SUPER CAPACITOR

Seminar ID: 694
A Technical Seminar Report
Submitted in partial fulfillment of
the requirement for the B.Tech.
Under Biju Patnaik University of Technoloy! Rourkela.
Submitted By
CHANDAN KUMAR Roll No.#ECE201110141
AU"UST # $%&'
Under the uidance of
Mr. SANTSH KUMAR !ADHI
A!E" INSTITUTE # TECHN$%& ' MANA%EMENT
!a(ala) *(+,ane-.ar) /i-(a 0 122101) In/ia
A!E" INSTITUTE # TECHN$%& ' MANA%EMENT
!a(ala) *(+,ane-.ar) /i-(a 0 122101) In/ia
CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the seminar report entitled ‘Super Capacitor’ is a
bonafide work done by Chandan Kumar bearing Registration No.
1101314071 of ECE branch.
This seminar report is submitted in partial fulfillment for the
requirement of the B.Tech degree under Biju atnaik !ni"ersity of
Technology# Rourkela# $disha.
(Mr. San3o-( K+mar !a/(i4
Seminar %+i/e

5Mr-. T. Mi3a K+mari4 5!ro6. R. C.
Da-4
*.Te7( Seminar Coor/ina3or !RINCI!A$
ABSTRACT
The super capacitor# also known as ultra capacitor or double%layer capacitor differs
from a regular capacitor in that it has a "ery high capacitance. & capacitor stores energy
by means of a static charge as opposed to an electrochemical reaction. &pplying a
"oltage differential on the positi"e and negati"e plates charges the capacitor. This is
similar to the buildup of electrical charge when walking on a carpet. Touching an object
releases the energy through the finger.
The modern super capacitor is not a battery but crosses the boundary into battery
technology by using special electrodes and electrolyte. 'e"eral types of electrodes ha"e
been tried and we focus on the double%layer capacitor ()*C+ concept. ,t is carbon%
based# has an organic electrolyte that is easy to manufacture and is the most common
system in use today.
&ll capacitors ha"e "oltage limits. -hile the electrostatic capacitor can be made to
withstand high "olts# the super capacitor is confined to ../0..12. 2oltages of ..32 and
higher are possible but they would reduce the ser"ice life. To achie"e higher "oltages#
se"eral super capacitors are connected in series. The specific energy of the super
capacitor is low and ranges from 4 to 56-h7kg. &lthough high compared to a regular
capacitor# 56-h7kg is one%fifth that of a consumer *i%ion battery.
i
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
, would like to e8press my immense sense of gratitude to my guide# Mr. Santosh
Kumar Padhi# for his "aluable instructions# guidance and support throughout my
seminar.
, again owe my special thanks to Mrs. T. Mita Kumari# Technical 'eminar
Coordinator for gi"ing me an opportunity to do this report.

&nd finally thanks to Pro. !. C. "as# rincipal# &,T9# Bhubaneswar for his
continued dri"e for better quality in e"erything that happens at &,T9. This report is a
dedicated contribution towards that greater goal.
C#$%"$% K&M$!
