decline of 366% in net income
and an increase of 147% in sales.
• In 2011, the profit margin further declined by 4% due to the greater increase of 30% in sales
than 7% in net income.
• In 2012, the profit margin declined by 7% due to the greater increase of 20% in sales than 12%
increase in net income.
• In 2013, the profit margin declined by 1% due to 33% increase in sales which was greater than
31% increase in net income.

RETURN ON ASSETS
The Return on Assets (ROA) Ratio indicates the dollars in income earned by the firm on its
assets. ROA tells you what earnings were generated from invested capital (assets). ROA for
public companies can vary substantially and will be highly dependent on the industry. This is
why when using ROA as a comparative measure, it is best to compare it against a company's
previous ROA numbers or the ROA of a similar company.










YEAR NET INCOME (AED) TOTAL ASSETS (AED) ROA

2008

-705422

3077851

-0.20

2009

1877796

5090877.29

0.31

2010

2017680

3567649.54

0.57

2011

2264940

5173570.46

0.37

2012

2970775

7672476.94

0.34



YEAR
GROWTH IN NET
INCOME
GROWTH IN
TOTAL ASSETS

GROWTH IN ROA

2010

-366%

70%

-256%

2011

7%

-41%

83%

2012

12%

73%

-35%

2013

31%

40%

-7%










INTERPRETATION:
• Table shows the return on assets from 2009-2013. Initially in 2009, there was a decline in the
return on assets due to the loss arising from net income. Later from 2010-2013 the return on
assets were growing and had remained stable over the years till 2013.
• In 2010, there was a decline in current assets by 256% due to the decline of 366% in net income.
• In 2011, there was growth of 83% in the return on assets due to the decline of 41% in total
assets which accelerated its growth.
• In 2012, the return on assets ratio declined by 35% due to the immense increase of 73% in total
assets which was greater than the increase of 12% in net income.
• In 2013, there was a decline in the return on assets ratio of 7% due to the greater increase in
total assets by 40% than 31% increase in net income.


Net Profit Ratio in 2009-2013
The two basic components of the net profit ratio are the net profit and sales. The net profits are
obtained after deducting income-tax and, generally, non-operating expenses and incomes are
excluded from the net profits for calculating this ratio. Thus, incomes such as interest on
investments outside the business, profit on sales of fixed assets and losses on sales of fixed
assets, etc are excluded.
Formula:
Net Profit Ratio = (Net profit / Net sales) × 100








YEAR NET PROFIT (AED) NET SALES (AED) NET PROFIT RATIO (%)

2009

-705422

2429783

-20.57

2010

1877796

6010577

26.79

2011

2017680

7857855

25.68

2012

2264940

9459264

23.94

2013

2970775

10178458

23.62


Growth in Net Profit Ratio from 2010-2013

YEAR
GROWTH IN NET
PROFIT
GROWTH IN NET
SALES
GROWTH IN NET PROFIT
RATIO

2010

-366%

104%

-230%

2011

7%

12%

-4%

2012

12%

20%

-7%

2013

31%

33%

-1%

INTERPRETATION:
• Table represents the net profit ratio from the year 2009-2013. In 2010, there was a decline in
the net profit ratio due to the loss in net income. Later the net profit ratio kept on declining at a
slow pace.
• In 2010, the net profit ratio declined by 230% due to the immense decline of 366% in net profit
and 104% increase in net sales.
• In 2011, the net profit ratio declined by 4% due to the increase of 12% in net sales.
• In 2012, the net profit ratio declined by 7% due to 20% increase in net sales which was greater
than 12% increase in net profit.
• In 2013, the net profit ratio decline by 1% due to the increase in net sales by 33% which was
greater than 31% increase in net profit.