'C'(01110141
ii
TABLE OF CONTENTS
$)ST!$CT...................................................................................................................i
$CK%*+,'"-'M'%T...........................................................................................ii
,.ST */ /.-&!'.......................................................................................................i0
1. .%T!*"&CT.*%....................................................................................................1
(. #.ST*!1..................................................................................................................(
3. C*%ST!&CT.*% 2 C*%C'PT..........................................................................3
4.P!.%C.P,' */ &,T!$C$P$C.T*!..................................................................3
4. M$T'!.$,S............................................................................................................7
3. "'%S.T1 *)T$.%'" )1 M$T'!.$,S.............................................................5
7. C#$!$CT'!.ST.CS...........................................................................................11
6. $"7$%T$-'S.......................................................................................................1(
5. ".S$"7$%T$-'S................................................................................................13
10. $PP,.C$T.*%....................................................................................................14
10.1 M*T*! !$C.%-.........................................................................................14
10.( C*%S&M'! ','CT!*%.CS.....................................................................14
10.3 $,T'!%$T.7' '%'!-1............................................................................14
10.4 P!.C'..............................................................................................................14
10.4 M$!K'T........................................................................................................14
11. )$TT'!.'S 7S &,T!$ C$P$C.T*!............................................................13
11.1 )$TT'!.'S....................................................................................................13
11.( &,T!$ C$P$C.T*!....................................................................................13
1(. C*%C,&S.*%.....................................................................................................17
!'/'!'%C'S...........................................................................................................16
iii
LIST OF FIGURE
/ig. 3.1 Construction o Supercapacitor.......................................................................3
/ig. 3.( Cur0e o Po8er and 'nerg9 "ensit9 o Supercapacitor................................4
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SUPER CAPACITOR
1. INTRODUCTION
The electrochemical ultra capacitor is an emerging technology that promises to play
an important role in meeting the demands of electronic de"ices and systems both now
and in the future. This newly a"ailable technology of ultracapacitors is making it
easier for engineers to balance their use of both energy and power. Energy storage
de"ices like ultracapacitors are normally used along with batteries to compensate for
the limited battery power capability. E"idently# the proper control of the energy
storage systems presents both a challenge and opportunity for the power and energy
management system. This paper traces the history of the de"elopment of the
technology and e8plores the principles and theory of operation of the ultracapacitors.
The uses of ultracapacitors in "arious applications are discussed and their ad"antages
o"er alternati"e technologies are considered. To pro"ide e8amples with which to
outline practical implementation issues# systems incorporating ultracapacitors as "ital
components are also e8plored. This paper has aimed to pro"ide a brief o"er"iew of
ultracapacitor technology as it stands today. re"ious de"elopment efforts ha"e been
described to place the current state of the technology within an historical conte8t.
'cientific background has also been co"ered in order to better
understand performance characteristics. ossible applications of ultracapacitor
technology ha"e also been described to illustrate the wide range of possibilities that
e8ist. Because of the ad"antages of charging efficiency# long lifetime# fast response#
and wide operating temperature range# it is tempting to try and apply ultracapacitors
to any application that requires energy storage. The limitations of the current
technology must be fully appreciated# howe"er# and it is important to reali:e that
ultracapacitors are only useful within a finite range of energy and power requirements.
$utside of these boundaries other alternati"es are likely to be the better solution.
0
SUPER CAPACITOR
2. HISTORY
;eneral Electric engineers e8perimenting with de"ices using porous carbon electrodes
first obser"ed the E)*C effect in 4</1. They belie"ed that the energy was stored in
the carbon pores and the de"ice e8hibited =e8ceptionally high capacitance=# although
the mechanism was unknown at that time.
;eneral Electric did not immediately follow up on this work. ,n 4<>>
researchers at 'tandard $il of $hio de"eloped the modern "ersion of the de"ices# after
they accidentally re%disco"ered the effect while working on e8perimental fuel
cell designs. Their cell design used two layers of acti"ated charcoal separated by a
thin porous insulator# and this basic mechanical design remains the basis of most
electric double%layer capacitors.
'tandard $il did not commerciali:e their in"ention# licensing the technology
to NEC# who finally marketed the results as ?supercapacitors@ in 4<13# to pro"ide
backup power for maintaining computer memory. The market e8panded slowly for a
time# but starting around the mid%4<<6s "arious ad"ances in materials science and
refinement of the e8isting systems led to rapidly impro"ing performance and an
equally rapid reduction in cost.
The first trials of supercapacitors in industrial applications were carried out for
supporting the energy supply to robots.
,n .66/ aerospace systems and controls company )iehl *uftfahrt
Elektronik ;mbA chose super capacitors to power emergency actuation systems for
doors and e"acuation slides inairliners# including the new &irbus 536 jumbo jet.
B
,n
.66/# the ultracapacitor market was between !' C.1. million and CD66 million#
depending on the source.
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SUPER CAPACITOR
3. CONSTRUCTION & CONCEPT
#i8. 9.1 Con-3r+73ion o6 S+:er7a:a7i3or
Comparison of construction diagrams of three capacitors. *eftE =normal= capacitor#
middleE electrolytic# rightE electric double%layer capacitor.,n a con"entional capacitor#
energy is stored by the remo"al of charge carriers# typically electrons# from one metal
plate and depositing them on another. This charge separation creates a potential
between the two plates# which can be harnessed in an e8ternal circuit. The total
energy stored in this fashion is proportional to both the amount of charge stored and
the potential between the plates. The amount of charge stored per unit "oltage is
essentially a function of the si:e# the distance# and the material properties of the plates
and the material in between the plates (the dielectric+# while the potential between the
plates is limited by breakdown of the dielectric. The dielectric controls the capacitorFs
"oltage.
$ptimi:ing the material leads to higher energy density for a gi"en si:e of
capacitor.E)*Cs do not ha"e a con"entional dielectric. Rather than two separate
plates separated by an inter"ening substance# these capacitors use =plates= that are in
fact two layers of the same substrate# and their electrical properties# the so%called
=electrical double layer=# result in the effecti"e separation of charge despite the
"anishingly thin (on the order of nanometers+ physical separation of the layers. The
lack of need for a bulky layer of dielectric permits the packing of plates with much
larger surface area into a gi"en si:e# resulting in high capacitances in practical%si:ed
packages.,n an electrical double layer# each layer by itself is quite conducti"e# but the
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SUPER CAPACITOR
physics at the interface where the layers are effecti"ely in contact means that no
significant current can flow between the layers. Aowe"er# the double layer can
withstand only a low "oltage# which means that electric double%layer capacitors rated
for higher "oltages must be made of matched series%connected indi"idual E)*Cs#
much like series%connected cells in higher%"oltage batteries.E)*Cs ha"e much higher
power density than batteries. ower density combines the energy density with the
speed that the energy can be deli"ered to the load. Batteries# which are based on the
mo"ement of charge carriers in a liquid electrolyte# ha"e relati"ely slow charge and
discharge times. Capacitors# on the other hand# can be charged or discharged at a rate
that is typically limited by current heating of the electrodes. 'o while e8isting E)*Cs
ha"e energy densities that are perhaps 4746 that of a con"entional battery# their power
density is generally 46 to 466 times as great (see diagram# right+.
#i8. 9.2 C+r;e o6 !o.er an/ Ener8< Den-i3< o6 S+:er7a:a7i3or
The capacitor then e"ol"ed into an electrostatic capacitor where the electrodes
were made up of foils and separated by paper that ser"ed as the dielectric. These
capacitors are used in the electronic circuit boards of a number of consumer
applications. Aere the surface area of one electrode was increased by etching the
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SUPER CAPACITOR
electrode to roughen it# reducing the thickness of the dielectric and using a paste%like
electrolyte to form the second electrode.
&n ultra%capacitor howe"er has a significantly larger storage area. !ltra
capacitors are made with highly porous carbon materials. These materials ha"e the
capability of increased surface areas ranging greater than .4#/66 square feet per gram.
The separation distance between the charged plates is reduced significantly to
nanometers (46(%<+ cm+ in the ultra capacitors by using electrolytes to conduct the
charged ions.
&lthough they are compared to batteries from the application perspecti"e# ultra
capacitors are unique because there are no chemical reactions in"ol"ed. They are
considered efficient as they can quickly store and release electrical energy in the
GphysicalH form.
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SUPER CAPACITOR
4.PRINCIPLE OF ULTRACAPACITOR
The charge%storage mechanism and the design of theultra%capacitor are described.