Gross profit ratio (GP ratio)
ratio of gross profit to net sales expressed as a percentage. It expresses the relationship
between gross profit and sales. The basic components for the calculation of gross
profit ratio are gross profit and net sales.Net sales means that sales minus sales
returns. Gross profit would be the difference between net sales and cost of goods
sold. Cost of goods sold in the case of a trading concern would be equal to opening stock
plus purchases, minus closing stock plus all direct expenses relating to purchases. In the
case of manufacturing concern, it would be equal to the sum of the cost of raw materials,
wages, direct expenses and all manufacturing expenses.
Gross Profit Ratio = (Gross profit / Net sales) × 100

Gross Profit Ratio in 2009-2013


YEAR GROSS PROFIT (AED) NET SALES (AED) GROSS PROFIT RATIO (%)

2009

311888

2429783

12.8

2010

3051832

6010577

50.77

2011

3345269

7857855

42.57

2012

3633359

9459264

38.41

2013

4452477

9178458

48.5




YEAR

GROWTH IN
GROSS PROFIT
GROWTH IN
SALES
GROWTH IN GROSS
PROFIT RATIO

2010

879%

104%

296%

2011

10%

12%

-16.15%

2012

9%

20%

-10%

2013

23%

33%

-9.7%

• Table represents the gross profit ratio over the 5 years from 2009-2013. The gross profit ratio
was 12% in 2010. Later it increased for the next two years, 2010 and 2011. Then in 2011 there
was a slight decline in the gross profit due to the increase in net sales and it remained stable.
• In 2010, the gross profit ratio increased by 296% due to the immense increase in the gross profit
by 879%.
• In 2011, there was a decline of 16.15% in the gross profit ratio due to the increase of 12% in
sales which was greater than 10% increase in gross profit.
• In 2012, the gross profit ratio further declined by 9% due to 20% growth in sales affecting the
gross profit ratio.
• In 2013, the gross profit ratio declined by 9.7% due to the 33% increase in sales which was
greater than 23% increase in gross profit.





NPR
GROWTH IN NET
PROFIT
GROWTH IN NET
SALES
-366% 104%
7% 12%
12% 20%
31% 33%

t-Test: Paired Two Sample for
Means

-3.66 1.04
Mean 0.166666667 0.216666667
Variance 0.016033333 0.011233333
Observations 3 3
Pearson Correlation 0.9823336
Hypothesized Mean Difference 0
Df 2
t Stat -2.886751346
P(T<=t) one-tail 0.050986745
t Critical one-tail 2.91998558
P(T<=t) two-tail 0.10197349
t Critical two-tail 4.30265273

gpr
Year
GROWTH
IN
GROSS
PROFIT
GROWTH
IN SALES


2010
8
79%
104
%
2011
1
0%
12%

2012
9
%
20%

2013
2
3%
33%




t-Test: Paired Two Sample for
Means



8.79 1.04
Mean 0.14 0.216666667
Variance 0.0061 0.011233333
Observations 3 3
Pearson Correlation 0.899988649
Hypothesized Mean
Difference 0
Df 2
t Stat -2.691946386
P(T<=t) one-tail 0.057364794
t Critical one-tail 2.91998558
P(T<=t) two-tail 0.114729587
t Critical two-tail 4.30265273

Assets turnover

t-Test: Paired Two Sample for Means


-3.66 0.7
Mean 0.166667 0.24
Variance 0.016033 0.3441
Observations 3 3
Pearson Correlation 0.423415
Hypothesized Mean Difference 0
Df 2
t Stat -0.23298
P(T<=t) one-tail 0.418726
t Critical one-tail 2.919986
P(T<=t) two-tail 0.837451

GROWTH IN
NET INCOME
GROWTH IN
TOTAL
ASSETS
2010 -366% 70%
2011 7% -41%
2012 12% 73%
2013 31% 40%
t Critical two-tail 4.302653


Receivables turnover

GROWTH IN
SALES
GROWTH IN ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLES
2010 147% 69%
2011 30% -44%
2012 20% 126%
2013
-
2.90%
35%

t-Test: Paired Two Sample for
Means





1.47 0.69
Mean 0.157 0.39
Variance 0.028447 0.7237
Observations 3 3
Pearson Correlation -0.25731445
Hypothesized Mean Difference 0
Df 2
t Stat -0.44404802
P(T<=t) one-tail 0.350215366
t Critical one-tail 2.91998558
P(T<=t) two-tail 0.700430733
t Critical two-tail 4.30265273


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