Based on a ceramic with an e8tremely high specific surface area and a metallic
substrate# the ultra capacitor pro"ides e8tremely high energy density and e8hibits low
E'R (equi"alent series resistance+. The combination of low E'R and e8tremely low
inductance pro"ides the ultra%capacitor with a "ery high power density and fast
risetime as well. &s a double%layer capacitor# the ultra%capacitor is not constrained by
the same limitations as dielectric capacitors. Thus# although its discharge
characteristics and equi"alent circuit are similar to those of dielectric capacitors# the
capacitance of the ultra%capacitor increases with the ceramic loading on the substrate
and its E'R is in"ersely proportional to the cross%sectional area of the de"ice.
Theultra%capacitor is composed of an inline stack of electrodes# which leads to an
e8tremely low inductance de"ice# and it e8hibits interesting frequency dependence.
The ultra%capacitor principlehas been e8tended to no aqueous electrolytes and to a
wide temperature range.

SUPER CAPACITOR
. MATERIALS
,n general# E)*Cs impro"e storage density through the use of a nanoporous material#
typically acti"ated charcoal# in place of the con"entional insulating barrier. &cti"ated
charcoal is a powder made up of e8tremely small and "ery =rough= particles# which#
in bulk# form a low%density heap with many holes that resembles a sponge. The
o"erall surface area of e"en a thin layer of such a material is many times greater than
a traditional material like aluminum# allowing many more charge carriers (ions or
radicals from the electrolyte+ to be stored in any gi"en "olume. The charcoal# which is
not a good insulator# replaces the e8cellent insulators used in con"entional de"ices# so
in general E)*Cs can only use low potentials on the order of . to 5 2.
&cti"ated charcoal is not the =perfect= material for this application. The charge
carriers are actually (in effect+ quite largeIespecially when surrounded by sol"ent
moleculesIand are often larger than the holes left in the charcoal# which are too
small to accept them# limiting the storage.
&s of .646 "irtually all commercial super capacitors use powdered acti"ated
carbon made from coconut shells. Aigher performance de"ices are a"ailable# at a
significant cost increase# based on synthetic carbon precursors that are acti"ated with
potassium hydro8ide (J$A+.
Research in E)*Cs focuses on impro"ed materials that offer higher usable surface
areas.
 ;raphene has e8cellent surface area per unit of gra"imetric or "olumetric
densities# is highly conducti"e and can now be produced in "arious labs# but is not
a"ailable in production quantities. 'pecific energy density of 3/.> -h7kg at room
temperature and 45> -h7kg at 36 KC (all based on the total electrode weight+#
measured at a current density of 4 &7g ha"e been obser"ed. These energy density
"alues are comparable to that of the Nickel metal hydride battery.
 The de"ice makes full utili:ation of the highest intrinsic surface capacitance and
specific surface area of single%layer graphene by preparing cur"ed graphene sheets
!
SUPER CAPACITOR
that do not restack face%to%face. The cur"ed shape enables the formation of
mesopores accessible to and wettable by en"ironmentally benign ionic liquids
capable of operating at a "oltage LD 2.
 Carbon nanotubes ha"e e8cellent nanoporosity properties# allowing tiny
spaces for the polymer to sit in the tube and act as a dielectric. Carbon nanotubes
can store about the same charge as charcoal (which is almost pure carbon+ per unit
surface area but nanotubes can be arranged in a more regular pattern that e8poses
greater suitable surface area.
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SUPER CAPACITOR
!. DENSITY OBTAINED BY MATERIALS
The energy density of e8isting commercial E)*Cs ranges from around 6./ to 56
-Mh7kg including lithium ion capacitors# known also as a =hybrid capacitor=.
E8perimental electric double%layer capacitors ha"e demonstrated densities of 56
-Mh7kg and ha"e been shown to be scalable to at least 45> -Mh7kg#
B.DNB./N
while others
e8pect to offer energy densities of about D66 -Mh7kg. Oor comparison# a con"entional
lead%acid battery stores typically 56 to D6 -Mh7kg and modern lithium%ion batteries
about 4>6 -Mh7kg. ;asoline has a net calorific "alue (NC2+ of around 4.#666 -Mh7kgP
automobile applications operate at about .6Q tank%to%wheel efficiency# gi"ing an
effecti"e energy density of .#D66 -Mh7kg.
&bo"e chart showing energy density power density for "arious energy%storage de"ices
 'ome polymers (e.g. polyacenes and conducting polymers+ ha"e a redo8
(reduction%o8idation+ storage mechanism along with a high surface area.
 Carbon aerogel pro"ides e8tremely high surface area gra"imetric densities of
about D6604666 mR7g.
 The electrodes of aerogel supercapacitors are a composite material usually
made of non%wo"en paper made from carbon fibers and coated with organic
aerogel# which then undergoes pyrolysis. The carbon fibers pro"ide structural
integrity and the aerogel pro"ides the required large surface area. 'mall aerogel
supercapacitors are being used as backup electricity storage in microelectronics.
 &erogel capacitors can only work at a few "oltsP higher "oltages ioni:e the
carbon and damage the capacitor. Carbon aerogel capacitors ha"e achie"ed
<6-Mh7kg energy density and .6 -7g power density.
 'olid acti"ated carbon# also termed consolidated amorphous carbon (C&C+. ,t
can ha"e a surface area e8ceeding .366 m
.
7g and may be cheaper to produce than
aerogel carbon.
 Tunable nanoporous carbon e8hibits systematic pore si:e control.
A
.
adsorption treatment can be used to increase the energy density by as much as
1/Q o"er what was commercially a"ailable as of .66/.
#
SUPER CAPACITOR
 9ineral%based carbon is a nonacti"ated carbon# synthesised from metal or
metalloid carbides# e.g. 'iC# TiC# &l
D
C
5
. The synthesised nanostructured porous
carbon# often called Carbide )eri"ed Carbon (C)C+# has a surface area of about
D66 mR7g to .666 mR7g with a specific capacitance of up to 466 O7m* (in organic
electrolyte+. ,t pro"ides 46 -h7kg energy density and /6 k-7kg power density.
 &s of .66> this material was used in a supercapacitor with a "olume of 45/
m* and .66 g weight ha"ing 4.> kO capacitance. The energy density is more than
D1 kS7* at ..3/ 2 and power density of o"er .6 -7g.
 ,n &ugust .661 researchers combined a biodegradable paper battery with
aligned carbon nanotubes# designed to function as both a lithium%ion battery and a
supercapacitor (called bacitor+. The de"ice employed an ionic liquid# essentially a
liquid salt# as the electrolyte. The paper sheets can be rolled# twisted# folded# or cut
with no loss of integrity or efficiency# or stacked# like ordinary paper (or a "oltaic
pile+# to boost total output.
 They can be made in a "ariety of si:es# from postage stamp to broadsheet.
Their light weight and low cost make them attracti"e for portable electronics#
aircraft# automobiles# and toys (such as model aircraft+# while their ability to use
electrolytes in blood make them potentially useful for medical de"ices such as
pacemakers.
 $ther teams are e8perimenting with custom materials made of acti"ated
polypyrrole# and nanotube%impregnated papers.
$
SUPER CAPACITOR
". CHARACTERISTICS
The 'ignificant Characteristics of !ltra capacitors areE
 Aigh power density due to high discharge currents.
 *ow internal resistance in comparison with batteries.
 &bility to operate at temperatures as low as %D6KC.
 Effecti"e capacitance for specific pulse widths.
 *ow equi"alent series resistance (E'R+.
 Aigher cycle life# making them suitable for automoti"e applications.
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#. AD%ANTAGES
 *ong life# with little degradation o"er hundreds of thousands of charge cycles.
)ue to the capacitorFs high number of charge%discharge cycles (millions or more
compared to .66 to 4666 for most commercially a"ailable rechargeable batteries+
it will last for the entire lifetime of most de"ices# which makes the de"ice
en"ironmentally friendly. Rechargeable batteries wear out typically o"er a few
years# and their highly reacti"e chemical electrolytes present a disposal and safety
ha:ard. Battery lifetime can be optimised by charging only under fa"orable
conditions# at an ideal rate and# for some chemistries# as infrequently as possible.
E)*Cs can help in conjunction with batteries by acting as a charge conditioner#
storing energy from other sources for load balancing purposes and then using any
e8cess energy to charge the batteries at a suitable time.
 *ow cost per cycle
 ;ood re"ersibility
 2ery high rates of charge and discharge.
 E8tremely low internal resistance (E'R+ and consequent high cycle efficiency
(</Q or more+ and e8tremely low heating le"els.
 Aigh output power.
 Aigh specific power. &ccording to ,T' (,nstitute of Transportation 'tudies#
)a"is# California+ test results# the specific power of electric double%layer
capacitors can e8ceed > k-7kg at </Q efficiency.
 ,mpro"ed safety# no corrosi"e electrolyte and low to8icity of materials.
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$. DISAD%ANTAGES
 The amount of energy stored per unit weight is generally lower than that of an
electrochemical battery (50/ -Mh7kg for an standard ultracapacitor# although 3/
-.h7kg has been achie"ed in the lab as of .646 compared to 56%D6 -Mh7kg for a
lead acid battery+# and about 474#666th the "olumetric energy density of gasoline.
 Typical of any capacitor# the "oltage "aries with the energy stored. Effecti"e
storage and reco"ery of energy requires comple8 electronic control and switching
equipment# with consequent energy loss.
 Aas the highest dielectric absorption of any type of capacitor.
 Aigh self%discharge % the rate is considerably higher than that of an
electrochemical battery.
 Cells hold low "oltages % serial connections are needed to obtain higher
"oltages. 2oltage balancing is required if more than three capacitors are connected
in series.
 *inear discharge "oltage pre"ents use of the full energy spectrum.
 )ue to rapid and large release of energy (albeit o"er short times+# E)*CFs ha"e
the potential to be deadly to humans.
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10. APPLICATION
'ome of the earliest uses were motor startup capacitors for large engines in tanks and
submarines# and as the cost has fallen they ha"e started to appear on diesel trucks and
railroad locomoti"es. ,n the 66Fs they attracted attention in the green energy world#
where their ability to charge much faster than batteries makes them particularly
suitable for regenerati"e braking applications. New technology in de"elopment could
potentially make E)*Cs with high enough energy density to be an attracti"e
replacement for batteries in all%electric cars and plug%in hybrids# as E)*Cs charge
quickly and are stable with respect to temperature.
China is e8perimenting with a new form of electric bus (capabus+ that runs
without powerlines using large onboard E)*Cs# which quickly recharge whene"er the
bus is at any bus stop (under so%called electric umbrellas+# and fully charge in the
terminus. & few prototypes were being tested in 'hanghai in early .66/. ,n .66># two
commercial bus routes began to use electric double%layer capacitor busesP one of them
is route 44 in 'hanghai. &n hybrid bus that uses a diesel%electric battery dri"e system
with electric double%layer capacitors. 'ince .665 9annheim 'tadtbahn in 9annheim#
;ermany has operated a light%rail "ehicle (*R2+ that uses E)*Cs to store braking
energy.$ther public transport manufacturers are de"eloping E)*C technology#
including mobile storage and a stationary trackside power supply. ,n .664 and .66.
2&;# the public transport operator in Nuremberg# ;ermany tested
$ trip:e h9brid or;:it truc; uses ue: ce::s and batteries as primar9 energ9
storage<
&utomoti"e !ltra capacitors are used in some concept prototype "ehicles# in order to
keep batteries within resisti"e heating limits and e8tend battery life. The ultrabattery
combines a supercapacitor and a battery in one unit# creating an electric "ehicle
battery that lasts longer# costs less and is more powerful than current plug%in hybrid
electric "ehicles (AE2s+.
10.1 M&'&( R)*i+,
The O,&# the go"erning body for many motor racing e"ents# proposed in the ower%
Train Regulation Oramework for Oormula 4 "ersion 4.5 of .5 9ay .661 that a new set
13
SUPER CAPACITOR
of power train regulations be issued that includes a hybrid dri"e of up to .66 k- input
and output power using =superbatteries= made with both batteries and supercapacitors.
10.2 C&+-./0( E10*'(&+i*-
E)*Cs can be used in C Cards# flash photography de"ices in digital cameras#
flashlights# portable media players# and in automated meter reading# particularly
where e8tremely fast charging is desirable.
,n .661# a cordless electric screwdri"er that uses an E)*C for energy storage was
produced. ,t charges in <6 seconds# retains 3/Q of the charge after 5 months# and
holds enough charge for about half the screws (..+ a comparable screwdri"er with a
rechargeable battery will handle (51+. Two *E) flashlights using E)*Cs were
released in .66<. They charge in <6 seconds.
10.3 A1'0(+)'iv0 E+0(,2
The idea of replacing batteries with capacitors in conjunction with no"el energy
sources became a conceptual umbrella of the ;reen Electricity (;E*+ ,nitiati"e#
introduced by )r. &le8ander Bell. $ne successful ;E* ,nitiati"e concept was a
muscle%dri"en autonomous solution that employs a multi%farad E)*C as energy
storage to power a "ariety of portable electrical and electronic de"ices such as 95
players# &97O9 radios# flashlights# cell phones# and emergency kits.
10.4 P(i*0
Costs ha"e fallen quickly# with cost per kilojoule dropping faster than cost per farad.
&s of .66> the cost of supercapacitors was 4 cent per farad and C..3/ per kilojoule#
and was e8pected to drop further.
10. M)(30'
&ccording to ,nno"ati"e Research and roducts (iR&+# ultracapacitor market growth
will continue during .66< to .64D. -orldwide business# o"er !'C.1/ million in
.66<# will continue to grow at an &&;R of .4.DQ through .64D.
14
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11. BATTERIES %S ULTRA CAPACITOR
11.1 B)''0(i0-
 'tore energy by con"erting between electrical and chemical energy.
 'helf life of a few years.
 Not all are rechargeable.
11.2 U1'() C)4)*i'&(
 'tore energy an electric potential between surfaces and constant (i.e%
&luminum+.
 Rechargeable.
 *ong shelf life.
 9iniscule amount of energy lass during shelf time.
1
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12. CONCLUSION
!ltra capacitors ha"e many ad"antages o"er traditional electrochemical batteries.
!nlike batteries# =ultra caps= can completely absorb and release a charge at high rates
and in a "irtually endless cycle with little degradation. -here theyFre weak# howe"er#
is with energy storage. Compared with lithium%ion batteries# high%end ultracapacitors
on the market today store ./ times less energy per pound. This is why ultra capacitors#
with their ability to release quick jolts of electricity and to absorb this energy just as
fast# are ideal today as a complement to batteries or fuel cells in electric%dri"e
"ehicles. The power burst that ultra caps pro"ide can assist with stop%start
acceleration# and the energy is more efficiently recaptured through regenerati"e
braking%%an area in which ultracap maker 9a8well Technologies has seen significant
results. ,n future it will replace the batteries.
1!
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REFERENCES
B4N httpE77en.wikipedia.org7wiki7supercapacitor
B.N httpEwww.slideshare.net7search7slideshow7searchfromTsuper capacitor
B5N httpEwww.electronics desigin.com
1"